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MM 309




Conduction is the transfer of energy from the more energetic particles of a

substance to the adjacent less energetic ones as a result of interaction between the
particles. Conduction in solid substances, it is due to combination of vibrations of
the molecules in a lattice and the energy transport by free electrons.

The rate of heat conduction through a medium depends on the geometry of

the medium, its thickness and the material of the medium, as well as temperature
difference across the medium. The conclude that the rate of heat conduction
through a plane layer is proportional to the temperature difference across the layer
and the heat transfer area, but is inversely proportional to the thickness of the layer.
That is

Q conduction = k A ∆ T ⁄ ∆ x

where the constant of proportionality k is the thermal conductivity of the material

which is measure of the ability of a material to conduct heat which is called
Fourier’s Law of conduction.


The coefficient of thermal conductivity has been defined as the quantity of heat
that will flow across unit area in unit time if the temperature gradient between the
two surfaces through which heat is flowing is unity.
Numerical values of k have been determined experimentally, by various
investigators. If a material is brass as a metal, k is determined by electrically
heating one end of a bar of the metal and cooling the other end with a stream of
water. The surface of the bar is insulated and the heat lost through the insulation is
accounted for. The rate of heat flow is measured and the temperatures of two points
along the bar, a known distance apart, are determined. Equation of the Fourier’s
law is then used to calculate the average conductivity for the given temperature

Determination of thermal conductivity constant :

In this experiment we apply tree different heat input as 5W, 10W, 15W. Then
we measure nine temperature at nine section which placed 10mm interval at each

Q T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9
5W 25.6 24.8 23.9 22.9 22.7 21.3 17.1 16.4 16.2
10W 35.2 33.3 31.3 30.4 29.8 27.5 16.1 16.0 15.8
15W 44.8 41.6 38.3 37.5 36.5 33.0 16.1 15.8 15.6
Temperature profiles along the length of the core



30 5W

20 15W

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

the length of brass sample =30mm =0.03m

the diameter of brass =25mm =0.025m
the heat conduction area =π D2⁄ 4 =π ( 0.025) 2⁄ 4= 4.908x10-
the interval length of each thermocouples =10mm =0.01m

The Fourier’s law application that heat input 5W;

Q = k A (T1 – T6) / ∆ x

5W = k ( 4.908x10-4m2) ( 25.6°C –21.3°C)/(0.06m – 0.01m)

k = 118.45 W/m°C
The Fourier’s law application that heat input 10W;

Q = k A (T1 – T6) / ∆ x

10W = k ( 4.908x10-4m2) ( 35.2°C –27.5°C)/(0.06m – 0.01m)

k = 132.3 W/m°C

The Fourier’s law application that heat input 15W;

Q = k A (T1 – T6) / ∆ x

15W = k ( 4.908x10-4m2) ( 44.8°C –33.0°C)/(0.06m – 0.01m)

k = 129.53 W/m°C