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Neither Gothic, nor Slavic: Bow Fibulae of Werner's Class II B

Author(s): Florin Curta

Source: Archaeologia Austriaca , 2009, Vol. 93 (2009), pp. 45-77
Published by: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press

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Neither Gothic, nor Slavic:

Bow Fibulae of Werner's Class II B

Florin Curta

Weder gotisch noch slawisch: Bügelfibeln der Gruppe Werner II B. Ausgehend von der Bügelfibel aus Sta
zu den Beständen des Kunsthistorischen Museum in Wien zählt, werden alle Bügelfibeln, die der Gruppe Wern
wurden, einer genaueren Betrachtung unterzogen. Die in mehrere Varianten gegliederte Gruppe Werner II B b
auf 13 Bügelfibeln. Seither ist die Anzahl auf 40 Artefakte, die aus verschiedenen Befunden stammen, gesti
reichtum dieser Bügelfibeln erschwerte bisher eine exakte Klassifizierung. Ihre wichtigsten Merkmale werd
alphanumerischen Code ausgedrückt. Dieser wurde an allen bisher bekannten Stücken angewendet und ist ge
Verortung der Fundstücke im Appendix vorgelegt. Nach Abwägung aller zur Verfügung stehenden Fakten, den
leren Dnjeprgebiet sowie auf der Krim kann die Staasdorfer Bügelfibel in das späte 6—7. Jh. datiert und als fr
chen werden.

Schlüsselwörter: Chronologie, Awaren, Goten, Slawen, Fibeln

Based on the bow fibula from Staasdorf (Tulln), which is in the collection of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, all bow
fibulae, attributed to the group Werner II B have to undergo a closer examination. Werners class II B composed of many variants
was established on the bases of 13 bow fibulae in the year 1950. Since then the number has risen to 40 artefacts, which originate
from different assemblages. The richness of variants of these bow fibulae has complicated so far an exact classification. Their most
important characteristics are therefore expressed in an alphanumeric code. This was used on all pieces known so far and is listed
together with the location of finds in the appendix. After consideration of all available facts, the parallels in the Middle Dnieper
region as well as in the Crimea, the Staasdorf bow fibula can be dated as late 6th—7 th century and referred to as Early Avar.

Keywords: chronology, Avars, Goths, Slavs, fibula.

Nothing is known about the circumstances in which a bow attributed the Staasdorf fibula to the Ostrogoths and therefore
fibula from the antique collection of the Kunsthistorisches dated it to the second half of the 5th century. Despite the dubi
Museum in Vienna was found, at some point before 1934 in ous reasoning leading to that conclusion, his idea inspired sub
Staasdorf near Tulln. Nonetheless, Eduard Beninger, who first sequent generations of archaeologists. While ignoring E.
published the fibula, was convinced that it came from a Beninger's suggestion of a burial assemblage, Erik Szameit
destroyed grave.1 On the basis of analogues from Sweden and believed that the Staasdorf fibula may be attributed to the
Ukraine, two regions of Europe believed in the 1930s to have native population of Lower Austria, which has remained there
been associated with the migration of the Goths, E. Beninger after the departure of the Lombards.2 Even if pushing the dat

Beninger 1934, 94-95 ("offenbar aus einem Grab") and 179 (for Szameit 2000, 513. - See also Szameit 1996, 23, where the fibula
the Kunsthistorisches Museum collection). - Müller 1935 dated is explicitly attributed to the Romanized population of Lower
the Gatér fíbula to the 6th century, but still attributed it to the Austria.


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46 Florin Curta

ing of the Staasdorf fibula a c

Szameit was apparently still co
pretation of the artifact. the "Slavic" bow fibulae became the scholarly standard in
To be sure, in the 1960s, the Ukrainian parallels to the Sta- many countries in which a strong undercu
asdorf fibula cited by E. Beninger were viewed as an indication archaeological tradition was apparent. Agnés
of the presence in Lower Austria of Slavs, and not Ostrogoths.3 believed the Gatér and Papa fibulae to hav
The primary reason for this change in ethnic attribution was workshops in the Middle Dnieper region. D
the publication in 1950 of Joachim Werners influential paper she linked the appearance of such fibulae t
on "Slavic" bow fibulae, in which the Staasdorf fibula was the Avars into the Carpathian Basin, A. Só
assigned to class II B, together with twelve other specimens.4 ethnic interpretation as Slavic.9 The numb
Despite the fact that J. Werner relied exclusively on visual, mens has increased steadily over the years.
mostly intuitive means for establishing his classes of fibulae, knew of only thirteen specimens of his cla
there has been little discussion until the 1990s of his criteria of later, the list has grown to forty fibulae, six
classification, which more often than not have been taken for have been found in the Middle Dnieper r
granted.5 Responsible for this imperviousness, to which E. There is of course disagreement as to the clas
Szameit may have reacted, was J. Werners interpretation of of those fibulae, including specimens known
those bow fibulae as an "index fossil" of Slavic ethnic identity. consequence, in what follows, a broader n
J. Werner took the distribution of bow fibulae in Eastern class II B is employed, which is based on an o
Europe to be an indication that responsible for the spread of tion. Members of the II B class share some o
such dress accessories to areas as far from each other as Ukraine ing characteristics: a semicircular head-
and Austria was the migration of the Slavs. He even mentioned either S-shaped scrollwork or circle-and-d
the fibula from grave 238 in Gatér as an illustration of his the- or seven knobs, sometimes shaped like bird
ory that, unlike the Germanic "Tracht", the "Slavic" bow fibu- each other (in which case the middle bir
lae were typically worn singly, even though he had to acknowl- little larger than the others); a ribbed bo
edge the presence of a pair of fibulae in grave 87 in Suuk Su, foot-plate with either S-shaped scrollwor
one of which belonged to his class II B.6 J. Werner knew very decoration; a terminal lobe in the form o
well that Gatér and Suuk Su were exclusively inhumation animal head. Werner's class II B contains se
cemeteries, yet he insisted that "Slavic" fibulae were more head-plate (1A—G); four variants of foot-
likely to be found in association with cremations, the suppos- variants of terminal lobe (3 A—D); three varia
edly standard rite of the early Slavs.7 Since pairs of fibulae were C); and three variants of head-plate knobs
rarely found in burial assemblages from Crimea (so J.Werner), five, seven, or eight (5A-C) (Fig. 1).
"Slavic" bow fibulae of class II B cannot have possibly been It has long been noted that the head- and
produced there. Instead, J. Werner argued, those fibulae were foot-plates of bow fibulae of Werner's clas
manufactured in large workshops which produced not only for both shape and ornament to late 5th and
Crimea, but for a much larger territory, within which the fibulae of Herbert Kuhns Aquileia class wit
female costume employed single bow fibulae.8 in the Gáva-Domolospuszta-Bacsordas styl

Mitscha-Mährheim 1970, 126, who attributed the fibula

deren Bevölkerung zur Frauentracht nur eine Fibel kannte."
re-dated to the 7th century) to the first wave of Slavic immigrants
— For Werner's ideas and the notion of Tracht in the post-war Ger
in the lands to the west from the Neusiedler Lake. man archaeology, see Fehr 2000, 312-402.
Werner 1950,160. Known to Werner were the fibulae from
also Garam 2003, 111, 114, 110 fig. 12.-Garam 2004, 93,95,
Martynivka, Nyzhniaia Syrovatka, Pápa, Staasdorf, Suuk Su
98 (stray
and 94 fig. 2. - By contrast, Fiedler 1996,205 argued that fibu
find and grave 87), as well as the specimens from unknown loca
lae ofWerner's class II cannot be treated as "Slavic" any more, since
tions in the Cherkasy and Kiev districts, the Oka region,they
presumably are "Crimean Gothic" ("krimgotisch"). - Aibabin,
manland.-The fibula said to be from the Kunderevich collection,
Khairedinova 2009a, 40-41 have a radically different opinion.
Werner 1950, pi. 37/13, is most likely the specimen fromAccording
Rossava. to them, the fibulae ofWerner's class II B from Luchis
- Similarly, the specimen from the collection of the State toe
have been manufactured in the Carpathian Basin within the
in Kiev, Werner 1950, p. 38/16, is in fact the Mazepyntsi area
of the Keszthely culture.
See Menke 1990. - Fiedler 1992. - Curta 1994. -Vagalinski Rodinkova 2004, 234 includes the fibulae from grave 87 in Suuk
1994.-Katsougiannopoulou 1999.
Su and from Västmanland into her group A of "Dnieper fibulae
Werner 1950,162.— In Crimea, pairs of bow fibulae often consist
with bird-head diadems", many members of which are in fact
of specimens of different types and sizes. Khairedinova fibulae
2007,21.ofWerner's class II D.
Werner 1950,172. Katsougiannopoulou 1999, 66-67. - For the Gáva-Domolos
Werner 1950,162: "große Werkstätten, die nicht nur für das kleine puszta-Bacsordas style, see Bierbrauer 1991, 572-581.
krimgotische Gebiet arbeiteten, sondern für ausgedehnte Landstri

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Neither Gothic, nor Slavic: Bow Fibulae of Werner's Class II B 47

Fig. 1.Werners class II B, brooch design parts: head-plates (1 A-G), foot-plates (2 A-D), terminal lobes (3 A-D), bows (4
and head-plate knobs (5 A-C).

