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1.0 INTRODUCTION 5
2.0 OBJECTIVES 6
3.0 WORK DETAILS 6
4.0 INSTRUMENTS 7
5.0 METHODOLOGY 7
6.0 PROCEDURES 8
7.0 ANALYSIS 9
8.0 CONCLUSION 10
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1.0 INTRODUCTION 12
2.0 OBJECTIVES 14
3.0 WORK DETAILS 14
4.0 INSTRUMENTS 15
5.0 METHODOLOGY 16
6.0 PROCEDURES 17
7.0 RESULTS 25
8.0 ANALYSIS 30
9.0 DISCUSSIONS & PROBLEMS 33
10.0 CONCLUSION 34
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1.0 INTRODUCTION 36
2.0 OBJECTIVES 38
3.0 WORK DETAILS 38
4.0 INSTRUMENTS 39
5.0 METHODOLOGY 40
6.0 PROCEDURES 41
7.0 RESULTS 51
8.0 ANALYSIS 57
9.0 DISCUSSIONS & PROBLEMS 59
10.0 CONCLUSION 60

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Assalamualaikum w.b.t

Firstly, all praise to Allah, the Almighty, and the Benevolent for His blessings by helping
us to finish the field works, the labs, and the reports of the three labs that we have done. This
report is due to the subject Satellite Surveying II.

We would like to thank to our lecturer, Dr. Tajul Ariffin Bin Musa, for providing us a lot
of information on how to do this labs and reports. Special thanks also to GPS teaching assistants,
Mr. Amir Sharifuddin, Ms. Wan Anom, Ms. Suryati, Ms. Hidayah, Ms. Fazlina and Mr. Yaakub
for their willing to help us to do the field works, labs to process by using Trimble Total Control
and Surfer8 Software.

Besides that, we would like to thanks to our friends for their cooperation and sharing the
information about this field works and labs. We really appreciated their valuable concern
towards us.

Last but not least, thanks to all for their supports. Hopefully, this field works, labs and
report can be useful for us and others for now and in future especially in Geomatic Engineering
study.

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The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite navigation system developed and
maintained by the U.S. government. Initially designed for military applications, civilian users
have found numerous applications using GPS.  !m m "#$ are start from Radio signals are
sent from orbiting satellites to earth and then GPS receivers on the ground can collect and
convert the radio signals into position, velocity, and time information. Some GPS receivers have
the ability to store attribute information in addition to position information. Examples of attribute
information are the condition of a street sign, the name of a road, or the condition of a fire
hydrant. Position and attribute information can be stored in a Geographic Information System
(GIS) to help users manage their assets more efficiently.

Navigation solution is one of the GPS positioning techniques that give position of the
user in a real time. Main measurement of this technique is code measurement because code can
straight away gives range with using code based receiver. In this case, handheld GPS receiver is
the equipment used as code measurement. Real Time Kinematic (RTK) technique needs a base
station as initialization before the job start. Base station is used to fix ambiguity. At least 4
satellites needed in order to fix that ambiguity. RTK technique is almost similar with kinematic
but the difference is in add-on equipment which is radio link. Base station then send the
correction to the rover via radio link.

Geocaching is a new treasure hunting game. Armed with a Global Positioning System
(GPS) device and coordinates, you can locate treasures that others have stashed in unusual
places. On Geocaching.com you can find the latest stashes in your area, how to hide your own
stash, and information on how to get started in this fun. Geocaching is a recreational new sport in
which a person/persons hide a container known as a "Cache" using a GPS to read it's placed
coordinates In Geocahcing Game, the task is to find a coin that has been buried using code base
and carrier phase solution.

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˜m To expose the student about the difference procedures of carrier phase measurement and
code phase measurement.
˜m To introduce students with RTK equipment and the procedures to determine point
position by using the Garmin Handheld and RTK receiver.

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Location: Helipad (G11)

Date: 6th and 13th August 2009

Time: 3:00pm

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There are two types of instruments that have been used in this Geocahe Game which are:
1)m Code Base Receiver (Handheld Garmin) ± 1
2)m Carrier Phase Based Receiver with RTK System (Unistrong) ± 2
3)m Controller Unistrong ± 2
4)m Tripod ± 1

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˜m The coordinate of the coin been set up in Handheld GPS receiver.


(03°10¶20.7´N, 101°43¶18.1´)
˜m Select the navigation mode in handheld to get to the point coordinate of the coin that have
been set up.

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˜m Set the base station coordinate (Helipad, G11 ) into RTK system equipment (known
point)m
˜m This system is connected with ISKANDAR1 using radio link communicationm
˜m Rover equipment been set up with refer to base station (G11)m
˜m The coordinate of the coin is set up into Rover equipmentm
˜m Moved the rover with refer to the coordinate that has been sent by base station until we
reach the coordinate of the coin.m

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1.m GPS handheld been used in the first field work.


2.m Key in the coordinate of the coin that have to be found
3.m This handheld will guide the user about their position and the direction of the coin
according to the waypoint displayed.
4.m This Handheld cannot give the accurate position of the coin but it just give the radius of
the position
5.m The RTK method is used to get the accurate coin position
6.m GPS receiver been set up at base station (helipad) which is near the coin area
7.m Cable is used to connect the controller and the receiver, and the coordinate of the base
station is set up.
8.m Another GPS receiver is used as the rover one. The controller and receiver is connected
using Bluetooth function. Base station and the rover is connected with radio link
communication.
9.m Set up the coordinate of the coin into the controller of the rover equipment.
10.mInitialization process has to be done to fix the ambiguity before the process of finding the
position of the coin.
11.mThe rover equipment is moved according to the direction of the coin coordinate.
Controller and receiver move together to avoid the loss of connection between these two
devices.
12.mDetermined the coin position and find it.

