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N.VENKATA POSI LAKSHMI (07AP1A0463)
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Asst.Prof.K.MIRANJI, (M.Tech)
Department of E.C.E

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering


BHIMAVARAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
(Approved by A.I.C.T.E., Affiliated to J.N.T.U., Kakinada)
PENNADA, BHIMAVARAM-534243. 2010-2011
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V.SURYANARAYANA 07AP1A0461

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ABSTRACT

LIST OF FIGURES

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION«««««««««««««««(10-11) to(24)

1.1)EMBEDDED SYSTAEMS «««««««««««««««««.........(10-11)

1.2PROJECTOVERVIEW................................................................................... (11-13)

1.3)WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY«««««««««««««««««.....(13-14)

1.4)METHODS OF DATA COMMUNICATION««««««««««......(14-15)

CHAPTER 2: INTRODUCTION TO MICRO CONTROLLER««.......(16-16)

2.1)BLOCK DIAGRAM OF 8051 MICROCONTROLLER ««««.«......(16-18)

2.2) PIN CONFIGURATION OF 8051MICROCONTROLLER ««««..(19-23)

2.3) FEATURES OF 8051 MICROCONTROLLER«««««««............(24-24)

2.4) MICROCONTROLLER INTERFACING««««««««««««(24-24)

CHAPTER 3: MAX232««««««««««««««««««(25-26)to(29-31)

3.1)INTRODUCTION««««««««««««««««««««««.(25-26)

3.2)CIRCUIT CONNECTIONS OF MAX232«««««««««««.....(26-29)

3.3)APPLICATIONS OF MAX232«««««««««««««««««(29-31)

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CHAPTER 4: L293D«««««««««««««««««««.(32-34) to(36)

4.1)PINCONFIGURATION OF L293D«««««««««««««.......(33-34)

4.2)BASIC IMPLETATION OF CIRCUIT CONNECTIONS ««««....(34-35)

4.3)FEATURES OF L293D««««««««««««««««««...........(36)

CHAPTER 5: ZIGBEE«««««««««««««««««««««(37-42)

5.1)INTRODUCTION TO ZIGBEE TECHNOLOGY«««««««««...(37)

5.2)ZIGBEE AND OTHER WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES«««««««(38)

5.3)ZIGBEE PINSIGNALS«««««««««««««««««««..(38-39)

5.4)HOW IT WORKS«««««««««««««««««««««..(39-41)

5.5)APPLICATIONS OF ZIGBEE«««««««««««««««««..(42)

CHAPTER 6: SOFTWARE TOOLS«««««««««««««««.(42-45)

a) KEIL SOFTWARE««««««««««««««««««««««..(42)

b) FLASH MAGIC«««««««««««««««««««««««...(45)

SOFTWARE PROGRAM«««««««««««««««««««..(45-48)

RESULTS«««««««««««««««««««««««««««..( 49)

CONCLUSION «««««««««««««««««««««««««(50)

BIBLOGRAPHYc«««««««««««««««««««««««(51)

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c  c c"c c  c$' c
c

<  
c
c
c

lcc

ccccc# 
cc!  c
 "c! cc!c  c

illc iic

cccc "cc "c/cc"



c  c 
c

  "ccc
c!cc c% 
c "  %cc

c
c 
c " c cc
c
cc c
c! cc
cc

c
  
c 
c c  cc
"c
  
cc c "  c

cc
c
#  c  c

c
c
c
c "cc cc
c&
"ccc c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ccccccccccccccccccccccccc c '/   cc "c


c(c c

 c 
c c
c
c!c!" c

c "c c 

 cc
cc
c)c! c 
c   cc
 c*+ )*,c "c c
cc
cc  
c
cc  cc' c
c c 
cc cc(c  c c 

 c! cc-.ccc!
c

cc
ccc

c " c c


c "c cccc " cc cc"c c
c
  
ccc


c 
c " cc c c! cc cccc "cc  cc


c!c
!cc "c c
c)c cc 
c
cc

<  
c
c
c

cc  c  c c3Ac+


.cc c 
 cc c 
 c  cc?163cc

c;
c+c /c

33.167.111cKc3AcHc7A3.6?*c

Why is such an oddball crystal frequency?c

33167AcCc  c cc


c
c c cc : cc :c
c; c  9c cc

ccccc c
c ccc !.+ ccc c+c<7511.37A11=cc

-+ cc% %c: 