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48 Florin Curta

pointed to the rectangle with

typically appears in the middle
imens of Werner's class II B. H
believed it to be an imitation
orating the foot-plate on late
vania or Crimea.12 Instead of t
decoration back to earlier proto
different method of analysis. I
forty specimens ofWerner's cla
shows that although every foot
variant is independent, they a
changeably. This may in turn
the traditional method of cla
and his followers have run whe
very general definition of the
tion of variables, each whole b
at the end of this paper has b
Neap neighbour Clustering of wernerlib
defining variables by means o
Similarity Coefficient: Jaccard
No claims are made here for the originality ofofthis
dumber method
neighbours considered: ,

of analysis. In fact, my approach draws inspiration from the ofnumber

8bared «ighbours
of shared near neighbours

application of similar methods to much more practical prob- g876S132l8

lems of analysis. For example, a considerable
Ugly quantity of frag- S^iydonl I
Unknown location (no. 37)
ments of moulds used for casting constituent parts (head- and 2^K^ic^c<,t'on tno" 375 I
foot-plates, or bows) of relief brooches was found
Unknown in the
location (no.rub-
31) unknown location tno. 31)
Unknown location (no. 36)
bish heap near and below Building Group 3 at Helgö. The MartyñiukT^10" *'
peculiar nature of this body of evidence required the adoption petrushky
Podbolot'e -
of a model of classification
Pogrebi based on

the brooch into design elements.14 Studies of Anglo-Saxon Trubcheunk tno. zsi
Trubcheuak (no. 2S)
Unknown location (no. 38)
square-headed and of Crimean bow brooches have also aiurahentoi

employed methods based on dividing the designs ofQatar

individual unknown location too. 35)
Unknown location (no. 35)

fibulae into compositional elements.I5To search for patterns

Suuk Su
of Sunk su
Trubcheusk (no. 26)

associations, the matrix obtained by listing all whole

burial chamberLuchintoe,
36 burial chantxsr 36 -
Luchistoe, burial
burial chamber
46 -
ofWerner's class II B on rows with their variables on columns Suu)<
Suuk 3u- r«« 87
Suj graue w
Hyzhniaia Syrouatka
can then be analyzed by means of the near-neighbor dazepyntsiclustering !^^*L°|3yr°uaika
analysis and of the Jaccard coefficient of similarity. The near- (kizhinouo
neighbor clustering analysis is particularly suitable
Fig. for this Fig. 2. Near-neighbor
2. Near-neighbor analysis
analysis of 28 bow fibulae of 28 bow
body of evidence, because category membership
class IIis
B. in fact class II B.

based on common ornamental variables. In other words, in

order to be included in a cluster, a fibula needs to have a spec- The closest neighborhood of specime
ified level of similarity with other members of that cluster. Two cluster, which includes mostly fibulae from
clusters are joined when a member of one cluster has a speci- When plotting on a map of Eastern Euro
fied level of similarity with a member of the other cluster. The relations shown in the dendrogram, it be
shared near-neighbor clustering analysis is therefore most ent that fibulae found in the Middle Dn
appropriate for data with no physical measurements, about Bank Ukraine share more compositional

Kühn 1932-1933, 111-112 and pi. 21/6. - Müller 1935, 116. - Hiñes 1997 - Zaseckaia 1997. - For a similar approach to the
See also Katsougiannopoulou 1999, 67. classification of belt buckles, see Zaseckaia 2004,79-81.
Identical alphanumeric codes were assigned to specimens that are Shennan 1990, 203-204 and 213-214.- See also Cowgill 1982,
very similar to each other in terms of design and decoration, even 30-55. - The method has also been successfully applied to ceme
though at a close examination minute differences may be found tery and pottery analysis, O'Shea 1985, 91-110 - Kobyliñski,
between them (for example, the two fibulae from the Sudzha Buko 1993, 349—356, but not to the study of early medieval met
hoard). alwork. — For a history of the clustering analysis and of its applica
Lundström 1972,132-229. tions, see Wilmink, Uytterschaut 1984,135-175.

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Neither Gothic, nor Slavic: Bow Fibulae of Werner's Class II B 49

WS i

■■ "P

3-1 ,V
V Vv 1JÄ
,"-M :v, --J

ssrustf /" nv-jsI

c-C, (

Fig. 3. Plotting of the nearest-neighbor similarity of 28 fibulae ofWerner's class II B. Diminishing line thickness indicates the
decreasing number of shared neighbors, from nine (thickest) to six (thinnest).

other than they do with brooches from outside the region, nearest neighbors may however be found in the Middle
except the two specimens from central Russia (Fig. 3; 7/14; Dnieper (Fig. 7/13, 15; 8/16; and 11/39) and the Riazan'
10/35). regions (Fig. 7/14 and 10/35).
A similarly high-level of near-neighbor similarity may be F
found among fibulae from two Crimean sites, Luchistoe and
Suuk Su.but a line corresponding to that level of similarity also
links the specimens from Suuk Su and Gatér (Fig. 4/3; 5/5, 6
8/22—24). Most other clusters are also made up of fibulae (H
found as far from each other as Staasdorf and Martynivka,
Gatér and Trubchevsk, or Davideni and Ugly (Fig. 4/1, 3; 5/7; A
9/26, 28; 11/19). In certain regions, contiguity does not impl
similarity. There are no links between specimens found in
relatively short distance from each other in the Carpathian
Basin (Fig. 4/3 and 11/9) or in Left-Bank Ukraine (Fig. 6/9 w
and 9/25—27; 6/11, 8/20-21, 9/28, and 11/18). Contiguous

Kada 1906,221. Gorodcov 1914, 133.

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50 Florin Curta

Fig. 4. Fibulae ofWerner's class

- Korzukhina 1996, 675 pi. 85

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Neither Gothic, nor Slavic: Bow Fibulae of Werner's Class II B 51



Fig. 5. Fibulae ofWerner's class II B. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix. Drawings after Aibabin, Khairedinova 117.- Aibabin 1990,198 fig. 19.-Korzukhina 1996,598 pi. 8.

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52 Florin Curta


Fig. 6. Fibulae ofWerner's class II B. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix. Drawings after Korzukhina 1996, 651 pi.
61, 674 pi. 84 and 675 pi. 85.- Sedin 1997, 285 fig. 2.- Photo after Shinakov 1995, 83 fig. 1.

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Neither Gothic, nor Slavic: Bow Fibulae of Werner's Class II B 53

Fig. 7. Fibulae ofWerner's class II B. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix. Drawings after Korzukhina 1996,674 pi.
84, 675 pi. 85 and 697 pi. 107.

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54 Florin Curta

it I


21 ^
Fig. 8. Fibulae ofWerner's clas
62,703 pi. 113 and 702 pi. 11

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Neither Gothic, nor Slavic: Bow Fibulae of Werner's Class II B 55

Fig. 9. Fibulae ofWerner's class II B. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix. Drawings after Prykhodniuk, Padi
Tikhonov 1996, 82 fig. 3. - Korzukhina 1996, 674 pi. 84 and 688 pi. 98. - Photos after Prykhodniuk, Padin,Tikhonov 1
84 fig. 5 and 85 fig. 6.

