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SALTS

PREPARATION OF SALTS
• THE MEANING OF SALTS - To write the meaning of salts and the formulae for all types of
salt that are commonly found in this topic.
• THE SOLUBILITY OF SALTS - To determine the solubility of all types of salt that
are given the formulae.
• EXPERIMENTS FOR THE - to determine the suitable methods for the
PREPARATION OF SALTS BASED ON preparation of salts based on solubility :
i. Acid + alkali
SOLUBILITY
ii. Acid + metal oxides
iii. Acid + metal carbonate
iv. Acid + metal
v. Double decomposition reaction
- To describe the experiments for each method
of preparation and explain the rationale for
each step.

IDENTIFICATION OF IONS [ QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS ]


- To state the color of the residue of lead(II) oxide, zinc oxide and
copper(II) oxide.
• THERMAL - To state the confirmatory tests for CO2 and NO2
- To write the decomposition equations for all carbonate and nitrate salts.
EFFECT
- To state the confirmatory tests for all cations using sodium
ON SALTS hydroxide and ammonia solution.
- To state the conformatory tests to differentiate Al3+ and Pb2+
- To state the confirmatory tests for anions of sulphate, nitrate ,
• CONFIRMATORY carbonate and chloride.
TESTS FOR CATIONS
CALCULATION OF MATERIALS QUANTITY
AND ANIONS
[ QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS ]
- To describe the methods of experiment
to determine the formulae of insoluble
• CONTINUOUS VARIATIONS salts.
- Using the formula:
METHODS i. n = MV
1000
ii. Mole = Mass
RAM/RMM/RFM
iii. The molar volume of gas at
• SOLVING VARIOUS PROBLEMS room temperature and s.t.p
Salts
RELATING TO MATERIALS QUANTITY
IN A.
SOLID, of salts AND GAS FORMS .
LIQUID
Preparation
B. Identification of ions (Qualitative Analysis)
C. Calculation involving mass of materials/volume of gas which reacted or
produced. (Qualitative Analysis)
A. Preparation of salts
Meaning : -Salts are ionic compounds produced when hydrogen ion from acid is replaced with metal
ion including ammonium ion.
- Salts are ionic compounds which are produced when acid reacts with alkali.

1. Example: Sodium chloride, copper (II) sulphate, potassium nitrate, etc.


2. Activity 1: Write down the chemical formula of salts:

Metal
ion Sulphate salt Chloride salt Nitrate salt Carbonate salt
(H2SO4) (HCl) (HNO3) (H2CO3)
Na+
K+
Mg2+
Ca2+
Al3+
Zn2+
Fe2+
Pb2+
Cu2+
Ag+
NH4+
Ba2+
Table 1
Solubility of salt
• All K+, Na+ and NH4+ salts are soluble
• All nitrate salts are soluble.
• All carbonate salts are insoluble except K2CO3, Na2CO3 and (NH4)2CO3.
• All sulphate salts are soluble except CaSO4, PbSO4 and BaSO4.
• All chloride salts are soluble except PbCl2 and AgCl
Activity 2: *Shade the insoluble salts in table 1.
Attention:
All metal oxides and hydroxides are insoluble in water except Na2O, K2O, NaOH and KOH .
(Barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide are slightly soluble in water)
5. The preparation of salt depends on its solubility
Preparation of salt
Method III
.

Method I Soluble Method II Insoluble


Double decomposition reaction (Precipitation)

K+, Na+, NH4+ Other than • Mix two solutions containing


K+, Na+, NH4+ salt cations and anions of insoluble
salts
Acid + Alkali  Salt + H2O • Stir with glass rod
• Filter using filter funnel
• Acid + base oxide  salt + water (Neutralisation Reaction) • Rinse the residue with distilled
Titration of acid and
alkali method using an • Acid + metal  Salt + hydrogen water
indicator • Acid + metal carbonate  Salt + water + carbon dioxide • Dry the residue with filter paper

Add acid to the alkali until it is neutral with • Add base oxide fillings/metal/excessive metal carbonate
the aid of an indicator. to the acid and heat it.
• Repeat the procedure without using • Filter to remove excess solid (residue)
an indicator

• Evaporate the filtrated until it becomes a saturated solution


• Dip in a glass rod, if crystals are formed immediately, the
solution is saturated.
• Cooled at room temperature
• Filter and dry by using filter paper
6. Activity 4: Without referring to table 1, write “ S “ for soluble salts and “ IS “ for insoluble
salts. Write all the possible chemical equations to prepare soluble salts and 2 chemical
equations for insoluble salts.

S/ Chemical equations
Salt NS
Zinc chloride

Sodium
nitrate

Silver
chloride

Copper(II)
Sulphate

Lead
Sulphate

Aluminium
nitrate

Lead(II)
Chloride

Magnesium
nitrate

Potassium
Chloride

Lead(II)
nitrate

Barium
sulphate

B. Identification of ions (Qualitative Analysis)


The qualitative analysis involves three important steps:
I. Physical properties
II. Thermal effect
III. Confirmatory tests for cations and anions

I. Physical properties
a). Physical state
• solid  ionic compound
• liquid/gas covalent compound
• aqueous solution  soluble salt
b). Colour

Solid Aqueous Salts/Metal oxide


White Colourless K+,Na+,Ca2+,Mg2+,Al3+,Zn2+,Pb2+,N
H4+
Green Insoluble CuCO3
Light green Light Green Fe2+,example:FeSO4 ,FeCl2
,Fe(NO3)2
Blue Blue CuSO4,Cu(NO3)2 and CuCl2
Brown Brown Fe3+
Black Insoluble CuO
Yellow when hot Insoluble ZnO
White when cold
Brown when hot Insoluble PbO
Yellow when cold
II. Thermal effect

a). Salt metal oxide + gas


(residue identification (gas identification
refers to specific cation refers to anion)
only)

b).
Gas Test/Observation Anion
NO2 Brown fumes NO3-
O2 Colourless gas, rekindles glowing NO3-
wood splint
CO2 Lime water turns chalky CO32 -

c). Thermal effect on nitrate and carbonate metals. Write down the chemical equations for the reactions
that occur.

Cation Nitrate (NO3- ) Carbonate (CO32 - )


Decompose into O2 gas and metal nitrite Is not decomposed by heat
K+

Na+

Decompose into metal oxide ,NO2 and O2 Decompose into metal oxide and CO2
2+
Ca

Mg2+

Al3+

Zn2+

Fe2+/
Fe3+
Pb2+

Cu2+

• Sulphate salts usually do not decompose


• Chloride salts do not decompose except NH4Cl

NH4Cl(s) NH3 (g) + HCl(g) [ sublimation ]