.cc  c c  c :  c c c
c

POWER SUPPLY

c% cA6/+c
++c   c

'3B3111cc.'AB311cc

c2?(16c c c6 c
 cc

c +
c: c  cc2 cc*6 c cc
+
c: c c 
c6  c

Using Ports for I/O Operationc

?163c c(c c: c(c c cc:/c( c% %c<3=c c c%(%c<1=c

cc: c c
c ::cccc:c c c/c

Level c Voltagec Currentc


 c :cA4 c 
cc
cc
35c # 9  c
c c
(c c17 c
(c +
c c 
c

<  



c
c
c

cc <-+cc c  =c

c c c
Ports c Functionc
Port 0c Dual-purpose portBc3c  c+
+cK$cc
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cAc
 +;c cc  c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccc
< c*AB*7=c ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c$+c c
+
c

Port 1c
cDedicated I/O portcOc cccc   cc; c: ccccccccccc
c< c3B?=c cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c c+
B
+c
cc

Port 2c
Dual-purpose portBc3c& c+
+cK$c+c
< cA3BA?=c cccccccccccccccccccccccccc ccccccccAc c
 +;c cc  c
c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c c+
B
+c
cc
Port 3c Dual-purpose portBc3c& c+
+cK$c+c
ccccccccccccccccccccccAc+ c :c  c+
+c cc+ c 
ccc?163ccccccccccccccc
< c31B32=c ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ccccc c+
B
+c
cc cc
c
' c c c ?7#6Ac c c B+.c  B+  c '$#c ?B c
  c  c ?0c c c Bc +   c% c cc : c c
 
 
c
  c Ec  B c :  c c   c c c
+  c cc 
Bc  c?1'63c 
 cc c+ c
c
2.3)FEATURES OF MICRO CONTROLLER:
?0cccB#c   c<#=c% cc

  /c3111c K c' c
41 cc66 c$+   c!  c
A65c;c?B c c!c
*Ac   cK$c( c
%
c-
+;c !c# c' c
%
c#  c$+  /c1cCcc**cCc
2.4)8051 MICRO CONTROLLER INTERFACING:
c +3<+ c 3B?=c
c c 
+
c +*c <+ c 31B32=c c c
c c K+c c  c
   c
  c 9.c 
  .c 
+.c .c cc c
c

<   


c
c
c

CHAPTER 3
MAX232
Introduction
c  c c  cc'.c!#A*A'.c8
c  :c .c .c c3c cB* cc
B3A c c c1c cL* ccL3A cc :c(c .c .c;-c c!;-c+ ccc
  c
cc c :c  +cc@A*Ac  +c c cc
  c c c
  c  c c c c 
c !#A*Ac   :c Kc   c  c c c !#A*Ac
+   c  c
  c c L6 c +c 
++c c  c c  c   c +
+c
: c :c c  cL31 ccB31 c+c
++ cc c  c6 c
++c
c c
c:c  .ccc c c!#A*Ac  c c :c(K'$#c
+
c:c cL7 c!#A*Ac
+
cccc:c  c c!#A*Ac  :c
 c :c!#A*Ac +
cc6 c+ c@A*Ac 
c ccccc c
c
cccccccccccccccccccc % c*3/+ c  cc@A*Accccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc

cccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
Features:
3c$+ c c#  c6B cc#
++c
Ac(  '$#c c  c
*cc- :c cc!  :c
4 *1B c+
c(:c
c

<   


c
c
c

6c(c#
++c'
c?cc+ c
5ccc; cKBA*AB%c c c
!   c A?c
2c- ccc    c c
 ; c@A*Ac
?c++  c
KBA*AB%c
 Bc#c
  .c.c'+
c
7c#-c  c; cA111c cc
(B#-B??*.cc*136c
Circuit connections:
ccccccc  c c   cc'.c!#A*A'.c8
c  :c .c .c cR3Rc cB
* ccB3A c c cR1Rc cL* ccL3A cc :c(c .c .c;-c c!;-c+ c
cc
'c  +c
cc c :c  +cc@A*Ac  +c c cc
  c c c