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56 Florin Curta

Fig. 10. Fibulae ofWerner's cla

pi. 84 and 675 pi. 85. - Werne

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Neither Gothic, nor Slavic: Bow Fibulae of Werner's Class II B 57

18 29

38 39

Fig. 11. Fibulae ofWerner's cl

pi. 60, 673 pi. 83,675 pi. 85 a

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58 Florin Curta

cemetery in association with a c

the 5th century.19 However, the
tubes and has very good analo
Podbolot'e, two of which produ
8th and 9th century.20
A late date has also been advanced for the so-called

"Dnieper-type" fibula of Rodinkova's class 2.2, which was

found on skeleton no. 4 in burial chamber 46a in Luchistoe

together with a bow fibula ofWerner's class II B (Fig. 12).21

Fig. 13.The Martynivka

Martynivka hoard,
hoard, selected
selected artifacts:
artifacts: "Slavic"
fibula, silver
silver cup
cup with
with control
control stamps,
stamps, animal-shaped
belt mount and
and buckle
buckle with
with open-work
open-work ornament.
ornament. After
Korzukhina 1996,
1996, 598
598 pi.
pi. 88 and
and 603
603 pi.
pi. 13.

Fig. 12. Luchistoe,

Luchistoe, burial
burial chamber
chamber 46a,
46a, skeleton
skeleton no.
no. 4,
artifacts: glass
glass beads
beads and
and aa pair
pair of
of bow
bow fibulae
fibulae linked
string ofamber
amber beads
beads andand a bell-shaped
a bell-shaped pendant.
pendant. After After The four control stamps on the base of the cup fro
Khairedinova 2000,218 fig.
218 fig. 14.14. hoard assemblage (Fig. 13, upper right) are from the reign of
Justin II (565—578), possibly from 577, when Theodore Petrus
According to Rodinkova, her class 2.2 must be dated to the was the comes sacrarum largitionum.2* Moreover, a "
late 7th century, despite the fact that none of its members is type" fibula similar to that from the Martynivka hoard
from a closed find with secured dating.22 In fact, the assemblage kovas class 1.1. A) was found with skeleton no. 8
associated with skeleton no. 4 in burial chamber 46a in Luch- chamber 38 in Luchistoe together with an eagle-head
istoe may well be of an earlier date, because along with the two buckle of Zaseckaia's class II.D.2 dated to the secon
bow fibulae it also included an eagle-headed buckle of Zaseck- the 6th century.25 Belt mounts with open-work orn
aia's group II.D.l, dated to the middle third of the 6th cen- tion (Somogyi's class A2) like that from the Martyniv
tury.23 A possibly 6th century association between a "Slavic" (Fig. 14, lower right) have also been found with skele
bow fibula ofWerner's class II B and a "Dnieper-type" fibula is burial chamber 180 in Kerch' together with an eagl
also documented in the Martynivka hoard (Fig. 13,14). buckle and two bow fibulae of the Udine-Planis type dat

For the chronology of cruciform brooches in burial assemblagesRodinkova

in 2006a, 52 and 44 fig. 3. Rodinkova notes, however,
the Riazan'-Oka region, see Akhmedov et al. 2007, 114-115. - the specimen from Luchistoe is considerably different from
According to Tukhtina 1997, 114, most other analogies for the other members of her class 2.2.
Zaseckaia 2004, 102 and 128.
diadem appear in early medieval cemeteries in Latvia, long barrows
Pekarskaja, Kidd 1994, pi. 18/47-50. - Mundell Mango 1995,
in the environs of Smolensk and burial assemblages from other
cemeteries in the Riazan'-Oka region. 80.

Tukhtina 1997,114 (diadems ofTukhtina's type I B). Aibabin, Khairedinova 2009b, 137, pi. 139/1 - Zaseckaia 2004,
Werner 1999,135-136,138 fig. 143. 102.

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Neilher Gothic, nor Slavic: Bow Fibulae of Werner's Class II B 59

>0>: l


a. i

Fig. 14. The Martynivka hoard, selected artifacts: "Dnieper Fig. 15.TheTrubchevsk hoard, selected artifacts: animal
shaped and belt mounts and strap ends, tores, and "Slavic"
type" bow fibula, silver spoon, P-shaped sword scabbard mount,
bow fibula. After Prykhodniuk, Padin,Tikhonov 1996, 82
strap ends, belt mounts, and pseudo-buckle. After Korzukhina
1996,600 pi. 10,601 pi. 11,613 pi. 13 and 619 pi. 19. fig. 3, 87 fig. 8 and 89 fig. 11.

the first half of the 6th century.26 In several hoards from the Nonetheless, some of the artifacts in the Martynivka h
Dnieper region, fibulae of Werner's class II B were also associ- may well be of a later date. For example, the silver spoon
ated with 6th century artifacts. For example, the 3-shaped belt 14, in the middle) belongs to Hauser's Mytilene group.
mounts (Somogyi's class All) from the Trubchevsk hoard (Fig. early 7th century date for this group was established on
15, second from top left) have good analogies in a burial cham- basis of the the Kratigos hoard, in which one such spoon
ber from the Chufut Kale cemetery in Crimea, which also associated with 13 solidi struck for Emperor Heraclius betw
produced a very worn coin struck for Emperor Justinian.27 616 and 625.29 Moreover, pseudo-buckles like that from M
A tore made of twisted wire similar to that from Trubchevsk tynivka (Fig. 14, right, from the bottom right) appear
(Fig. 15, lower bottom left) is known from a warrior grave number of hoards of silver and bronze from the Dniep
under barrow 6 inTaurapilis (Lithuania), which also produced region, some of which also produced bow fibulae of Wer
a battle axe with damascened ornament on the blade, dated to class II B.3" Martynivka shares many more features with t
the late 5th or early 6th century.28 hoards: rectangular belt mounts (Fig. 14, second from top

26 Kazanski 1996, 330. - See Somogyi 1987, 126. Such belt mounts Tautavicius 1981, 35-36 and fig. 40/1. - A similar tore is known
are also known from burial assemblages of the northern Caucasusfrom a burial assemblage of the t?cze cemetery in Poland (grave
region. — In the large cemetery in Mokraia Balka they appear in 41), in which it was associated with a lancehead-shaped strap end
catacombs of the second interment phase, which is coin-dated to most typical for the late 6th century (Kulakov 1990, 99 pi. 5/7)
the 6th century (Afanas'ev 1979,47). - In a warrior grave acciden Hauser 1992, 58. - For the Kratigos hoard, see Baldini Lippolis
1999, 37 and 229. - For the coins, see Morrison, Popovió,
tally found in Arcybashevo (Riazan' region, Russia),a belt mount of
Somogyi's class A2 was associated with a P-shaped scabbard mountIvanisevic 2006, 387.
similar to that from Martynivka (Bálint 1989, 41). - Similar scab E. g., the four pseudo-buckles (Gavritukhin's class 4) accompany
bard mounts were found in Risove (Crimea) in a grave, which also ing a belt buckle with open work plate ornament in the Trub
produced a belt buckle with moveable, shield-shaped plate like thatchevsk hoard. See Prykhodniuk, Padin, Tikhonov 1996, 88 fig.
from Ugly (Fig. 16, bottom left). See Rashev 2000, 138 fig. 32/9. 8/11,89 fig. 11/1, and 90 fig. 12.- Gavritukhin, Oblomskii 1996,
27 Kropotkin 1958, 210, 215 fig. 5a (burial chamber 34). - For the
3-shaped mounts from the Gaponovo hoard, see Gavritukhin,
Oblomskii 1996,35.

