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FORCE AND PRESSURE

1. Photographs A and B show a boy pressing a thumbtack and a coin into a desk with the same amount of force .

Photograph A Photograph B
a) He found that it is easier to press the thumbtack compared to the coin. Explain ,why?
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b) State a conclusion based on your answer in (a).
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c) The area of the coin is 3.14 x 10 m . Calculate the pressure exerted by the coin ,if the force applied by the boy is 5 N.

( 2 marks )

er uses broad tyres


d) Explain why a bulldozer
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2. 3 and dimensions 2 m × 2 m × 3 m is placed on a soft bed as shown in Diagram 4 below. The


A block of density 133 kg m-3
soft bed is compressed.

Diagram 4
(a) Why is the soft bed compressed?
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(b) Give a definition for the concept in your answer in (a)
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(c) Calculate the
(i) Weight of the block

[3 marks]
(ii) Pressure acting on the soft bed

[2 marks]

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3. Diagram 5.1 and Diagram
gram 5.2 show two balloons A and B exerted with the same force .

Diagram 5.1 Diagram 5.2


(a) What is meant by pressure ?
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(b) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2,
(i) Which balloon will burst easily?
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(ii) Compare the pressure exerted to the balloon
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(iii) Compare the surface area of finger and needle which in contact with the balloon.
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(iv) Relate the pressure exerted on the balloon with the surface area
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(v) What happens to the pressure on the balloon if force exerted is increased?
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(c) State the physics concept involved
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(d) State one application of physics’ concept in 5 (c) in our daily life
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4. Diagram 2.1 shows two different containers filled with water. The water pressure at point P and point Q are the same.

Diagram 2.1
(a) What is the meaning of pressure?
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(b) State one factor that affect the water pressure at point P and Q.
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(c) Calculate the water pressure at point P. [Density of water = 1000 kgm ]

[2 marks]
(d) Diagram 2.2 shows the water spurt when a hole is made near the base of container B.

Diagram 2.2
Diagram 2.3 shows the water in container B is replaced
replaced by liquid X which has higher density than water.

Diagram 2.3
Sketch the spurt of liquid X in Diagram 2.3.
[1 mark]
5. Diagram 5.1shows a water jet spurts out from a hole in a tall vessel at a distance, d1. Diagram 5.2 shows an oil jet spurts
out from a hole at the same depth in a tall vessel at a distance, d2.

(a) What is the meaning of density?


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(b) Observe Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2, compare
(i) Density of water and oil.
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(ii) The distance d1 and d2.
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(iii) The pressure produced by the water jet and the oil jet.
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(c) Based on your answer in (b), state the relationship between the density and the pressure of liquid.
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(d) Diagram 5.3 shows the location of a house water tank.

Explain why the water tank should be located on top of the roof.
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6. Diagram 7.1 shows a concrete water tank filled with water.

Diagram 7.1
(a) State a factor that affects the water pressure in the tank.
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(b) (i) Compare the water pressure at P and Q
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(ii) Calculate the water pressure at Q. (Density of water = 1000 kg m )

[2 marks]
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(c) Diagram 7.2 shows water flows from the concrete tank to the house water tank.

Diagram 7.2
(i) What is the factor that causes the water to flow from the concrete tank to the water tank in the house?
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(ii) The flow of water from the concrete tank to the house will stop at level P. Explain why the supply stops?
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(d) (i)) Suggest two modifications that can be done to ensure the water flow continuously to the house water tank.
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(ii) Draw a water
ater tank that can withstand high water pressure . [1 mark]

7. Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show two identical thistle funnels that are covered with rubber sheets and is immersed in
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measuring cylinders filled with liquid P which density is 0.8 g cm . A manometer is connected to the thistle funnel using
rubber tube. The depth, h1 and h2 are measured from the surface of the liquid P to the rubber sheet.

(a) State the function of manometer?