'cc
% c*A/@A*Ac 
c    c

cc

<   


c
c
c

cc@A*Acc ; c cc c'c c cc+ 9 c  cc  c


 :c<=c c  :c< c=.cc  +cc!#BA*Ac  c: c:cc(c
 c c  c ++
 .c 
c c 
c c c : c <L6 =c c  c c
  c !#BA*Ac : c :c < ++;c B31 c c L31 =c  c  c  c
 +  cc cc 
c' 
c cc ccc c c
c c
+c
++c cc: c< cB3A .cL6 .c cL3A =.c
c 
c
c+: cc
L6 c+c
++.c c cc+cc c +c2?;16c: c : c

c@A*Ac c c
.cc@A*Acc'c c c  .c:.cc
@A*Ac c 
c c c
c < c   cc =c cc   c@A*A.c c
c @A*Ac c c ; c + c 3K31c c + c c  c c   c
@A*Acc

c
ccc cc@A*A<=c c
c c :K  :cccc  cc
  c!#BA*Ac8
 cc 9c c+ c cc c   .c ccc c
c!#BA*Ac  .c ccc+: c c K+  c : cc cc cc :c
  c: c:c&   c c  c cc c   c c   c c  c
 ccccc    c 
.c cc c35661c !ccccc c c
c< cc !.c   +c'=c   cc cc++
 c

c@A*Ac c@A*Acc c c;+ :c'.c


c cc c  +c
c  c c +c  c  c +  c c +
c c < c# +;=c c c
 c c  c ; c 
.c  cc +  c cc ; c + c
: c c c c c  9cc   c c cc + 
 c  
 
c c c'c
 cc  cc ; Rc  c  cc

c  c 
 
c< ccc c 
 
.c=cc c  c c
c    c '.c  c  c 
c c   :c c  :.c : .c 
B c c
; c + .c  c  c c @A*Ac c @A*Ac c ; c + c c
c  c: c+
+.c cc@A**c cc + c
B cc@A**c
c c c c c c  c c ;+ :c c   c +c  c c
@A*Ac
cc c  c + cc c cc 
cc cc@A**c
 cc c:  c@A*Ac

<   


c
c
c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc MAX232 (A) DIP Package Pin Layout c

Capacitor Capacitor
Nbrc Namec Purposec Signal Voltagec Value Value
MAX232c MAX232Ac

Lc  c c + c 


c
3c '3Lc 3 %c 311%c
+ c'3c  c c c35 c

L31 .c + c

+
cc: c
Ac Lc 
c  c c 3 %cc ''c 311%cc ''c
+
+c
 c35 c

Bc  c c + c 


c
*c '3Bc 3 %c 311%c
+ c'3c  c c c35 c

Lc  c c + c 


c
4c 'ALc 3 %c 311%c
+ c'Ac  c c c35 c

Bc  c c + c 


c
6c 'ABc 3 %c 311%c
+ c'Ac  c c c35 c

B31 .c + c

+
cc: c
5c Bc 
c  c c 3 %cc&"-c 311%cc&"-c
+
+cKc :c
 c35 c

2c A
c - :cAc
+
c !#BA*Ac c c

?c !A  c !  :cAc +
c !#BA*Ac c c

!  :c Ac
7c !A
c (c c c

+
c

31c A c - :cAc +
c (c c c

33c 3 c - :c3c +
c (c c c

!  :c 3c
3Ac !3
c (c c c

+
c

<   


c
c
c

3*c !3  c !  :c3c +
c !#BA*Ac c c

34c 3
c - :c3c
+
c !#BA*Ac c c

36c &"-c &


c 1 c 3 %cc ''c 311%cc ''c

35c '' c c


++c L6 c c :c c :c

c
Lc <A=c c c  cc ''c : c c + c<'*=c B<5=c c  cc &"-c : c c
+ c <'4=c c &"-c <35=c c ''c <36=c c c  c c c + c <'6=.c c
c c+ ccc+ c

c
Application of MAX232A
c @A*A<=c  c c   :c < :c c !#BA*Ac c (c : c :=c c
c :c< :cc(c cc!#BA*Ac: c:=c c cccc
c !#BA*Ac   c c c :c c  c    c c c '34??K347?c c
+: c
c :c c  :c