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60 Florin Curta

Fig. 16.The Ugly hoard, selecte

end, "Slavic" bow fibula, belt-
After Korzukhina 1996, 688 p

Fig. 18. The Nyz

"Slavic" bow fib
copper-alloy she
pi. 61.

right),31 shield-shaped strap ends (Fig. 14, third from top right;
Fig. 15, second from top right),32 and a belt buckle with open
work ornament (Fig. 13, bottom right).33 Animal-shaped
mounts with shield-shaped manes have been found in both the
Martynivka and the Trubchevsk hoards (Fig. 13 and 15).34
Double-spiral pendants such as found in the Martynivka, Tru
bchevsk and Sudzha hoards (Fig. 17, bottom left) are also
known from several burial assemblages of the large cemetery in
Tumiany (northeastern Poland).
In grave 30 of that cemetery, one such pendant was associ
ated with a fibula ofWerner's class I D, two lancehead-shaped
strap-ends, rectangular belt mounts with open-work ornament

Similar belt mounts are known from the Gaponovo, Koloskove,

Trubchevsk, Sudzha, and Khatsky hoards. Gavritukhin, Oblom
skii 1996,24.
For a good analogy for the Martynivka specimen, see Gavri
tukhin, Oblomskii 1996,31 and 220 fig. 42/4,6.
A similar belt buckle is known from the Koloskove hoard (Kor
zukhina 1996, 690 pi. 100/4). - By contrast, belt mounts in the
shape of two opposing shields or with cabochons placed in the
middle, like those from Martynivka, are only known fromVishenki
near Oster (Ukraine) and do not appear in any other hoards. See
Fig. 17.The Sudzha hoard, sele
Korzukhina 1996, 681 pi. 91/21. - Gavritukhin, Oblomskii
ble-spiral, and rectangle penda
pendant, glass and amber
Szmoniewski 2008,271. beads,
A further analogy for the Trubchevsk and
and strap end.Martynivka
After Korzukh
mounts is known from an unpublished hoard found in
657 pi. 67, 658 an unknown
pi. location in68
the Cherkasy region.
and 660 p

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Neither Gothic, nor Slavic: Bow Fibulae of Werner's Class II B 61

and a trinket with chains and horseshoe-shaped pendants, all of j

which may be dated to the second half or the last decades of —e=i / ^
the 6th century.35 Similarly, trapezoidal copper-alloy sheet pen- f
dants, such as found in the Nyzhniaia Syrovatka hoard (Fig. 18,
bottom right) are commonly found in assemblages of the Early
Avar period (ca. 570 to ca. 630).36
A date between the late sixth and the early 7th century also
results from the association in grave 14 of the burial chamber
36 in Luchistoe of two "Slavic" bow fibulae ofWerner's classes

II A and B, respectively. The chronology recently advanced for

the former is not contradicted by the stratigraphy of that burial I 1 J

chamber.37 To be sure, Aleksandr Aibabin and Elzara Khairedi- .... 3°- T
nova have argued for a different interpretation. The second 1
layer of interments, to which skeleton 14 belongs, was separa- ^ Q
ted from the one above it by a layer of black soil. The layer _í—cm
above contained five inhumations, one of which (skeleton 2, an
adolescent) produced a piece of 5 nummia struck in Cherso
nesus for Emperor Justin II between 565 and 577. The nei
ghboring skeleton 4 had a belt buckle of the Pápa type iy|IF
(Schulze-Dörrlamm's class D36), analogies for which have Jajf
been dated to the first half of the 7th century.38 Nonetheless, f¡j
for some bizarre reasons known only to them, A. Fig.
Aibabin and Fig. 19.
19. Luchistoe, Luchistoe,
burial chamberburial chamber
36 with 36 with
grave goods ass
E. Khairedinova dated to the second half of the 7th ciated
ciated with
14. Left:
bow fibulaclass
entire layer of interments. According to them, the right:
layer bow
bene- right:
fibula bow fibuJa
ofWerner ofWerner's
s class II A. Afterclass II A. Afte
ath (the one containing skeleton 14) must therefore be dated 2009,
Khairedinova Khairedinova
pis. 110 2009 pis 110 and 117
and 117.
earlier, namely to the first half of the 7th century.3'' While I
cannot accept their premise, I find myself in partial agreement
with the excavators' conclusion. Skeleton 14 is indeed surro- century, either before or after 565 (the earliest
unded by burials with artifacts most typical for the early 7th the coin found with skeleton 2).4'
century, such as the earring with pyramid-shaped pendant It has been noted that in Crimea, pairs of bo
found on skeleton 11 or the buckle of the Syracuse type together with skeletons of mature individuals
(Schulze-Dörrlamm class D12) found on skeleton 13.40 The of specimens of different size. In such cases, th
deposition of the first layer of burials in chamber 36 therefore commonly placed on the right shoulder of th
appears to have followed not long after the second layer. Given of fibulae of the same size were expected
that the coin from the first layer can only be regarded as a ter- burials of children.42 The evidence from bu
minus a quo, the second layer may in theory be dated to the 6th 36 in Skalistoe sharply contradicts both obs

Jakobson 2009, 40, 114 pi. 13. - For a detailed discussioncannot

of thebe dated later than ca. 630 (Garam 1992, 149-150. -
Bálint of
chronology of the Tumiany cemetery, including the assemblage 1993, 218). — For the chronology of the Syracuse-type
buckles, see Varsík 1992, 81. - Riemer 1995, 779. - Eger 1996,
grave 30, see Curta 2006b, 446. - Four double-spiral pendants
were associated in grave 94 of the Kielary cemetery with 345. - Riemer 2000, 152. - Schulze-Dörrlamm 2002, 179. - In
ons of fibulae of the Mühlhofen class, which cannot be dated earthe association of buckles of the Syracuse class with ear
lier than the mid-6th century. Jakobson 2009, 87 and 279rings
pi. 178.
with pyramid-shaped pendants is documented in grave 29 in
- Hilberg 2009, 266. Suuk Su (Repnikov 1906,9) and in burial chamber 471 in Skalis
Com$a 1984,66 and 68.-Kiss 1996,201.-For the chronology of toe (Veimarn, Aibabin 1993,118 fig. 85/4).
the Early Avar period, see now Stadler 2005,129. A case has in fact been recently made for a 6th century date of the
Curta 2010. earliest Syracuse-type buckles, primarily on the basis of the assem
Uenze 1966,151-152.-Madgearu 1993,174.-Schulze-Dörr blage in grave 51 of the cemetery excavated in Piani degli Albanesi
lamm 2002,225. — For a general date within the Early Avar age, (Sicily),
see in which one such buckle was associated with an early 6th
Salamon, Erdélyi 1971, 20 and pi. 9/66.6. - Kiss 1977, 98 and pi.
century African lamp of the Atlante X Ala class (Greco, Mammina
XL/2.-Garam 2001, 111. 1993—1994,1157. — Maurici 2000, 515). — Similarly, earrings with
Aibabin, Khairedinova 2009b, 129-131 and 45 pi. 6. pyramid-shaped pendants have also appeared on 6th century forti
Aibabin, Khairedinova 2009b, pis. 117/7 and 122/4. - Earrings fied sites in the central Balkans (Mikulcic 2002, 300 and 301 fig.
with pyramid-shaped pendant are typically found in Early Avar 199/1).
burial assemblages in Hungary and the neighboring regions and Khairedinova 2007,21.

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62 Florin Curta

That assembla
of Werner's class II C, a combination documented in the
Nyzhniaia Syrovatka hoard as well. Similarly, the Trubchevsk
hoard has four bow fibulae, two of which may have formed a
pair of identical IIA specimens. Pairs of almost identical fibulae
ofWerners class II B appear in grave 87 in Suuk Su, as well as
in the Sudzha and Ugly hoards. Neither the Sudzha, nor the
Ugly hoard included any other fibulae, a feature otherwise
known only from the Nova Odessa hoard, which produced six
fibulae, all ofWerners class II C (Table l).44 It is important to
note that when not found in association with other brooches,
bow fibulae appear in pairs.Where fibulae ofWerners class II
B appear singly, they accompany pairs of fibulae of a different
type, either Werner's class II C (Nyzhniaia Syrovatka) or
Rodinkova's class 1.1 (Martynivka).There are three II B speci
mens among the ten "Slavic" fibulae from the Trubchevsk
hoard, which indicates 5 pairs, one of which combined a II B
fibula with another of a different type (I D, II A, or II D)45
Equally possible is that a II B fibula was combined with one of
the two "Dnieper-type" brooches (one of Rodinkova's class
1.1, the other of her class 1.2). That such a combination was
indeed possible results from the association of a fibula of
0 .}
Werner's class II B with another of Rodinkova's class 2.2, both
Fig. 20.The Smorodino
Fig. 20.Theassemblage of artifact (burial?): bow found on skeleton4
Smorodino of burial chamber 46a in Luchistoeof
fibulae ofWerners classes II B,
fibulae D, and C, copper-alloy sheet (Fig. 12)46
ofWerner s More importantly, the two
classes IIfibulae
B,were linked
D, with a
and bell-like pendants,
and spindle whorl, and copper-alloy
bell-like wire a necklace of 15 amber beads
pendants, of irregular shape, arranged
spindle whor on
ornaments. After Korzukhina 1996,650 pi.
ornaments. 60. both sides of a bell-shaped
After Korzukhina pendant. Several other burial assem
blages in Luchistoe have produced necklaces attached to vari
ous types of brooches.47
To be sure, the position of the two brooches found on the Both amber beads and bell-shaped pendants appear in
remains of the upper body of the child mirrors that of the pair hoards with bow fibulae such as Koziivka, Nova Odessa,48 and
of bow fibulae found on the neighboring skeleton no. 7.43 In Sudzha (Fig. 17, left and middle), but there is no way to know
that case, however, the two fibulae are not only of the same size, whether they constituted necklaces tied to brooches. However,
but also almost identical.This is clearly not the case of skeleton one of the few burial assemblages found in that same region of
14: the two associated fibulae were 15 and 11.7 cm long, Left-Bank Ukraine in which Nova Odessa and Koziivka are
respectively. Moreover, the longer fibula ofWerner's class II B located provides an excellent analogy for the combination of
was on the left, not on the right side of the skeleton. The II B fibulae and necklace associated with skeleton 4 of burial cham
fibula from Smorodino is also the longest of all four found in ber 46a in Luchistoe. The inhumation grave accidentally found
that assemblage, which is likely from a burial (Fig. 20). in 1996 in Mokhnach near Zmiiv contained the skeleton of a