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(b) Observe Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2,
(i) Compare h1 and h2.
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(ii) Compare the difference in height of the water level in the manometer.
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(iii) Name the physical quantity that represents the difference in height of the water in manometer.
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(iv) Relate the answer in (b)(i) and (b)(ii).
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(v) Relate the depth of the liquid and the physical quantity in (b)(iii).
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(c) Liquid P with density 0.8 g cm in Diagram 5.2 is then replaced by liquid Q with density 1.0 g cm . Predict what will
happen to the differencee in height of the water in manometer and give your reason.
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8. Diagram 3 shows a model of Bourdon Gauge which is constructed by a student to measure the gas pressure.

(a) What is the initial reading X in terms of atmospheric pressure?


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(b) State the direction of the motion of the silicone tube and the movable pointer when the air is blow into the silicone
tube.
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(c) The sensitivity of the model is low. Suggest 2 methods that can be used to improve the sensitivity of the model.
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(d) If the model is used to measure the pressure of the cooking gas in a cylinder and the reading obtained is 1.6
atmospheric pressure, find the pressure of the cooking gas in the cylinder.
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ma

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9. Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show two dams with different shapes.

DIAGRAM 5.1 DIAGRAM 5.2


(a) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2
(i) Compare the dams in Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2.
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(ii) Compare the pressure at point A and point B in the lake.
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(b) (i) Based on the answer in (a)(ii), which dam is stronger?
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(ii) Explain the reasons for your answer in (b)(i).
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(c) Diagram 5.3 shows an apparatus used to remove water from a beaker to a cylinder.

DIAGRAM 5.3

(i)) Name the apparatus shown in diagram 5.3.


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(ii) Give a reason why water flows from the beaker to the cylinder as shown in Diagram 5.3.
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(d) (i) In Diagram 5.4, mark the water level in the cylinder when water stops flowing from the beaker to the cylinder.
[1 mark]

DIAGRAM 5.4

(ii) Why the water stop from flowing?


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10. Diagram 3.1 shows a model of a hydraulic jack. The force F1 applied on the small piston R is able to support two loads
which placed on piston S and T.

(a) Name the principle used in the hydraulic jack.


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(b) (i) If F1 = 5.0 N, calculate the pressure exerted on piston R.
[ 1 mark]

(ii) Compare the fluid pressure at S and T to the pressure at R


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(iii) Determine the magnitude of the force F2.

[ 2 marks]
(c) Give one reason why it is more suitable to use a liquid instead of air as the hydraulic fluid.
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11. Diagram 2.1 shows an insecticide sprayer.

Diagram 2.1
(a) (i) Name the science principle involved in the insecticide sprayer.
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(ii) Which region experiences low pressure? In the box below, tick √ the correct answer.
X Y Z [1 mark]
(b) State one reason for your answer in (a) (ii).
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(c) Describe how the instrument produced a fine spray liquid?
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12. Diagram 7.1 shows a dentist chair for children. The chair uses a hydraulic system.

DIAGRAM 7.1
(a) Name the physics principle used in a hydraulic system.
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(b) Explain how the chair can be lifted up when the pedal is pressed down?
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(c) Why the system is less effective if air bubbles are present in hydraulic fluid?
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(d) The cross sectional area of the big piston and the small piston are 100 cm and 20 cm respectively. The mass of the chair is
20 kg. Calculate the force exerted on the small piston to lifted up the child of 30 kg.

[2 marks]

(e) Suggest the modifications required to the size of piston and the size of the seat so that the chair is suitable and safe for the
use of adults. Give the reasons.
Piston size :………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
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13. Diagrams 5(i)
i) and 5 (ii) show two hydraulic jacks being used to lift loads A and B with masses 1 kg each. The surface areas
2 2 2
of pistons E and F are 0.2 cm and 0.4 cm respectively, while the surface areas of piston G and H are
a 0.2 cm and 0.8
2
cm . When a force is exerted on pistons E and G, pressure will be exerted to the liquids in the jacks.

a) What is meant by pressure ?


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ii) State two similarities that can be obtained from both diagrams.
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b) (i) What is the principal applied by the jack system?
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ii) If a force of 2 N is applied to piston E, it will produce a pressure of 40 Nm . Calculate the force needed to lift the load B
if the same pressure is applied.