+ c c+ cc c :K  :ccc@A*Ac c


cc

ëc @c c!@cccc cc ccc

ëc '#c c!#cc

c c c 


c  :K  :c c c @A*Ac c c  c c -!.c -#!.c
c-'-c  c 
cc  c cc cc c 
   c c c
'Rc c  ccc-c c8
cc  c c c c@A*Ac c
.c c c c 'c c c @A*Ac   c c c
c < c c c c 
c c

c  c+c c =cc   :cc-!K-#!c c c :cc

 ; Rc   c c ;+ c c @A*Ac   c c  c  .c  


  c c + c

  c c cc  c 
c c'cc ; c 
c c   c c
c
c B c cc cc c c9  c!#BA*Ac  c ; Rc  c
c c

<   


c
c
c

c   c+  cc   /cc; cc  cc!#BA*Ac  ccc'c#c


c cc+ c; +/c

cccccccccccccccccMAX232 to RS232 DB9 Connection as a DCEc

MAX232 Pin Nbr.c MAX232 Pin Namec Signalc Voltagec DB9 Pinc

2c A
c !#c !#BA*Ac ?c

?c !A c '#c !#BA*Ac 2c

7c !A
c '#c (c K c

31c A c !#c (c K c

33c 3 c @c (c K c

3Ac !3
c !@c (c K c

3*c !3 c @c !#BA*Ac *c

34c 3
c !@c !#BA*Ac Ac

36c &"-c &"-c 1c 6c

c   c c c   c  c -!c <-7c + c 4=c c -#!c <-7c + c 5=c  
c   c

c c 
c  c :c
  c < c  =c -#!c 9 c c c
   c-!c  c# c+ c5ccc@A*Ac c c cc-'-c<-7c+ c
3=c c cc c c5c cc c
+
ccc: c+
+c c :cc
c B31 c : c -   c
c c c + c  c c c  + c  9c c c
: .c c c c 8
 c c c  9c c c 
+
c : c c c c !#BA*Ac
 :c c c c c
c  c  c Rc c 
c -'-.c 
c c   B
  9  c: c'#K!#ccc

c 
c c +c c    c  :c + c c c 'c c c c c
@A*Ac c 31 %c + .c c @A*Ac c 13 %c + c @A*Ac
c c    c   c c c  c c 
c c +  c   c

<  



c
c
c

cc c35 c + c+c


cc
cc  cc   c + c c

.c c +  c  c c c :c c  c + c c  c c c   c  c c
 ccc+
c+ccc + c
cc  cc

MAX232(A) external Capacitorsc

Capacitorc + Pinc - Pinc Remarkc

'3c 3c *c c

'Ac 4c 6c c

'*c Ac 35c c

 c 9c B 
 :.c 
c 
c + c 5c c
'4c &"-c 5c
cB31 .c&"-c ccLc  .c cccBc

'6c 35c &"-c c

c6 c+c
++c c  cc

ëc L6 /c c35cc
ëc &"-/c c36cc

c
c

<  



c
c
c

c
c
TEcc
L c
( ) $/c
c# c
î 7c


c # c c

c c 
c  
c    c /
c  c c   c "c 
c "c

c
c!c   
 c c  cc( ) $c c
c# c! c!c c c


c"c 
c 

 c!c
cc  c
c"c 
c 
cc   
cc 
c
!c
c  c

( c"c"c0cc$'ccc
cc c !/c

c' /c$'cc c

c"c c cc


c c"1cc   cc
 c
 ccc! c c
c
' c cc 
  
c
c 
cc c ccc cc!c!
1c 
 c
c c
-!c c"c c!  cc
c'c 
c!ccccccc  c
c "c c  c 
c  c 
c !c c  c c  c 
c c !c 
  
c c
   
cc 
c c 
 c

<  
c
c
c

 c c ; c  Ec c c c  c + c


  c   c  :c c

c  :  c + c   c 
c c :c  : c )
Ec c c c c
c c+c  ccc ccc
Ecc:cc  cc
c)
c+ c cc+ c

#c  c c   c  c  c c   c c   /c c   c c
++c
cc  c c c 
c   ccccc :ccc
  c c c  cc+ c  .cc c  c  c

c38*2c

c(A7*-c c cB  cEcc+ B


c  ccc  +/c

ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc % c 4A/ c   c c (A7*-

c
cc
c

cc c c  .c


c cc
+
c+c cc(A7*-ccc :c+ 
c  .cc
c c  c  c c c c 
+
c c $  3c Kc $  Ac + c c c 
+
c c
$  *c Kc$  4c c c + c '
c c c 
c c + c c   c c c
" 3cKc" Ac c" *cKc" 4c+ c