Aibabin, Khairedinova
Werner's class II C 2009b, pls.
in grave 11 in Bakla (Aibabin, Iorochkin 110
Korzukhina 1995, 395-397.
pp.128 and 227 fig. 22/1,3). - This m
Velyki Budky hoard, forof the
For the reconstruction only
the pair of bow wh
fibulae attached to a
blage are the two necklace found on skeleton
fibulae of 4 in burial chamber 43, see Khairedi
Werner s
ments belong to the Aquileia
nova 1997, class
89 fig. 1. — For a similar combination and
on skeleton 1 in
"Dnieper-type" fibulae, respectively.
burial chamber 100, see Khairedinova 2000, 115 fig. 1. - For a
1999,172-175, 214 necklace
fig. 47/1-2,
linking two and
sheet fibulae, see Khairedinova 1999,86 215
This is also true for the
68. - For chains attached II D
to a pair brooches
of iron fibulae with bent stem
which includes six "Slavic" bow fibulae. found with skeleton 17 in burial chamber 38, see Khairedinova
For the "Dnieper-type" fibula, see Rodinkova 2006b, 53 fig. 3. - A 2000,127 fig. 13.There are no such combinations in 5th and early
"Dnieper-type" fibula of Rodinkova's class 1.1 was found in grave 6th century burial assemblages (Khairedinova 2002,53—118).
55 in Suuk Su in combination with a bow fibula ofWerner's class
Shcheglova 1990, 198 fig. 7/5 - Korzukhina 1996, 636 fig.
II D (Repnikov 1906, 15 and pi. VI/5, 6). - A "Dnieper-type"
46/22-23 and 637 pi. 47/4-6.
fibula of Rodinkova's class 3.2 was associated with a bow fibula of

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Neither Gothic, nor Slavic: Bow Fibulae of Werner's Class II B 63

Table 1. Fibulae in hoards of silver and bronze in the Middle Dnieper region.

Hoard W II C Bent W II B W II D R 1.1 Other R 1.2 W II A W I D WIC Total


Nova Odessa 6 6

Koloskove 4 1 5

Nyzhniaia Syrovatka 2 1 3

Martynivka 1 2 3

Koziivka 1 1 5 2 1 1 11

Sudzha 2 2

Ugly 2 2

Trubchevsk 3 2 1 1 1 2 1 11

Gaponovo 1 4 5

Velyki Budky 1 1 2 4

R — Rodinkova's classification of the "Dnieper-type" bow fibulae; W - Werners classification of'Slavic" bow fibulae.

female between 25 and 30 years of age.The necklace found in tern Baltic region. For example, a triple necklace attached to a
that grave contained 116 amber beads of irregular shape, six pair of bow fibulae is known from a 4th or early 5th century
bell- and four trapeze-shaped pendants, and was most likely grave of a young female excavated in Bosau (Germany, eastern
attached to two "Slavic" bow fibulae ofWerner's class II C.49 Holstein), but even earlier examples are known from Norway
Beads hanging from individual fibulae occasionally appear and Denmark.53 It is therefore possible that the necklace with
in 6th century assemblages in the Carpathian Basin.5" Howe- pendants attached to a pair of fibulae worn at the shoulders was
ver, necklaces of beads and metal pendants hanging from the a local adaptation of a North European female fashion. Spora
two fibulae at the shoulders were not in fashion anywhere else die contacts with the North are demonstrated by finds of "Sla
in contemporaneous Eastern Europe. According to Olga vie" bow fibulae in Scandinavia, one of which is a specimen of
Shcheglova, hat-shaped pendants, such as found in the Sudzha, Werners class II B.54 Furthermore, relations with the eastern
Koziivka, and Gaponovo hoards, were cheap imitations of the Baltic region are implied by the relatively large number of
gold medallions with precious stones in fashion among female amber beads found in burial and hoard assemblages in the
members of the imperial and aristocratic families in Byzan- Middle Dnieper region, as well as the occasional find of a
tium.51 However, there is no archaeological or iconographic crossbow brooch with animal head.55
evidence of Byzantine necklaces with medallions attached to The pair of brooches with a necklace of amber beads from
pairs of fibulae worn at the shoulders. To be sure, there is evi- burial chamber 46a in Luchistoe must therefore be regarded as
dence of earrings connected with chains, a 6th and 7 th century a sign of the influence from the Middle Dnieper region, which
fashion originating in Byzantium and imitated across the bar- is otherwise documented by the associated "Dnieper-type"
barian world.52 Nonetheless, the chains had no pendants or fibula, most certainly produced in that region, just like other
beads, and were typically short, as they were attached to ear- similar fibulae found in Crimea.56 Conversely, both fibulae of
rings, not fibulae. The only examples of necklaces with pen- the Kerch class and amphora finds found in the Middle Dnie
dants attached to fibulae are those of Scandinavia and the wes- per region bespeak the influence of Crimea on local commu

Aksenov, Babenko 1998. It is important to note that the Mokhn 2001,57 fig. 5. -Tautavióius 1984,105 fig. 13,106 fig. 14, and
ach burial produced three fibulae — two bow fibulae and a fibula fig. 17.
with bent stem - an association also attested in the Gaponovo, The other is a II D brooch from an unknown location in Gotland
Koloskove, and Koziivka hoards. (Werner 1950, pi. 40/37).
CSALLÁNY 1942.-SCHELLHAS 1997. The fibula of the Sensburg-Mrjgowo type from Shul'govka near
Synel'nykove (Ukraine), for which see Kazanski 1999, 411-412.
Shcheglova 1999,302.— For Byzantine necklaces with medallions
and pendants of different shapes, see Garam 1991. - Maniere
- For amber beads, see Curta 2007, 71 and 70 Map 4.2. - For
Levéque 1997,88 pi. 4. earlier finds of western Baltic and Scandinavian origin, see Kazan
Schulze 1984. ski 2010, 91 and 90 fig. 78.
Aibabin 1988, 8 - Rodinkova 2006a, 47-48 and 48 fig. 4. -
Hinz 1978, 348-349, 349 fig. 1, 350-352, 357-358, and 364-365.
- Martin 1991, 671 fig. 4. - Several examples of bronzeRodinkova
chains 2006b, 58 figs. 7-8. - Aibabin, Khairedinova 2009a,
connecting fibulae worn at the shoulders are known from42-44.
while in the eastern Baltic region, the fashion was adapted to the
local proclivity for dress pins, instead of fibulae. See Graudonis

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64 Florin Curta

r~\ Y: T'vj,
/ r^7Jj
"fc. <c4
.—C" \<$k)I f rf•■'■'#--WJ^,
#4?^ 4 <? > ,./
/ ~2? \iV Vw*
x •(/»
-r 1/' i ,•
,( c,
* V• *"/
«. o»\/
r) a r&: */ « s^\>—> - £>■» r-, s

Fig. 21 .The distribution of fibulae ofWerner's class II B in Eastern Europe. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix.

nicies.57 Most likely from Crimea are also the human-shaped A mould for the casting of bow fibulae found in Kerch' and
candle holder from the environs of Khorol near Lubni and the detailed metallographic analyses suggest a local production of
belt buckle with a plate in the form of a human face, which bow fibulae in Crimea.60 Nonetheless, most fibulae ofWerner's
was found in an unknown location in the Middle Dnieper class II B known so far have been found in the Middle Dnieper
region.58 Similarly, the pair of gold earrings with pyramid-sha- region (Fig. 21—22).
ped pendants from an unknown location in Ukraine, now in The plotting of the nearest-neighbor similarity relations
the National Museum of History of Ukraine, are either of Cri- also shows that more fibulae from that region are linked to
mean origin or imitations of Crimean earrings.59 other specimens than fibulae from any other region. Both the