(3 marks)

14. Diagram 2 shows ping pong ball attached on a filter funnel when water flows from the rubber hose of a water pipe.

DIAGRAM 2

(a) Mark all the forces acting on the ping pong ball in diagram 2.1. [2 marks]
(b) What is the principle involved in the situation above.
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(c) Explain what will happen if the ping pong ball is replaced with a rubber ball of the same size?
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15. Diagram 5.1 shows
hows a manometer attached to a non uniform horizontal tube.

(a) Explain why the two water levels in the two arms of the manometer are at the same height.
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(b) Air is passed through the horizontal tube as shown in Diagram 5.2

(i) Compare the air speed at P and Q.


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(ii) Compare the air pressure at P and Q.
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(iii) State the relationship between speed of air and pressure of air.
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(iv) On Diagram 5.2, mark the water level in the two arms of the manometer as the air is flowing in the horizontal
tube. [2 marks]
(v) Name the principle involved in this observation.
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16. Diagram 7.1 shows cross-sectional
sectional of a wing of a moving aeroplane. The wing of aeroplane experiences a lift force.

section in Diagram 7.1.


(a) Name the cross-section
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(b) In Diagram 7.1,
(i) Draw and label the direction of the air flow. [1 mark]
(ii) Label the region of high and low pressure. [1 mark]
(iii) Using an arrow, show the direction of the lift force, F. [1 mark]
(c) Diagram 7.2 shows a Bunsen burner burning with yellow flame
flam is produced.

Based on Diagram 7.2,


(i) Explain how a blue flame can be produced.
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(ii) Suggest one modification to the burner to produce bigger flame. Give reason to your answer.
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(iii) State the physics principle use in a Bunsen burner.
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section of a Bunsen burner.


17. Diagram 2 shows a cross-section

(a) (i) Name the Physic’s principle involved in the working principle of Bunsen burner.
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(ii) Which region X, Y or Z, experiences low pressure?
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(b) State one reason for your answer in (a)(ii).
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(c) Explain how a Bunsen burner can produced blue flame.
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18. A fisherman finds that his boat is at different levels in the sea and in the river, although the boat carries the same load.
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The density of sea water and river water is 1025 kg m and 1000 kg m respectively.

In the sea In the river


DIAGRAM 5.1 DIAGRAM 5.2
Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 illustrate the situation of the boat in the sea and in the river.
(a) What is meant by density?
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(b) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 :
(i) Compare the level of the boat in the sea water and in the river water.
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(ii) Compare the volume of water displaced by the boat in the sea and in the river
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(iii) Compare the density of sea water and river water.
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(c) (i) Relate the volume of water displaced to the density of water.
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(ii) Deduce relationship between weight of the boat and the weight of the water displaced.
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(d) Name the physics principle that explains the situation above.
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(e) A submarine can sail on the sea surface and under the sea by using the principle stated in (d).
How a submarine on the surface of the sea can submerge?
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19. Diagram 7 shows a wooden sampan of mass 200 kg with a volume of 2 m floating at sea.

(a) Name the force F shown in Diagram 7.


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(b) What is relationship between F and W?
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(c) Determine the magnitude of F.

[ 2 marks]

(d) Another boat of similar mass and volume is built from fibre glass to replace the wooden sampan. Fiber glass is
stronger and can support a greater load.
(i) Give another reason why fiber glass is chosen
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(ii) Calculate the maximum weight which can be carried by the fiber glass sampan and still remain a float.
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(Give the densityy of sea water is 1020 kg m )

[2 marks]

(iii) What will happen if the fiber glass sampan carrying the maximum weight moves from
f the sea to a river?
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(iv) Explain your answer in c(iii).
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20. Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show two solid spheres A and B with different density place in the water.

Diagram 5.1 Diagram 5.2


(a) What is meant by density?
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(b) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.1,
(i) compare the density of sphere A and sphere B
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(ii) compare the weight of sphere A and sphere B
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(iii) compare the weight of water displaced by sphere A and sphere B
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(iv) relate the weight of sphere and the weight of water displaced
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(v) relate the weight of water displaced and upthrust
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(c) Name the physics principle involved in Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2.
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(d) State one application of physics principle in 5 (c).
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21. (a) Diagram 7.1 show a boat made from steel floating at the sea. The mass of the boat is 7500 kg.