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Handheld receiver cannot give us the right position of the coin. So, we cannot find the
coin. It is because; the handheld is single receiver that used code phase measurement. Code
phase measurement is one processing technique that gathers data via a C/A (coarse acquisition)
code receiver, which uses the information contained in the satellite signals (pseudo-random
code) to calculate positions. This processing technique results is in 1-5 meter accuracy. It can
give the coordinate in real-time but the coordinate using RTK solution is better. Besides that, the
accuracy of the handheld Garmin equipment is 5m so it will give the position in the radius of 5
meter.

RTK is using carrier phase which is another processing technique that gathers data via a
carrier phase receiver, which uses the radio signal (carrier signal) to calculate positions. The
carrier signal, which has a much higher frequency than the pseudo-random code, is more
accurate than using the pseudo-random code alone. The pseudo-random code narrows the
reference then the carrier code narrows the reference even more. After differential correction,
this processing technique results in sub-meter accuracy

Base station calculates the differences between its known coordinates with the coordinate
given by GPS at that time. Then it will send the corrected coordinate to rover equipment. But
base station has to be initialized first to fix ambiguity before the process of finding the coin is
started. At least four satellites needed in order to fix the ambiguity.

Despite the advantages of RTK, it also has its own disadvantages. RTK the rover set
cannot be moved very far from the base station to make sure it gets the reliable solution. It is
because, if the rover is far from the base station, distance dependent error occurred and error will
become larger. The radio link is also cannot go up to 100km because the radio link needs ³line of
sight´.

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The geocahcing game is a GPS game that makes us more understand on the GPS
surveying. In this game, we have learned more about the concept and the work of navigation
solution by using the Garmin handheld. While by using the RTK receivers, we have learned
more about the concept and how the RTK surveying work on real-time. We also learn the
advantages of using the RTK surveying such as the surveying works can be done faster, use less
man power thus can reduce the operation cost, can have the point coordinates almost in real-time
and many more.

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Due to this task requirement, we have to do GPS observation in order to get the data to be
computed. We managed to complete the job without any major problem. On the other hand, all
the minor problems have been overcome through discussion.

In this computation, we used Trimble Total Control as the software to process the data.
Trimble Total Control provides exceptional geodetic control capability plus powerful processing
and tools to enable large data sets to be processed extremely quickly with extensive analysis and
reporting. It is ideally suited to handling large GPS networks and long baselines. Trimble Total
Control also was designed for fully automated baseline calculation, achieving relative accuracies
of 1 ppm and better depending on ephemeris accuracy. The Static Baseline Estimator performs
carrier phase data reduction in two steps:

1. Double difference floats solution

2. Double difference fixed solution

But, in this assignment we only focus on double difference fixed solution. In double
difference fixed solution, it used to derive optimum phase ambiguities from the float solution a
time optimized search technique is applied for the solution with the smallest sum of squares
residual error. Statistical testing is used to verify the correctness of the ambiguity resolution. The
ability for a fixed ambiguity solution is limited by the required minimum ratio of variances for
the Fisher test. Trimble Total Control uses by default a value of 1.8 for static processing. If the
frequency is set to Lc > [x] km, the software will provide 5 different fixed solutions which are:

˜m L1, L2, Lw, Ln, Lc

If the frequency setting is L1 only or L2 only, the baseline estimator will only use L1 or
L2 data and accordingly generate only one fixed baseline solution. Besides that, the results
obtained from processing GPS observations are baseline vectors (relative coordinates) based on
the World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS84). These coordinates are three-dimensional
Cartesian coordinates, which are defined in an Earth centered, Earth fixed frame.

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Here, the baselines and terrestrial measurements are the only observations. No control
points are needed to adjust the network. Because no control points or datum restrictions are
imposed on the network, the inner accuracy of the measured baseline network is determined.
Therefore, this adjustment is called free or unbiased. A baseline or terrestrial measurement
contains only information about the relative position of two points. Because these are the only
observations, which enter the adjustment, the absolute position in space of the adjusted network
cannot be determined by the adjustment procedure. Therefore, after the adjustment, one point is
chosen as a reference point and the network is shifted onto this reference point. This reference
point is the first point in the point list.

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Here, baselines, terrestrial measurements and control points in WGS84 are added as
observations to the adjustment. Adjusted baselines, terrestrial measurements and adjusted
absolute point coordinates are calculated.

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˜m To improve the knowledge on GPS observation planning, technique of observations and


field procedures.
˜m To enhance our knowledge about GPS data processing and how to do the control network
in GPS surveying.
˜m To determine the coordinate of a control point to be a base station for the next lab which
is Topo Mapping.

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Location: Padang Kawad UTM

Date: 10th September 2009

Time: 4pm ± 6pm

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GPS receiver Unistrong E650R Controller Unistrong E650R

Tripod

˜m Ground Plane
˜m Tribrach
˜m Hammer
˜m Nail

(2(m" )'$$,+1m

Total Trimble Control Software

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˜m Static (mode) GPS surveying technique.


˜m Two (2) sessions, A and B. The duration of each session is 1 hours.
˜m Session A from 4 pm to 5 pm.
˜m Switch-off receiver.
˜m Switch-on receiver, and start session B from 5 pm to 6 pm.