Bobrinskii 1894, pi. 20/3 (Kniazha Hora). - Bobrinskii 1901, pi. Panchenko 2000,1-2 and fig. 1. - Korshenko 1948,179-181 - A
1/12 (unknown location in the environs ofKaniv).- For fibulae of similarly human-shaped candle-holder is known from Chersone
the Kerch class in Crimea, see Zaseckaia 1997,401,457 pi. 1, and sus (Golofast et al. 1991, 97 fig. 96). - For human-shaped candle
458 pi. 2. - See also Gavritukhin 1997,28. - For a Late Roman 1 holders, see Borisov 2007,331-338.
amphora from Iaitsevoi near Zaporizhzhia, see Bodianskii 1960, Rolle, Müller-Wille, Schietzel 1991, 248. - In Crimea, such
276 and 275 fig. 2/3. — For Late Roman 2 amphorae from earrings have been found in Skalistoe, Bakhchesaray, and Suuk Su.
Budyshche and Pastyrs'ke, see Prykhodniuk 1980, 127 and 130. See Veimarn, Aibabin 1993, 35 fig. 20/25 and 55 fig. 35/17. -
- Prykhodniuk 2004, 267-268. - For amphorae of Opai('s class Repnikov 1906,38 and pi. 1/1,3,7.
B-Id from Kiev, see Shovkoplias 1957, 101. - Shovkoplias 1963, For the mould, see Aibabin 1999,142 fig. 57. - For metallographic
140. - A Byzantine anchor was found at Khortytsia, across the analyses and the local production of bow fibulae, see Minasian
Dnieper from Zaporizhzhia (Shapovalov 1990,120-121). 1997,479-489.

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Neither Gothic, nor Slavic: Bow Fibulae of Werner's Class II B 65

Fig. 22.The distribution of fibulae ofWerner's class II B in Eastern Europe. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix.

Staasdorf and the Podbolot'e fibulae are linked only to those Staasdorf fibula seems to have been to increase the resistivity
found in the Middle Dnieper region. No finds of moulds for and rigidity of the fibula during and after the casting process/'4
bow fibulae are known from that region, which may be com- Judging by this detail, it is likely that the Staasdorf fibula was in
pared to the mould from Bernashivka/'1 However, two for- fact produced either in the Middle Dnieper region or by
ming models for bow fibulae are known from the Koziivka means of a technology common in that region. This further
and Nova Odessa hoards/'2 This strongly suggests that bow substantiates the results of the nearest-neighbor clustering
fibulae ofWerner's class II B were manufactured in the Middle analysis, which shows that the closest analogies for the Staasdorf
Dnieper region, possibly as imitations of fibulae of the Aquileia fibula are the specimens found in Dudari, Martynivka, and two
class, with which they have many morphological and orna- unknown locations in Ukraine (Fig. 2-3).
mental elements in common. This hypothesis is further sub- It would of course be great to know whether, besides simi
stantiated by three radial ridges on the back of the footplate, lar manufacturing technique, morphology, and decoration,
and two smaller ridges on the back of the second and fourth there is more to the Middle Dnieper connection revealed by
headplate knobs of the fibula from Staasdorf (Fig. 23). Both the analysis of the Staasdorf fibula. For example, was it worn
features are strikingly reminiscent of the fibula from the Evge- singly or together with another fibula? Was that second fibula
nii Goriunov collection, as well as of others from the Middle of the same or of a different type? Were the two fibulae con
Dnieper region/'3 Trasological examination of the backs of nected by means of a necklace of beads and metal pendants?
those fibulae revealed that they had been cast in clay moulds. Unfortunately, the Staasdorf fibula is a stray find and nothing
The role of the ridges observed also on the back of the else is known about the circumstances in which it was discove

Vynokur 1994,23-27. M Shablavina 2004, 245.

Korzukhina 1996, 634 fig. 44/1, 2. — Two other forming models ''4 Shablavina 2004,245.
are said to be from the Middle Dnieper region. Shablavina 2004,
244—246 - Shablavina, Szmoniewski 2006,519-521.

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66 Florin Curta


24. Davideni, sunken-floored
24. building no.Daviden
41. Plan with
finds: handmade pottery (including a fragmentfinds:
of a
pan), bone needle, fragment
pan),of a double-sided comb,bone
an unidentified
an barrel-like
clay object with two perforations
at one
at end. Afterone
Mitrea 1994,321 fig. end.
22 and 326 fig. 26. Afte

n i r c j r j i r i i i red building no. 41, and not on the houses floor as the other
Fig. 23.The
bow fibula
from detail
of the back. detail or the back.
ac d miA m c a¿ associated artifacts (Fig. 24).66
After Beninger
Beninger 1934, 93 fig. 46. 1934,93 fig. 46. v & /
To be sure, no pair of fibulae of
found on any of the 6th to 7 th cen
red. Given the good state of preservation, it is tempting to giv
some credit to E. Beninger's idea that it came from a disturbed
burial assemblage.65 But there is no way to know whether or t
not there was a second fibula in that assemblage.The evidence N
from grave 238 in Gatér, which produced only one fibula, is
equally uncertain. The grave has been robbed and one cannot ar
be sure whether there was a second fibula, possibly removed in
the process along with other grave goods. Similarly, the Davi- nee
deni fibula was found in the upper filling of the sunken-floo- s

Beninger 1934,94-95. 1972a, 137 (Selifte).-Rafalovich 1972b,65 (Hansca).-Khavliuk

Moreover, according to the excavator, repeated plowing may have 1974,207 (Semenki).-RuTKOVSKAiA 1974,38 (Volos'ke).-TiMOSH
moved the fibula from the filling of the neighboring house 42 chuk, Rusanova, Mikhailina 1981, 91 (Chornivka). - Doli
(Mitrea 1994, 305 and 307). nescu-Ferche, Constantiniu 1981, 324 (Bucharest-Soldat Ghi
For the other "Slavic" bow fibula from Davideni (a specimen of van). - Baran 1988, 116 (Rashkiv). - Székely 1992, 263 (Poian).
Werners class I G), see Mitrea 2001,100 and 329 fig. 68/4. - See - Mitrea 2001,100 (Davideni).
also Curta 2006a, 93 and 101-102.
Rosetti 1934,21-22 (Bucharest-Dämäroaia).-MATEi,NicoRESCu
1962,741-744 (Suceava).—Teodor 1971,120 (Iaji). — Rafalovich

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Neither Gothic, nor Slavic: Bow Fibulae of Werner's Class II B 67