. Diagram 7.1
(i) State one function of plimsoll line?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………[ 1 mark]
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(ii) What is the buoyant force acts on the boat.

[2 marks]

(iii) In the Diagram 7.2, mark the level of water when the boat enter the river Mouth. [1 mark]

Diagram 7.2
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(iv) Explain your answer in (a)(iii).
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(b) Diagram 7.3 shows a hot air balloon floating stationary in the air.

Diagram 7.2
(i) State the relationship between the weight of air balloon and the upthrust.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
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………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………[ 1 mark]
(ii) What will happen to the air balloon if the load is dropped?
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(iii) Explain your answer in (b) (ii).
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3
22. Diagram 3 shows a block of concrete being lowered to the bottom of a lake. The volume of the block is 2.5 m and its
–3
weight is 125 000 N. The density of the water in the lake is 1 010 kg m .

Diagram 3
(a) State the SI unit for pressure.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [1 mark]
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(b) State one factor that affects the pressure at a point below the surface of a liquid.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [1 mark]
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(c) (i) Calculate the weight of the water displaced by the block.

[2 marks]
(ii) Calculate the tension, T, in the cable.

[2 marks]

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23. Diagram 4 shows a man in a boat filled with goods floating in the sea.

(a) Explain why the boat does not sink in the sea?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark]
(b) State the principle involved in (a).
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(c) When the boat entering a river mouth, will the water level on the boat be above mark ‘A’ in Diagram 4? Explain your
answer.
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(d) If the density water at river mouth is 1000 kg m and the total mass of the boat, man and goods is 530 kg, calculate
the volume of the water displaced.

[2 marks]

24. Two apples with same size and mass, each of these apples is dipped into oil and water separately. The apples immersed at
-3 -3
different levels in the two liquids. The density of the oil is 800 kg m and density of water is 1000 kg m .

Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2


2 illustrate the situation of the apples in the oil and in the water.
(a) What is meant by mass?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………….. [1 mark]
(b) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2:
(i) Compare the level of the apple in the oil and in the water.
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(ii) Compare the volume of liquid displaced by the apple in the oil and in the water.
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(iii) Compare the density of oil and water.
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(c) (i) Relate the volume of liquid displaced to the density of the liquid.
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(ii) State the relationship between of the apple and the weight of the liquid displaced.
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(d) Name the physics principle that explains the situation above.
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(e) A submarine
ubmarine can cail on the sea surface and under the sea by using principle stated in (d). How a submarine at the
seabed can float to the surface of the sea?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. [1 mark]

ometer which is used to measure relative density of liquid.


25. Diagram 7.1 shows a hydrometer

(a) (i) Name the principle involved in this instrument.


…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………. [1 mark]
(ii) Diagram 7.2 shows the hydrometer being immersed in liquid P and liquid Q.

Compare the density of liquid P and liquid Q .


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(iii) Explain how the hydrometer can be made more sensitive.
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(b) Diagram 7.3 shows a ship marked with Plimsol lines on the side.

(i) State why these lines are important to ships


5 3 -3
(ii) The weight of ship is 1.5 x 10 N and the density of sea water is 1.15 x 10 kg m . What the buoyant force exerted
by the sea water on the ship.

[1 mark]
(iii) Calculate the volume of water displaced by the ship.

[2 marks]

sed on diagram 7.3, state the relationship between the height, h, and density of water as the ship sails across seas.
(c) Based
(h is distance between surface of water and deck).
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [1 mark]
(d) Give two suggestions on how the ship can be made more stable.
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26. Figure 2 shows a measuring cylinder filled with water before and after a spherical metal P of mass 0.1 kg is dropped in.
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[Reading of water level without P inside = 2.0 x 10 m , Reading of water level with P inside = 3.3 x 10 m ]

(a) Why the sphere P sinks in water?


……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….… [1 mark]
(b) What is the volume of sphere P?

[1 mark]
(c) Calculate the density of P.

[2 marks]
(d) State one application of density in daily life.
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…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………… [1 mark]
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