': "'m5(#,+1m2*'m 8$'"0(2, +;m!'m+''&m2 7m


˜m Make a mission planning.
˜m Set the observation date.
˜m Reserve the transportation on the observation day.
˜m Reserve two (2) units of dual frequency GPS receivers on the observation day.
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,m IskandarNET 1 (ISK1) in UTM


&,m IskandarNET 2 (ISK2) in Kolej Komuniti Johor
,m IskandarNET 3 (ISK3) in Tanjung Pelepas
',m Atomic Control Point (ATM1) at Padang Kawad UTM

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˜m The quality of measurement for the coordinate is should be less than 5cm (standard
deviation of coordinates < 5cm)m
˜m If the standard deviation of the coordinates are less than 5cm, so it will be accepted and
vice versa.m

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Base Setup

1.m Set up the receiver at Atomic control point (Padang Kawad UTM).
2.m Connection between the receiver and the controller was set up and they are connected by
bluetooth.
3.m Start the static survey for one hour for the first session.
4.m After one hour, stop the survey and start again the survey for second session with the
same setting for another one hour.
5.m Then, download the data that have been collected by the receiver then process the control
network by using Trimble Total Control Software.

Steps to Use Controller Unistrong E650R

Step 1

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Step 2
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Note: For session 2 we just stop the survey and continue it again. No need to configure the
device.

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Procedure to use Total Trimble Control Software to establish the control network and determine
the coordinate of Atomic Point (ATM1).

1.m Locate all Rinex data for Iska 1, Iska 2,Iska 3 and Atm1 in one folder to make the data
processing easier.
2.m Open software Total Trimble Control.

3.m Total Trimble Control was set up by using RSO of Malaysia and EGM 96 format.

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4.m Next, import three Iska data for session 1 to form the baseline.

5.m Click to add to Project and set the antenna type to micro-centered L1/L2 permanent and
click OK.

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6.m The figure of the baseline will appear.

7.m Then, fix the known point by:

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Note: for one session, we just get two independence baselines only which are baselines ISK1 to
ISK2 and ISK1 to ISK3. So, we must disable baseline ISK2 to ISK3 and insert the data of
session 2 to create baseline ISK2 to ISK3.

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8.m Add Iska data to project for session 2 (ISK2 and ISK3 only).

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9.m Set up the parameter before process the baselines.

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10.mProcess baseline one by one for baseline ISK1 to ISK2 and ISK1 to ISK3.

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/mm m- 21 m1m1 8m

11.mTo process baseline ISK2 to ISK3, we must fix ISK2 first and step 7 to step 10 is
repeated.

12.mIf processing baseline is not passing (yellow baseline appears). We must adjust the
baseline by following step below.

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m15 17m/1 m 221 m6 m18m. 1592m

13.mDoing loop closure for checking misclosure then click report to see the value of
Misclosure Vector Length.

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14.mNext, do the adjustment network by click on the 3D Adjustment then select Type of
adjustment is Free. Before that, we have to unfix the ISK2 Station. After that, fix the
ISK2 Station back then do the 3D Adjustment again by select the Biased Adjustment.

15.mThen, click on the report button to see the report of that adjustment. From the report, we
can see the quality of the network control.

16.mAfter that, repeat the step 4 to step 15 to make a control network that include of the
Atomic Point (ATM1) and from the Adjustment report, we can get the coordinate of the
point in the Biased Adjustment report.

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Below shows the results of Loop Closure which is the Misclosure Vector Length = 5.05cm

Total Length 97953.8130m


North 0.0050m
East -0.0140m
Height -0.0480m
Misclosure Vector Length 0.0505m
Precision 0.515 ppm
Ratio 1 / 1940351

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/53m
ISK1 ISK2 23742.9146m 8791.0435m 2691.8196m -21890.5837m -8.2787m
ISK2 ISK3 42598.6900m -38737.5652m -9852.0678m 14730.4512m -6.8856m
ISK3 ISK1 31612.2084m 29946.5465m 7160.2043m 7160.1361m 15.1160m
'$.62m 97953.8130m 0.0248m -0.0438m 0.0036m -0.0480m
,5,2m 0.0346m 0.0346m 0.0346m 0.0346m

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±m Adjusted Point in WGS84:

 ,+2m (2,2.&'m/3m ?m/553m  +1,2.&'m/3m ?m/553m ',1*2m/53m ?m/553m


 m 1° 33' 36.39550'' 0.0mm 103° 38' 08.89020'' 0.0mm 61.5760m 0.0mm
m 1° 21' 43.48336'' 0.0mm 103° 33' 12.00323'' 0.0mm 53.3160m 0.0mm
 m 1° 29' 43.21491'' 16.1mm 103° 54' 44.96743'' 18.7mm 46.4696m 23.5mm

m 1° 33' 08.76268'' 12.9mm 103° 38' 36.51558'' 14.6mm 17.3341m 21.1mm

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±m BIASED Network Adjustment

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±m FREE Network Adjustment

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Coordinate of Atomic Point (ATM1) at Padang Kawad UTM is:

Latitude = 1º 33 08.76268 N
Longitude = 103º 38 36.51558 E
Height (orthometric) = 17.3341m