bow fibulae.6'' Single finds of bow fibulae may have been deli- which 6th century Byzantine authors placed the Sclavenes.74
berately and symbolically left behind to "mark" the house at Ever since Aleksandr Spicyn the hoards of silver and bronze in
the time of its abandonment, probably when the household the Middle Dnieper region have been called "Antian anti
head died, and this may also be true for needles and spindle ques", but all of them post-date the latest mention of the Antes
whorls.70 However, such an interpretation is hardly applicable in the written sources.75 Moreover, many hoards have been
to the Davideni fibula, given that it was not found on the house found to the east from the river Dnieper, away from the lands
floor and may have thus entered the archaeological record at a in which 6th century authors placed the Antes.76
much later time. The only evidence that fibulae of Werner's If the chronology proposed for its analogies is correct, the
class II B were worn singly is from grave 220 in Podbolot'e.The Staasdorf fibula may well be dated between the late 6th and the
presence of a single fibula in an inhumation grave may be 7th century. It is therefore time to remove the question mark
interpreted in a number of ways. Only detailed knowledge of from the label "friihawarisch" (Early Avar) attached to this arti
the exact position of that fibula in relation to the skeleton can fact in the antique collection of the Art History Museum in
determine whether the artifact was truly used as a fastener, an Vienna.77 The Staasdorf fibula is one of the very few Early Avar
ornament attached to textile or leather straps hanging from the finds from Lower Austria, and the westernmost stray find of
belt at the waist, or an object symbolically placed on the body that age (ca. 570 to ca. 630) in the Austrian segment of the river
upon burial.71 The Podbolot'e fibula is said to have been found Danube. Much like other characteristic finds, such as apple
in the abdominal region of the skeleton, which may indicate shaped cast stirrups with elongated suspension loops and flat
that it served as a fastener for a dress opened at the front or for tread slightly bent inwards, the Staasdorf fibula points to the
the burial shroud.72 Even though the artifact may have been earliest appearance in the valley of the Upper Danube of the
manufactured in the Middle Dnieper region, there is no trace new technologies and fashions introduced in the Carpathian
in Podbolot'e of a pair of fibulae with a necklace of beads and Basin by the newly arrived nomads.78
metal pendants between them, a combination which was in
fashion in the Middle Dnieper region and in Crimea.73 Appendix - List of Archaeological Sites
E. Beninger may have been right about the Staasdorf fibula 1. Davideni (Neam( district, Romania); found in the sunken
being from a destroyed grave. But he was definitely wrong bulldlng n0. 41> together with wheel- and hand-made pottery
about its date. Conversely, E. Szameit may have been wrong (inciuding day pans)) a bone needle, and a double-layered
when associating the fibula with the native population of Comb; copper-alloy; L=9.3; 1A2D3A4C5A.79
Lower Austria, but he was definitely right about rejecting the
C1 „ . r , , ,, , . ... , . ..., , . 2. Dudari (Kaniv district, Ukraine); stray find;
Slavic attribution favored by Herbert Mitscha-Mahrheim. 80
v ' '
There is indeed nothing Slavic about the Staasdorf fibula and
its analogies in the Middle Dnieper region or Crimea. None of 3. Gatér (Csongrád district, Hungary); found in t
them was found in the region close to the Lower Danube in mation burial no. 238, together with a knife, a fragm

Mitrea, Artimon 1971, 236 (Bacäu). - Khavliuk 1974, 199Most significant in this respect is the absence of fibulae ofWerner
(Semenki).- Rafalovich, Lapushnian 1974, 130-131 (Seli§te). II B class from assemblages in northeastern Poland (Mazuria), a
Boroneant, Stingä 1978, 92-95 (Ostrovu Mare). - Rafalovich, region otherwise rich in finds of "Slavic" bow fibulae, many of
Gol'ceva 1981, 128-131 (Dánceni). - Teodor 1984, 32-32 which have analogies in the Lower Danube area (Hilberg 2009,
(Botojana).-Vakulenko, Prykhodniuk 1984, 82 (Kavetchina). - 291-299).
VÄZHAROVA 1986, 190 (Garván). — Székely 1992, 266 (Poian). — Spicyn 1928. - Shcheglova 1999. - Shcheglova 2000. -The last

Mitrea 1998, 29-30 (Izvoare). - Mitrea 2001, 47-48, 69-70, mention of the Antes is in Theophylact SimocattaVIII 6.1, in refe
111—113, and 119—120 (Davideni). — For double-sided combs ence to the 602 campaign of the Avar general Apsich. Whether o
found singly in setdement assemblages, see Mitrea 2001, 64—66 not the Antes were "Slavs" is of course a different issue. Despit
(Davideni) and Kuna, Profantová 2005,35 (Roztoky). being mentioned together with the Sclavenes by 6th and 7th ce
Curta 2004, 72. - For house abandonment and its archaeological tury authors, there seems to be no basis for regarding the Antes as
correlates, see Cameron 1991,155—194. either "eastern Slavs" or the ancestors of modern Ukrainians. See

For single fibulae used as fasteners, see Clauss 1987, 532—533. — Szmoniewski forthcoming.
For fibulae hanging from leather or textile straps, see Vida 2004, Jordanes, 34-35.
438-439. - For symbolic deposition of fibulae upon burial, see Winter 1997,75 and 193. - Distelberger 2004,26.
Magnus 2007, 187 and 189. For Early Avar, apple-shaped cast stirrups with elongated suspen
Sedov 1999,258. sion loops and flat tread slightly bent inwards, see Curta 2008,315
The other two "Slavic" bow fibulae known from burial assemblages and 316 fig. 5.
in Riazan'-Oka region (Shokshino and Kuz'minki) were also worn Mitrea 1994,307 and 326 fig. 26/1. - Mitrea 1995,127-128 and
singly (Spicyn 1901,88 and pi. XIV/8. - Shitov 2002,175 and fig. 126 fig. 1. - Mitrea 2001,160 and 329 fig. 68/2.
3/1).The fibula from Shokshino was found on the neck of a child's Werner 1950,160 and pi. 37/13. - Rybakov 1953,57 n. 1 and 58
skeleton and may have been used to fasten a mantle under the chin. fig. 9/2. - Artamonov 1969, 6 fig. 4/a. - Korzukhina 1996, 354
The Kuz'minki fibula was associated with a cremation burial. and 675 pi. 85/4.

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68 Florin Curta

iron chain, and an iron bu

1B2B3A4B5B.81 alloy; 1D2A3B4B5B.9'
4. Kiev (Ukraine); settlement find; copper-alloy, fragment; 14. Podbo
1A4B5A.82 inhumation burial no. 220, together with a diadem of silver
5. Luchistoe (Bakhchesaray district, Crimea, Ukraine); tubes, a cowrie shell, three bronze b
found in the burial chamber no. 36, skeleton no. 14 (child), rings, and silver belt mounts, 1D2A
together with another bow fibula of Werners class II A; cop- 15. Pogrebi (Oster distri
per-alloy; L=15.0; 1E2B3B4B5B.83 1E2B3B4B5B.93

6. Luchistoe (Bakhchesaray district, Crimea, Ukraine); 16. Rossava (Myronivka distri

found in the burial chamber no. 46a, skeleton no. 4, together L=16.95; 1E2B3B4B5B.94
with a bow fibula (Werners Dnieper class), and an eagle- ... ,. . ... . . r ,
r 17. Sakhnivka (Kamv district, Ukraine); stray find; copper
headed buckle; copper-alloy; L=16.5; 1F2B3B4B5B.84 alloy fragment' 2A4B 95
7. Martynivka (Cherkasy district, Ukraine); found in a .0 .. „ . , „ . ...
' ^ ' ' 18. Smorodmo (Graivoron district, Russia); stray (burial?)
hoard, together with belt silver strapends and mounts, silver c , , . , , , , r. . , ,w,
° find, together with three other bow fibulae (two ot Werners
spectacle-shaped pendants, two bow fibulae (Werners Dnieper , lr „ . r , ... , ,
r r r r class 11 C, another ot class II D) and repousse copper-alloy
class), a silver chalice, a silver cup with control stamps, a silver pendants
plate, a silver spoon, silver tores with widened ends, ten anthro
pomorphic and zoomorphic mounts, two helmet cheek-pie- 19' Staasdo
ces, and sword scabbard fittings; gilt silver; L=17; 1E2B3A4
1D2A3C4A5B.85 20. Sudzha (Kursk district, Russia); found in a hoard,
8. Mazepyntsi (Vasyl'kiv district, Ukraine); copper-alloy; togeth" wlth 12 hat-shaped moun
1E2A3B4B5C 86 repousse copper-alloy pendants, four amber beads, and several
perforated belt mounts; 1C2B3D4B5B.98
9. Muzhinovo (Briansk district, Russia); stray find; copper
alloy 1E2D3C4B5B 87 21. Sudzha (Kursk district, Russia); found in a hoard,
together with 12 hat-shaped mounts, six silver strap-ends, 12
10. Nikadzimava (Mohileu district, Belarus); stray find;
repoussé copper-alloy pendants, four amber beads, and several
copper-alloy, fragment; 2A.88 perforated belt mounts; 1C2B3D4B5B."
11. Nyzhniaia Syrovatka (Sumy district, Ukraine); found in __ _ , „ . ,. . _ . . „ r ,
22. Suuk Su (Yalta district, Crimea, Ukraine); str
a hoard, together with 3 other bow fibulae (2 ofWerner's class ,, . .. . ,r,-r, ,,,,
& v copper-alloy; L=0.20; 1B2B3A4B5B.100
II C) and a repoussé copper-alloy pendant; 1D2A3B4B5B.89
23. Suuk Su (Yalta district, Crimea, U
12. Pápa (Tolna district, Hungary); stray find; copper-alloy, . , .... . . . . . , . , r,
r ' inhumation burial no. 87, together with another identical fib
fragment; L=9.6; 2C3B.90