<  


c
c
c

Vssc cc c: c


++cc c3c%c; +.c c
c  c cc c6 c
++.c6c:c c c
cc" c
c c c c3c:.c c
c  c cc c*5 c
++.cc c6c:c
c c" c
c c c c1c
c  c  c  ++Sc .c 
c c 
c  c KAc c c Tc c c
 c 3c c c : c c :c KA.c c c c 3Fc  c c c 1c #c c c *5 c
Fc c c" c c :c c: c  c c3? .ccc c cc  c c
 c3c

Vsc cc 
c: c cccc
+
c c c  ccc cc c1c
c3c
GNDc+c 
cc c c cc 
 +c  c  c  c c c

c cc'c
ENABLEc+ c K  cc +  c c
  c c c3c c"(3c

c c" 3K" Ac c$  3K$  Ac#   .c"(Ac
c
 cccc +
c c
+
c+ cc c1c  cc +  c c
cc2 c

c ccc  +c c c-c c Fc c Sc c  cc+ c c c c
c c$  ;c+ :cc   cc
c   .cc: c  c
c c $  c + c  c  c c   c c  c 
c c c  9c
c c
 c  9c 
c  c c  9B
c   c c 
c  c c  +c c c c
 +c

)
c 
c c  
cc  cc<
c c (A7*c c c =c 
c c c
 c
c
ccc c .c
c
c9c c
Ec  c

HOW IT WORKS ?c

"c c 
c 9c  c  c + c .c ;+   c cc  9cc  +c 9c  c c
 (c  c 
c +
c c  c 3c c " 3c c c  +c  c  +c +
c c :c
c $  3c #   .c c 
c +
c c  c 1c c " 3.c c  +c  c 
c
$  3# c  c cc
  c c c3c c" ;c c+
c c:c cc

<  



c
c
c

$  ;c +
  c c 1c 
cc +  c + $c c c
 c
c
)
c c
c c ; 
cc16cc
c:c c$  ;c+ c c c cc c

c  9c 
  c c  +(A7*-c :c 
c c +   c c c c c c c
   cc

Basic Implementation:c

 c ccc  c +  ccc  +c

c
c c.c c6 c  c!
 c ccc c c+ c3.c7.c35c

 c?c c+ccc ! .c c


cccc; +c5 c
c
c+
c5 c
  c c c+ .c ccc+ c
cc cc c6 c

 c cc  c+  c< cc + =.c cc c+ c?c ccc


 c : c  c  c  c c 
c c c c  c 6 .c 
c 
c
+c c+ c c c 
cc: .c ccccc 
c c6 c

% c4*/' 
cc +  cc(A7*-c c + c

c
c + c   Ccc
c

<  



c
c
c

c
% c44/(A7*-c   cc  c
c
c
c
ccFEATURES OF L293Dc
ëc % 
  c  c(A7*c c(A7*-c
c"c%c; c
c
ëc  c#
++B  c!  /c46c cc*5c c
ëc #+  c+
B( c#
++c
ëc  c#-c  c
ëc  c#
c
ëc  B" B
 c+
c
ëc %
   c!+ cc#&#c(A7*c c#&#c(A7*-c
ëc $
+
c'
c3ccc' c<511ccc(A7*-=c
ëc  9c$
+
c'
cAccc' c<3Accc(A7*-=c
ëc $
+
c' +c- cc
 :c  c#
++ c<(A7*-=c

<  



c
c
c

CHAPTER 5c

ZIGBEE
INTRODUCTION TO ZIGBEE TECHNOLOGY
> c c c c  c   c :+c c c > c   c c : c c
    c c ( $$c c  B% c > c c :+c c c +c c c ?1A364c
  c c c  c c B+c 
+ c   c   c c  c  c
:
cc :c 
+cccc
  c ++  .c cc  c c
c:+ccc9  c c c  c c8
c c c c
c  