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m
±m The figure above shows the network of three stations which is IskandarNET1,
ISkandarNET2 and IskandarNET3. For this observation, it divided into 2 sessions,
session A and session B. For session A, we fixed station IskandarNET1 as control station
and the station IskandarNET2 is fixed as control station for session B.
±m There are 2 sessions needed in processing this control network because we want to make
sure the baselines that we process is not dependent to each other. So, in this procedure,
the baselines that we have processed are independent.m

m
±m The white baseline showed that we have disabled that baseline in order to process the
baseline ATM1 ± ISK1, ATM1 ± ISK2 and ISK1 ± ISK2 to be independence baselines.m
±m The green colour of all baselines means that the baselines are acceptable.m

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±m The residual plots represented of the observation residuals for each satellite used in the
baseline solution. It indicated the quality of data received from each satellite. The plot
also shows the residuals for each satellite for each measurement cycle. m
±m Noisy satellites may affect data coming from other satellites. The lines on the graph
should be centered at zero. The amount of noise in the solution is indicated by how far
the plot varies from zero. m

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±m For the 3D Network Adjustment, the results obtained from processing GPS observations
are baseline vectors (relative coordinates) based on the World Geodetic System of 1984
(WGS84).
±m These coordinates are three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates, which are defined in an
Earth centered Earth fixed frame. With this adjustment Cartesian point coordinates in
WGS84 are calculated from baseline observations and, if any from terrestrial
measurements and control points in WGS84.

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±m There are 2 types of adjustment which as below:
1.m Biased : 3D adjustment in WGS84 system, constraints by control points
2.m Free : Free 3D adjustment in WGS84 system, no constraints

m
±m The coordinate value of Atomic Point (ATM1) at Padang Kawad UTM is determined in
the control network processing. The result can be seen in the 3D Biased Network
Adjustment as in the figure above.

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1º 33 08.76268 N 12.9mm 103º 38 36.51558 E 14.6mm 17.3341m 21.1mm

±m In this result, the quality of measurement of the coordinates also can be seen. The
standard deviation values of each coordinate showed the quality of the measurement.
±m This coordinates and height value are accepted as the qualities of measurements are
below than 5cm.

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˜m In order to understand well on how to conduct the processing the data, we decided to
make an appointment with Ms. Wan Anom. All the error that occurred during the
processing will be overcome together.
˜m Mr. Leong and Ms. Su also helped us during the downloading data from the receiver to
the computer. In addition, we also learned how to convert the data in the form of RINEX
files.
˜m During the day of our observation, the weather is in good condition.
˜m There are minor problems that occurred during the processing. In the right order to input
the data, we should input them one by one. Unfortunately, our data cannot do as follows.
We must select all the data to add them to the project.
˜m Besides that, our data cannot be converting through TTC software. So we used
RnxTransform software to convert the data to RINEX files.
˜m The carrier phase used for our GPS processing is L1. L1 has wavelength of 19.03cm and
frequency of 1575.42 MHz. The reason for choosing L1 is that it has a short wavelength
and it is suitable for short baselines.
˜m We used Saastamoinen model. The model compensates errors that are introduced when
the signals pass through the troposphere. The amount of correction varies with respect to
the satellite elevation. Saastamoinen is ideal for receiver with elevation cutoff of 15
degree.
˜m For the residuals graphical, all above plot shows the residuals for each satellite for each
measurement cycle. Noisy satellites may affect data coming from other satellites. The
lines on the graph should be centered at zero. The amount of noise in the solution is
indicated by how far the plot varies from zero. Through experience, we limit the residuals
to not greater than +- 0.02m.

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After tough days trying to finish up all the observation, computation and this report, at
last I have come to the final part of this report. I totally admit that this processing is really
challenging especially when it comes to the processing part. This is due to the requirement of
using Trimble Total Control as the software to solve the network observation.

Through this GPS observation, we have been exposed to GPS observation using the static
observation positioning techniques, GPS signal processing & report writing. Besides, we also
have learned details on concerning the GPS (carrier-phase) relative positioning, GPS error
sources, and relevant processing aspects such as parameter estimation. Proper planning of the
observation is important for example to reserve the transportation for the observation day,
reserve and check for the GPS instruments, refer the GPS almanac that tells us about the number
of satellites, DOP¶s and satellite coverage in the sky. Besides that, mission planning can makes
our job easier and faster. After I have done this assignment, my ability to plan work, use time
effectively and meet deadlines has been improved. Moreover, team work is very important, as
we able to work in a team and liaises at all levels. We finally can complete our mission
successfully. Our communication skills also have been improved.

Overall, this tough assignment is really helpful especially when it requires the students to
their own report. A little bit of force may push the students to do some effort for their own sake.
Without realize that this assignment also bring a lot of input to the students.

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Real Time Kinematic (RTK) Concept

The use of reference station networks has become the ubiquitous solution for high
precision satellite positioning applications. The main systematic errors affecting the RTK rover
performance are multipath, atmospheric and ephemeris errors. Whereas single base RTK is
limited with respect to the distance between reference and rover the network RTK approach
offers the possibility to increase the coverage area. It ideally leads to a situation in which the
positioning error is independent of the rover position in the area of the network.

One technique proven in production systems for network RTK is the Virtual Reference
Station (VRS) paradigm. It calculates network corrections for systematic errors based on real-
time data from all reference stations, and simulating a local reference station for the user. Thus,
the errors cancel out better than by using a more distant reference station.

One major effect from the application of VRS can be seen as a significant reduction of
the temporal correlation of the ionospheric residual errors. Autocorrelation functions respective
the autocorrelation time constants show this clearly. Improvements for multipath, tropospheric
delay and ephemeris errors are achieved by VRS techniques, too. Taking the changes in the error
characteristics into account, RTK systems could benefit even more from the use of reference
station networks.