Kada 1906, 221 and 220 fig.. - Müller 1935,114 and 115 fig. 1. Werner 1950, 160, pi. 38/19. - Gavritukhin, Oblomskii 1996,
-Werner 1950, 160 and pi. 37/11. - Csallany 1961, 231 and pi.228 fig. 49/9.
219/11.- Gavrttukhin, Oblomskii 1996,228, fig. 49/5. Korzukhina 1996,369 and 675 pi. 85/2.
Borovs'kyi 1984, 22 and fig. 2. Gorodcov 1914, 133 with fig. 60. - Rybakov 1953, 59 fig. 10/5.
Aibabin 1990, 22 and 196 fig. 17/3. - Aibabin, Khairedinova - Korzukhina 1996, 418 and 697, pi. 107/1. - Gavritukhin,
2009,130 and 134-135, pi. 117.9. Oblomskii 1996,228 fig. 49/6.
Aibabin 1990,23 and 198 fig. 19/2.-Werner 1999,135-136,138 Korzukhina 1996,409 and 674 pi. 84/3.
fig. 143. Korzukhina 1996,353 and 684 pi. 94/4. - Gavritukhin, Oblom
Sedov 1982, 24-25 and 25 fig. 4. - Prykhodniuk et al. 1991, fig. skii 1996,229 fig. 50/15. - Miskiewiczowa 1998,159 no. 312
4/6. - Pekarskaja, Kidd 1994, pi. 29/6. - Korzukhina 1996,361 Korzukhina 1996,369 and 675 pi. 85/5.
and 598 pi. 8/3. Korzukhina 1996,402 and 650 pi. 60/1.
Werner 1950,160 and pi. 38/16. - Korzukhina 1996,353 and 674 Beninger 1934, 95 and 93 fig. 46. - Werner 1950, 160 and pi.
pi. 84/1. - Gavritukhin, Oblomskii 1996,228 fig. 49/2. 38/15.

Shinakov 1995,103-104 and 83 fig. 1.- Gavritukhin, Oblomskii Rybakov 1949, 75-84, 76 fig. 30. - Rybakov 1953, 59 fig. 10/2.
1996,228 fig. 49/1. - Putsko 1997,149-153. - Korzukhina 1996,403 and 652 pi. 62/1.
Sedin 1994,128-132.-Sedin 1997,285 fig.2/6.-Sedin 2000,38 Rybakov 1949:75-84, 76 fig. 30. - Rybakov 1953,59 fig. 10/2. -
fig. 4/6. Korzukhina 1996,403 and 652 pi. 62/2.
Salin 1935, fig. 46. - Kalitinskii 1928, pi. 37/60.-Werner 1950, Repnikov 1906, pi. 7/9. - Rybakov 1953, 59 fig. 10/6. - Kor
160 and pi. 37/7. - Korzukhina 1996, 403 and 651 pi. 61/1. - zukhina 1996,424 and 703 pi. 113/1.
Gavritukhin, Oblomskii 1996,228 fig. 49/3.

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Neither Gothic, nor Slavic: Bow Fibulae of Werner's Class II B 69

ula, copper-alloy bracelets, and amber and glass beads; 34. Unknown location (Kiev district, Ukraine); copper
1A2C3B4B5A; Repnikov 1906, 25-26 and pi. 7/1.101 alloy, fragment; 2B3C.112

24. Suuk Su (Yalta district, Crimea, Ukraine); found in the 35. Unknown location (Oka region, Russia);
inhumation burial no. 87, together with another identical fib1D2A3B4B5B."3
ula, copper-alloy bracelets, and amber and glass beads;
36. Unknown location (Ukraine); copper-alloy; L=0.174;

25. Trubchevsk (Briansk district, Russia); found in a hoard,

37. Unknown location (Ukraine); copper alloy; L=0.139;
together with two identical brooches and other bow fibulae 1A2B3B4B5A."5
(two ofWerner's class II A, another ofWerner's class II D), sil
ver- and copper-alloy tores, repoussé copper-alloy pendants,
38. Unknown location (Vastmanland, Sweden); copper

and perforated strap ends and mounts; copper-alloy;alloy, fragment; 1A4B5A."6

1E2B3B4B5B.103 39. Zhurzhentsi (Kaniv district, Ukraine); stray find; cop

26. Trubchevsk (Briansk region, Russia); found in a hoard,

per-alloy; 1D2A3B4B5B.'17

together with two identical brooches and other bow fibulae 40. Zvonetskoe (Dnipropetrovs'ke district, Ukraine); stray
(two ofWerner's class II A, another ofWerner's class II D), sil find; copper-alloy; 1A2B3D4C5A.118
ver- and copper-alloy tores, repoussé copper-alloy pendants,
and perforated strap ends and mounts; copper-alloy; Literature
1E2B3B4B5B.104 ÁBERG 1919

27. Trubchevsk (Briansk region, Russia); found in a hoard, N. Aberg, Ostpreußen in der Völkerwanderungszeit, Uppsala/
together with two identical brooches and other bow fibulae Leipzig 1919,1-175.
(two ofWerner's class II A, another ofWerner's class II D), sil Afanas'ev 1979
ver- and copper-alloy tores, repoussé copper-alloy pendants, G. E. Afanas'ev, Khronologiia mogil'nika Mokraia Balka,
and perforated strap ends and mounts; copper-alloy; KSIAKiev 158,1979, 43-51.
Aibabin 1988
28. Ugly, in Staryi Oskol (Kursk district, Russia); found in
A. I. Aibabin, Khronologiia pal'chatykh i zoomorfnykh fibu
a hoard, together with an identical fibula, two copper-alloy belt
dneprovskogo tipa iz Kryma. In:V. D. Baran (ed.),Trudy
buckles, and perforated belt mounts; 1B2D3B4C5B.'06
Mezhdunarodnogo Kongressa arkheologov-slavistov, Kie
29. Ugly, in Staryi Oskol (Kursk district, Russia); found in 18-25 sentiabria 1985 g., Kiev 1988, 5—9.
a hoard, together with an identical fibula, two copper-alloy belt
Aibabin 1990
buckles, and perforated belt mounts; 1B2D3B4C5B.107
A. I. Aibabin, Khronologiia mogil'nikov Kryma pozdnerim
30. Unknown location (Cherkasy district, Ukraine); skogo i rannesrednevekovogo vremeni, MatATav 1, 199
1E2B3B4B5B.108 5-68.

31. Unknown location (Kiev district, Ukraine); Aibabin 1999

A. I. Aibabin, Etnicheskaia istoriia rannevizantiiskogo Krym
32. Unknown location (Kiev district, Ukraine); copper Simferopol 1999, 1—350.
alloy, fragment; 1E2B4B5C.110 Aibabin, Iorochkin 1995
33. Unknown location (Kiev district, Ukraine); copper
A. I. Aibabin,V. I. Iorochkin, Mogil'nik Baklinskii ovrag" (
alloy, fragment; 1C2B4B5B.111 materialam raskopok 1992—1993 g.). In: I. M. Mogariche

Rybakov 1953, 59 fig. 10/8. - Korzukhina 1996, 424 and Werner

702 pi. 1950,160 and pl. 37/14.
112/3. Korzukhina 1996,410 and 674 pl. 84/4.
Repnikov 1906, 25-26. - Korzukhina 1996, 424 and 702 pi. Korzukhina 1996,410 and 674 pl. 84/2.
112/4. Korzukhina 1996,410 and 675 pl. 85/3.
Prykhodniuk, Padin.Tikhonov 1996,79,81 fig. 2/1,82 fig. 3/1. Werner 1950,160 and pl. 37/9.
Prykhodniuk,Padin,Tikhonov 1996,79.84 fig. 5. Miskiewiczowa 1998, 125 no. 13.
Prykhodniuk, Padin.Tikhonov 1996,79,85 fig. 6. Miskiewiczowa 1998, 125 no. 15.
Korzukhina 1996,418 and 688 pi. 98/1. Áberg 1919,73 fig. 72.-Werner 1950, 160 and pl. 38/18.
Korzukhina 1996,418. Korzukhina 1996,368 and 675 pl. 85/1.
Kalitinskii 1928, pi. 37/58. - Werner 1950,160 and pi. 37/12. - Rybakov 1953, 59 flg. 10/9. - Berezovets' 1963, 199 and fig.
Korzukhina 1996,370 and 673 pi. 83/1. 25/2. - Korzukhina 1996,421 and 699 pl. 109/5.

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