c 9  c  
c
 c : c> c : c c  cc c

+cc
 c
  c+  c c<c =c 
c c   c<c c c c    =c
c > c  c+: c 9.c
 .c c ++  c
++c: c +   c
c +c c c c ?1A364c ?1A364c   c  c c   c  c 
c  c
'c <'=c c  c ( c <)=c  c   c c 9c  c 
++c
:  
c+ c
c .c 
cc+ c cc    c c+ c + c
c  c    c c  c +  c> c  c c  c ++  c  c
c c
c 9  .c 
 c 9  .c  c c  :  c  c + c +  c c
 c cc
+   cc> c c:
  Cccc9  c cccc
 cc
Why is it called Zigbee?
c  c c 
c  c c  c :9c c  + C c + c  c c c c c
 :c +.c    c c c  c + 9c 
c :c 
c c c 9c   c

  c .c c c c   c c c C BC c + .c 9c c c c c
 c   c 
c c c   .c    .c c    c c c c   :c c

 cccc cc   :c +  cc> c  +.cc

c c c  :c 
 c +
 :c   c c +c 

c   c c
'cc
What is zigbee?
> c c c +   c c c
c c  c :c 
  c + c
  c .c
B+c  c  c cccc?1A364BA11*c  cc c+ cc
c

<  



c
c
c

c
!c +2-,c  c c ! c 
c 

 
c ! c c 
c 0 c
#
c  c c
Zi Bc c !c ilcT!l"ic

c
c3c
c3#2!.c.c! cc!c

ccc! 
ccc

#! c c c & c 


c !c 
c 0 c   c  0"c c c
!
cc0  cc cc! 
ccc 'c4*c&
"c 
c

cc
##
c  c! c cc
Z#BEEc$c#$Lc

c
c /  c2

  
c

<  
c
c
c

Pin Assignments for the XBee and XBee PRO Modules <( c
c  cc cc  
cc cc cc C cc cc :cc  cc =
cPin # Name Direction Description
3c ''cBcc
++cc
cAc-$ c$
+
c !c-  c$
cc
*c-"cKcCONFIG +
c !c-  ccc
4c-$?Uc$
+
c-  c$
+
c?ccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
6cRESET +
c
c!c<c+
c
cc c cA11c=cc
5c1cKc!##c$
+
cc$
+
c1cKc!@c#  c# c cc
2cP:QcBc-cc  cc
c?cP:QcBc-cc  cc
7c-!cKc#(V!,UcKc-?c+
c c#+c'c( cc-  c+
c?cc
31c&"-cBc&
cc
33c-4UcKc-$4Uc c  c+
c4cc-  cK$c4cc
3AcCTS Kc-$2Uc c' BB#c%c'cc-  cK$c2cc
3*c$"cKcSLEEP $
+
c
c# 
c c
c34c !%Uc+
c  c! ccK-c+
cc
36c cKc-6UcKc-$6Uc c c .c  c+
c6cc-  cK$c6cc
35c RTS* Kc -5Uc Kc -$5Uc  c !8
BB#c %c '.c   c +
c 5c c
-  cK$c5c
c32c-*UcKc-$*Uc c  c+
c*cc-  cK$c*c
c3?c-AUcKc-$AUc c  c+
cAcc-  cK$cAcc
c37c-3UcKc-$3Uc c  c+
c3cc-  cc
cA1c-1UcKc-$1Uc c  c+
c1cc-  cK$cc

HOW IT¶S WORKS

> c  c


c  c  cc c: cc 
 c cc cc
c+ c> c9c  cc: c+cc: ccc9c   c c
c : c  c c
+c c 9.c c  c c c c c   c c 9.c c
  ccc   c 
c cc cc cc   c c c  cc

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c
c
c

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c  c c9c
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c cc9.c cc
: c 
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9c 
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c cc9c cc!
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cc:c
c : c  c  c  c c + c cc c ; +c c c > c 9c c
cc c

%
c6A/> c9c

c 
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c c  +c c c > c 9c + cc #: c
+ c c 
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  c  .c .c c 
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c9  c ccc cc
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c

c c : c c : c c  c c  c c  c c c

 c c c  c
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c
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c
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c
8
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+ c

cc  cc9c: c c cc c   :c:c c+ cc
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c c
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c
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Keil Compiler:
c
0 c + c c c
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c c c c c + c
c +   .c c   c 
 c c c :c c ;c c  c c c c

+c
c c   c c 
c +   c 0 c + c c 
++c 'c  
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c
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cc + c+  c