GPS Heighting Concept

Nowadays the GPS technology is widely used for many kinds of geodetic surveys, for
various purposes. It is possible to reach millimeter horizontal relative accuracy levels over tens,
or even hundreds of kilometers. However, from well-known reasons, the vertical GPS accuracy

m
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is not so easily obtained - baseline vertical component is more sensitive to many influencing
factors than the horizontal components, especially in mountain areas with considerable height
differences between stations, and therefore the achievement of planned accuracy is more
problematic, and often time consuming.

The heights determined by GPS are related to the WGS-84 ellipsoid, while levelling
heights (orthometric height) are related to given vertical datum, which is defined physically.
Limiting for GPS absolute height accuracy is the exact knowledge of the local (quasi) geoid.
Relative GPS heighting is influenced also by many factors. Reduced scheme of observation in
triplets may be used to mitigate some periodical noise components in measured height
differences. The scheme was practically tested in the campaign focused on determination of the
quasigeoidal section from the differences of GPS and levelling heights. Further the scheme was
applied by measurements of levelling sections in Sněžník network. Relative GPS height
differences were measured effectively and with improved accuracy here.

m
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˜m To expose the students about the uses of RTK surveying technique in GPS surveying.

˜m To collect the topography data in area of Padang Kawad UTM to do the topography

mapping.

˜m To produce a topography map that consist of the topography surface and the contours.

m  mmm
m

Location: Padang Kawad UTM

Date: 10th September 2009

Time: 4pm ± 6pm

(m
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2 GPS receivers Unistrong E650R 2 Controllers Unistrong E650R 2 Rods

1 Tripod 1 Cable 2 Antennas

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8$'"0(2, +m')*+,-.'$7mm

˜m Static (mode) and RTK rover GPS surveying technique.


˜m 1 receiver as base station at Atomic Point (Padang Kawad UTM).
˜m 1 receiver as rover that collect data of topography.
˜m Both receivers are communicating using a radio link.

': "'m5(#,+1m2*'m 8$'"0(2, +;m!'m+''&m2 7m


˜m Make a mission planning.
˜m Set the observation date and time.
˜m Reserve the transportation on the observation day.
˜m Reserve two (2) units of dual frequency GPS receivers on the observation day.

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Base Setup

1m Set up base station at Atomic control point (Padang Kawad UTM).


2m Set up also the antenna of the radio link at the both receivers (base and rover RTK).
3.m Key in known coordinate of that point (Padang Kawad).
4.m Connection between devices was set up.
5.m When all the conection was success,we can start to collect data (topographic data) using
rover RTK.
6.m Make sure the ambiguity solution is fixed and not a float solution.This is because the
ambiguity was not solve,thus the position is out when there are float solution.
7.m When doing the rover surveying, make sure the PDA and the rover are not too far away
because conection can be loss.(we used a bluetooth connection)
8.m Avoid shady or obstruction area because this may cause loss of sattelite signal.
9.m Download all the data that have been collected by the rover and used Filter software to
download the rover data.Then the data was processed using Microoft Excel, TTC and
Surfer Software.

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Steps to Use Controller Unistrong E650R (Base Station)

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Steps to Use Controller Unistrong E650R (Rover Station)

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"9.6 m " 9m



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2'@mm

*To check data was store or not, go to "9.6 m

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*To check GPS status, go to 

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Using Microsoft Excel and TTC:

1.m After downloading process was performed, we obtain the data of the coordinate system in
geographical coordinate. The coordinate need to transform to RSO coordinate in order to use
in suffer software.
2.m The data was opened in Microsoft excel.

3.m The coordinate which is in decimal point was changed in degree, minute and second by using
a converter.

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4.m The changed coordinate which is already in degree, minute and second was key in intoTTC
software in order to convert the coordinate from WGS to RSO.

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9.mm


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Using the SURFER Software

1.m SURFER software was used to generate the topographical surface and contour.
2.m


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3.m Next, minimize the worksheet and maximize the plot document.
4.m Go to Grid > Data and open the topo data to set up the Data Column, Gridding Method and
the Output Grid File. We use Kriging method as the Gridding Method.

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5.m To display the topographic surface, go to Map and click Surface then the graphic will appear.

.1 m-
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6.m To display the contour, go to Map and click Contour Map.

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7.m Select all data then overlay the topographic surface with the contour.

7 .m
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8.m Our final result which we combined the topographic surface with the contour is shown as below in
Surfer Software:

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7.1 All RAW data from Rover RTK receiver will be transfer to Microsoft Excel and the result is we get the coordinate of all points
that we have collected from the survey. The coordinates are given in Geographical coordinate (Lat, Long, h) and in Cartesian
coordinate (X, Y, h). There are also consist of Horizontal RMS, Vertical RMS, DOP, number of satellites, GPS week and GPS
time in second of week for every points.

M  
     
  
m
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  Ã  Ã            M     
Fm ,**&'(&'m ,''++m ,((+m (&,*&m F+'(,(+m ,((*(m ,*&'*m ,'m ,(m +m **&m &'+m &&m
&Fm ,****+m ,'&*m ,(((m (&*,&*(m F+',m ,(&**m ,*'m ,+m &,m m **&m &*&m &+m
Fm ,***(m ,'&((m ,*+(*m (&&,+('m F+',**m ,*+*+'&m ,*'+(+m m ,+m m **&m &*m *+m
'Fm ,**'(&m ,'&'((m ,'('*m (&,*'m F+''',m ,'(''&m ,*'&*+m m &,m m **&m &*+*m *+m
*Fm ,***+(m ,'&'''m (,'*+*m (&',*'+m F+'&,(&m (,'*+&m ,&*+++*m ,*'m &,+m *m **&m &*&*m &&m
Fm ,**'+&m ,'&*'m (,&*+m (&*,(('m F+*,('+m (,&*&+m ,+&&+m ,+m &,m m **&m &*+m &&m
Fm ,**(&m ,'(''m (,('m (&*,'*+m F+*(,m (,(*'m ,*m m &,m *m **&m &**m *+m
(Fm ,**'&&m ,'+m &,'*m (&&&,&m F+*&&,m &,'+&&&m ,*+(m ,&m &,m m **&m &*'m &&m
+Fm ,**'&(&m ,'&+'m &,+**(m (&&,'&m F+'+,m &,+*'+('(m ,&'(m ,'m ,+m (m **&m &**&m &&m
Fm ,**+&+m ,'&'*&m &,+*&*m (&(+,&'&m F+'',*m &,+'+m ,++*m ,*(m ,(m +m **&m &***(m &&m
Fm ,**(*&+(m ,'&(m &,(*m (&(,(m F+',+((m &,('m ,+((m ,&m ,(m +m **&m &**+(m &&m
&Fm ,**+(+m ,'+m +,(&++m (&,**m F+++,+(m +,(&*m ,(*+&*m ,&'m &,m m **&m &*++m &+m
Fm ,**'*''('m ,'&++&m &,+m (&&,*m F+'&,(('m &,*(*m ,*+m ,m &,m m **&m &*(m &+m
'Fm ,**''m ,'&''m &&,&&+'m (&&',&+m F+','m &&,&&m ,&'+(m m ,+m m **&m &*(*+m *+m
*Fm ,**'&'&'m ,'&'**m &&,*+(*m (&&&,(*+m F+',+&m &&,*+*+'m ,''m ,m &,'m *m **&m &*+'m &+m
Fm ,**'''&m ,'&*m &&,''('(m (&&','*m F+*,*(m &&,''*m ,('('m m &,m m **&m &&m *+m
Fm ,**''**+m ,'+(m &,*+++m (&&',&m F+*&,m &,*+'m ,(&m m ,(m m **&m &m *+m
(Fm ,**''++(&*m ,'&++m &,&'*m (&&*,'*+m F+*(,+m &,&'+&&&m ,&*&+'+m ,'*'m &,'m m **&m &+m &&m

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+Fm ,**'*(m ,'&&***m &,'*&*m (&&,'m F+'(+,&'*m &,'*m ,'((m m &,m m **&m &&'+m *+m
&Fm ,**'+(m ,'&'m &,*+*m (&&',(&&m F+'(,('m &,*+'(m ,*'m ,(m ,+m (m **&m &m &&m
&Fm ,**'&+'m ,'&'*m &&,++*&*m (&&&+,'++m F+',m &&,++*&+m ,'''m m &,+m *m **&m &'&(m *+m
&&Fm ,**'&*m ,'&(m &&,(+('*m (&&&,((m F+'&,(+*m &&,(+(''m ,**+(m m ,m m **&m &(m *+m
&Fm ,**'&'+''m ,'&++*m &&,(&'(m (&&&,+'(m F+'&,(m &&,(&&*'m ,&'+(*m ,(m &,(m *m **&m &+m &&m
&*Fm ,**'((('(m ,'&+(m &*,+&*&*m (&&+&,+&m F+'&*,m &*,+&***m ,'(+m ,&(&m &,m *m **&m &(''m &&m
&Fm ,***&m ,'&+'m &,+*&*m (&*,+(m F+',+'m &,+*&+m ,*+m ,+m &,m m **&m &(**(m &+m
&*Fm ,***&&(m ,'&&m &,++('+m (&'*,&'m F+''*,&m &,+++*'m ,'+'m ,'m ,+m m **&m &(*m &+m
&Fm ,***&&&m ,'&'+m &,*((m (&'&,m F+',(+m &,*&*&m ,'+(*m ,*+m ,+m m **&m &(+m &+m
&Fm ,***&++m ,'&+&m &',+*m (&+,'&m F+',(&*m &',+&(*m ,++m ,*&m ,m +m **&m &(*m &+m
&(Fm ,****'&m ,'&+(m &,((+'m (&&,'m F+'+*,'+*m &,((*+m ,'*&(&'m ,**m ,m +m **&m &(((m &+m
&+Fm ,**'+*'m ,'&'((+m &,+('*m (&&+,m F+','&m &,+('&(*m ,*(''m ,'m ,m +m **&m &(+'(m &&m
Fm ,**''&(m ,'&*++&m &',+(+'m (&&(',&m F+''(,*m &',+(+'&m ,'+m ,(m ,(m (m **&m &('m &&m
Fm ,**(+&(m ,'&&+m &,+((&(m (&(,(++m F+*,(m &,+('(m ,'(&'m ,+m &,'m *m **&m &('&(*m &+m
&Fm ,**m ,'&+m +,*'((m (&*,+*+(m F+,+m +,**'m ,&'&'(m ,+**m &,&m m **&m &(''++m &&m
Fm ,**'++m ,''m &,++((m (&,&&m F+*(,*(m &,+(*'m ,+(*m ,m &,&m m **&m &('*m &+m
'Fm ,**&m ,'&(m &,'''m (&,*m F+&+,*&m &,'''m ,(&(m ,''*m ,+m m **&m &('+m &&m
*Fm ,**+m ,'(m &,'&'*m (&*,&*m F+,((m &,'&''&m ,++&'m ,&m &,*m *m **&m &('*m &&m
Fm ,****+m ,'+m &,*&*m (&**,&&+m F+&((,('m &,**m ,*'&m ,(('m &,*m *m **&m &('(&m &&m
Fm ,**+m ,''+m &,&*+*m (&,(m F+&,&*m &,&*(*+(m ,'&&(m ,(&m &,*m *m **&m &('+'(m &&m
(Fm ,**&(*m ,''(++m (,(('m (&*,*m F+&,(m (,((*'m ,*'**m ,+m &,*m *m **&m &(*m &&m
+Fm ,***++(m ,'+*(m (,&'++(m (&'(,(*'m F+&+&,&&m (,&'+'m ,*(+m ,(+m &,*m *m **&m &(*++m &&m
'Fm ,***&m ,'&*m (,&('*m (&*',+(m F+,+&+m (,&('&m ,*&++(m ,((m &,*m *m **&m &(*m &&m
'Fm ,**'('*&m ,'*&+m ,+&m (&*,&'m F+',&&m ,+&+(m ,'+&m ,(m &,*m *m **&m &(*&&m &&m
'&Fm ,***&&m ,'m ,+**(m (&&,*&m F++,(&m ,+*'('+m ,('+(m ,&*m &,*m *m **&m &(*&(&m &&m
'Fm ,**&'*m ,'(m ,(&m (&+&,++(m F+,(m ,(+(m ,'&m ,m &,*m *m **&m &(*'m &&m
m