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c
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 cc+c

 c cc   c  c cc'c :  c c c c 
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c    c c  c cc ++  c
Projects
c c
c c 0(c c c+ Tc c + c c c  c c cc 
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8
c c 
c c   c ++  .c c c c + c  c + c ; c c c

c c ++  .c c Oc c 8
c Oc c c ++  c 
c c  
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+ c  c
c   cc 9c ccc
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ccc ++  c0(c cc;
c cc cc  c
+ cc c c + cc  c c + c c 0(c#
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cc+ c ccc :cc+:c
c  cc+ c cc
c  c c c  c cc+c cc
 
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 cc
c .c
cc c c c+c0(c+ c c :cc; ccc
Simulator/Debugger
c c  
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c c 0(c c +c c :c  c  
  c c c
 c c  c  c ; c   cc c+ cc : cc + c ;
 c
 c c c   c c 
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 cc c cc+cc
 c + + c c c : .c   c c  c c c + + c  c  c 8
9c

c   c c  B 
c + + c  9+ c  c c c c  c
c 
 c c  c c 'c .c c ;
 c  c c ++c 
c c

 cc'c c c c cc cc ccc  c cc: c  c
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c

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c
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Rc '63c "#c $+  C  c 'c 'c '+ /c  c   c  c 
c c

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 c .c
Rc 63ccc ccc/ccc  ccc  ccc ccc
cccccc
c?163c
c
 c .c
Rc (63cc( 9K( /cc  c  c c
c  ccc + c
c c cc  c 
c c
.c
Rc (63c(  c  /c  c c
c c c  .c c cc
c
cc 9.c
$63c $ B@c ':/c  c c @c  c c 
c  c

c

SOFTWARE CODING:c

X  
Y 63Zc
X  
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 c3H3[1Gc
 c3AH3[3Gc
 cAH3[AGc
 cA3H3[*Gc
: c V  <=Gc
: c-'% <=Gc
: c-'!:<=Gc
: c-'(<=Gc
: c-'! <=Gc
: c+<=Gc
: c <
 c =Gc

 c  c Gc
: c <=c
\c
 V  <=Gc
 <3=c
\c
< HH3=c

<   


c
c
c

\c
<# %HHRR]]# %HHR%R= c
\c
-'% <=Gc
^c
c <# %HHRR]]# %HHRR= c
\c
c-'!:<=Gc
^c
c <# %HHRR]]# %HHR(R= c
\c
-'(<=Gc
 <31=Gc
+<=Gc
^c
c <# %HHRR]]# %HHR!R= c
\c
c-'! <=Gc
c <31=Gc
c+<=Gc
^c
c <# %HHRR]]# %HHR#R= c
\c
+<=Gc
^c
^c
^c
^c
: c V  <=c
\c
H3Gc
#H3Gc

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c
c
c

#'$"H1@61Gc
$-H1@A1Gc
3H1@%-Gc
!3H3Gc
^c
: c <=c 
+c4c
\c
<!HH3=c
\c
 H3Gc
!H1Gc
^c
^c
: c-'% <=c
\c
3H3Gc
3AH1Gc
AH3Gc
A3H1Gc
^c
: c-'!:<=c
\c c
3H1Gc
3AH3Gc
AH1Gc
A3H3Gc
^c
: c-'! <=c
\c
3H3Gc
3AH1Gc
AH1Gc

<   


c
c
c

A3H1Gc
^c
: c-'(<=c
\c
3H1Gc
3AH1Gc
AH3Gc
A3H1Gc
^c
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\c
3H1;11Gc
^c
: c <
 c c=c
\c
cGc
 <BB=c
<H1GYB3?1GLL=Gc
^c

c

<   


c
c
c

RESULTS:
HARDWARE KIT:

<   


c
c
c

CONCLUSION:

 c+ c
cc:+  c cccc  c c
cc c cc

cc c ccccc cc c


  c c+cc
cc++c
c c 
  c  c + c  c "9  c ++ c c c c 
c
: .c
c cc  : 
 c c
  c ++  .c> c ccc c
c cc c 9cc  cc

cB9  c
 c

<   


c
c
c

BIBLOGRAPHY:

ëc +/KK>  c
ëc +/KK ?1A K36c
ëc +/KKc _  c
ëc  c+  c
ëc  c c+  c
ëc       <c@A*A.(A7*-.>&=
ëc c?163c  c c#   cc c'ccc C 

<   


c
c
c

<   


c