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7.2 Process of converting the coordinate system from a geographical system (lat, long, h) to a
RSO system (N, E, H) give the results as below:


8.1 2m

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.51  m" %m

m  m   m   m  m m  m  m  m  
m ,**&'(m ,'*m ,((m  m *,(m &&,+m ,'m
&m ,***m ,'m ,(m m &m ,&+m &*(&,+m ,m
m ,**m ,'&+m ,*+m m m +,'m &*,('m ,*m
'm ,**'(&m ,'&m ,'('m m 'm +,''m &*',&+m ,+m
*m ,***&m ,'&'m (,'*+(m m *m ++,m &*,*'m ,m
m ,**m ,'&&m (,&*'m m m (,*'m &'(,m ,(m
m ,**(m ,'(m (,(m m m
m (&,m &'*,&m ,*&+m
(m ,**'&m ,'&m &,'m m (m (,'+m &',&m ,+*m
+m ,**'&'m ,'&&m &,+**m +m (*,+*m &'+,m ',m
m ,**+m ,'&*m &,+m m m (','*m &*&,'&+m ,+m
m ,**(*m ,'&m &,(*m m m (&,&m &*'+,(m ,*m
&m ,**+(m ,'m +,(&(m m &m (&*,m &*(&,m ,&(m
m ,**'*'m ,'m &,m m m (*',*m &*+,+m ',((m
'm ,**''m ,'&m &&,&&m m 'm (',&m &**,&m *,'&'m
*m ,**'&m ,'&'m &&,*+m m *m ((,*m &*',((m *,&(m
m ,**''m ,'&&m &&,''(m m m (((,+m &'(*,m *,**m
m ,**''m ,'&m &,*+(m m m (+',m &'*,'m ',+m
(m ,**'*m ,'&m &,&'m m (m +,'m &'+,+&m ,'*m
+m ,**'*(m ,'&m &,'*m m +m +,m &'+,&*m ,(*m
&m ,**'+m ,'&'m &,*+*m m &m (+,(*m &*,'m ,&&m
&m ,**'&+m ,'&m &&,++*m m &m ((,+m &**,+m ,&(m
&&m ,**'&m ,'&(m &&,(+('m m &&m (,(&m &*,+&m *,(+(m
&m ,**'&*m ,'m &&,(&m m &m (,+m &*(,(++m ,m
&'m ,**'(+m ,'&(m &*,+&*m m &'m +(,*'m &**,&m +,*m
&*m ,***m ,'&m &,+*m m &*m +,&m &*'*,++m &,&+m
&m ,***&m ,'&m &,++(m m &m +(,m &*,+m &,++m
&m ,***&'m ,'&'m &,*m m &m +(','m &*,**+m +,&&m
&(m ,***&'m ,'&'m &',+'m m &(m +(&,&(m &*&,(&(m ,&m
&+m ,****m ,'&&m &,((m m &+m +',*'&m &'+,*m ,+m
m ,**'+m ,'&*m &,+(''m m m +,'m &*&,m ,(m
m ,**''m ,'&m &',+(+m m m +,*m &**,&m (,+m
&m ,**(+m ,'&m &,+((m m &m (,*&m &*,+m ',&(m
m ,**m ,'&m +,**m m m (,(++m &,+m &,(m
'm ,***m ,''m &,+(m m 'm (*,(m &&,m ,+m
m

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*m ,**m ,'m &,''m *m (',+*m &'(,++m ,+m
m ,**m ,'(m &,'&'m m m
m (,*m &+,+m ,m
m ,****m ,''m &,*m m m (+,(*m &(,+(m ,+m
(m ,**m ,''m &,&*&m (m (*,'+m &+,('(m ,'*m
+m ,**m ,''m (,((m m +m (,(m &,m &,(m
'm ,***++m ,'+m (,&'+m m 'm (,**m &(,+&+m ,'*m
'm ,***m ,'m (,&('(m m 'm (+,'m &,'(m ,''&m
'&m ,**'(*m ,'*m ,+&m m '&m +,&m &,*m ,m
'm ,***m ,'m ,+*m m 'm ,'+m &*(,'m ,**m
''m ,**&m ,'+m ,(&m m ''m *,m &,m ,(m
m

7.3 The coordinates in RSO system will be export to Surfer Software to generate the
topographic view and the coordinates in Surfer are shown as below:

*'m
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7.4 The results of 3D topographic surface and the contour that have been generated in Surfer
Software are shown as below:


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um m
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m
˜m From the raw data of RTK rover measurement, the coordinates are given in Geographical
coordinate (Lat, Long, h) and in Cartesian coordinate (X, Y, h). There are also consist of
Horizontal RMS, Vertical RMS, DOP, number of satellites, GPS week and GPS time in
second of week for every points.
˜m However, we cannot use both of the coordinates system, but we just use the coordinates
in Geographical system which based on GPS satellite measurement that refers to the
WGS84 datum.

˜m We have to convert the Geographical coordinates to RSO coordinates in order to map the
topographic surface and basically the mapping process require the coordinates in RSO
form which is in Northing and Easting.
˜m We use the RSO coordinate system to generate the topographic surface as it can be easily
to imagine based on the real Earth.

*m
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'((% ($)$*
((%$ $%" !+
,'$*$!$)$ -.

+
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((%$%" !+

˜m Besides that, the height (h) is referring to the Ellipsoidal height not as the Orthometric
height (H). Hence, the height value in ellipsoidal height must be converting to
orthometric height in order to generate the contours that refer to mean sea level height.
˜m In Surfer Software, the topographic map is generate by interpolation of the coordinates
for each points and the contours is generate by interpolation of the value of orthometric
height for every single point.

/012*
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/412*
/*


.1 8m;<m
$1 8m;$<m

˜m The differences in colours of the topographic image are due to the difference in height of
the topography surface on the real Earth.
˜m The green layer in the topographic image shows that the lower altitude of the earth
surface which is about 12m above mean sea level, the yellow and chocolate show the mid
altitude of the earth which about 12m ± 16m above mean sea level and the highest
altitude that is about 16m ± 20m above mean sea level are shown in light blue and blue
colour.

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,$).$$, +$m

˜m We have done about 44 points on our fieldwork.m


˜m There are hilly and a flat area around our location, so we pick both of them but mainly we
take a hilly area.m
˜m We also make sure that DOP (dilution of precision) are fairly low to ensure that our
position is good.m
˜m We also make sure the availability of the satellite during collecting data.m
˜m The ambiguity must be resolved when float happened so the receiver will reinitialized the
ambiguity during the survey.m

" 86'5$m
˜m During the field work, PDA showed that there is floating solution and cannot be fixed
although already in a clear area.
˜m We took until 3 hour to perform the fieldwork because there have some problem with
PDA battery.
˜m The PDA`s battery has some problem, the battery can only hold for a several minutes.
Sometimes it can hold longer and sometimes when we recharged it, it still the same.
˜m We must walk a little bit far from the base station to find hilly area.
˜m There is only one equipment, so it¶s difficult to us to do the work because not all groups
consume same work time.
˜m Sometimes the PDA showed the RTK is not available.
˜m Due to our lack understand in using the PDA, we have to manually switch on the
Bluetooth function.

*+m
m
m

m  m

Using GPS, doing a topographic map become much easier and consume less time compare
to the conventional method. Our map also more accurate because we use RTK to locate our
positions. In real working atmosphere, we only need a lot less people doing topographic map
compare with the conventional method.

Although this method is good and fast, it also has its own weak point. For example, we
cannot do this RTK method at sheltered area, between buildings, or in the middle of the jungle.
We used isk1, isk2 and isk3 as our points to create a base line. Isk 1, isk2 and isk 3 are CORS,
the measurement are done 24 hours a day, 7 days a week in a real time, so its position is so
accurate and good. RTK method use carrier phase measurement to determine point positioning.

However, RTK is not a perfect system which it¶s still has its own defective and weakness.
RTK let us plotting map smoother than the conventional method. Lots of software can be use
like TTC, Surfer and TGO in making the map.

m
m
m

m

1.m Notes on Satellite Surveying II by Dr. Tajul Ariffin Bin Musa, UTM Skudai.
2.m Ukur GPS by Abd. Majid B. A. Kadir, Ayob B. Sharif and Abdullah Hisam Omar, UTM
Skudai.
3.m GPS Standards and Guidelines for Legal Surveying, (2009),
http://www.surveyors.nf.ca/gpsguide.pdf
4.m Real Time Kinematic, (2009), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Real_Time_Kinematic
5.m What Is GPS, Stephen Environmental Consulting, (2009)
http://www.stephensenv.com/pages/gps.html
6.m http://www.gmat.unsw.edu.au/snap/gps/gps_survey/chap11/fig1135.htm
7.m GPS Land Navigation, M. Ferguson, (2009), http://edu-
observatory.org/maps/navigation.html
8.m Code-Phase vs Carrier-Phase, (2009), http://www.trimble.com/gps/howgps.shtml

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