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# z = f(x, y) dz

fx dx fy dy fx fy f(x, y)

dz = d(f(x, y)) = fx dx fy dy

R3

f(x, y)
x, y
f(x, y) x y
f(x, y)
y x

z = f(x, y) = 5x 4 y 2 − 4xy 3 + 8

f(x, y)
x
∂z
= 20x 3 y 2 − 4y 3
∂x

f(x, y)
y
∂z
= 10x 4 y − 12xy 2
∂y
z = f(x, y) = 5x 4 y 2 − 4xy 3 + 8

∂z ∂z
∂x ∂y

x 3 − 2y 3 + y 2
z = f(x, y) =
x 2 +y 2

u vu´ − uv ´
( )´ =
v v2

f(x, y)
x

## 2 2 ∂(x3 −2y3 +y2 ) ∂(x2 +y2 )

∂z (x +y ) − (x 3 − 2y 3 + y 2 )
∂x ∂x
=
∂x (x 2 +y 2 )2

∂z (x 2 +y 2 )(3x 2 ) − (x 3 − 2y 3 + y 2 )(2x)
=
∂x (x 2 +y 2 )2

=
∂x (x 2 +y 2 )2

## ∂z x 4 +3x 2 y 2 + 2xy 3 + 2xy 2 )

= .
∂x (x 2 +y 2 )2

f(x, y)
y
∂(x3 −2y3 +y2 ) ∂(x2 +y2 )
∂z (x 2 +y 2 ) − (x 3 − 2y 3 + y 2 )
∂y ∂y
=
∂y (x 2 +y 2 )2
∂z (x 2 +y 2 )(−6y 2 + 2y) − (x 3 − 2y 3 + y 2 )(2y)
=
∂y (x 2 +y 2 )2

∂z −6x 2 y 2 + 2x 2 y − 6y 4 + 2y 3 − 2x 3 y + 2y 4 − 2y 3 −4y 4 − 6x 2 y 2 + 2x 2 y − 2x 3 y
= =
∂x (x 2 +y 2 )2 (x 2 +y 2 )2

x 3 − 2y 3 + y 2
z = f(x, y) =
x 2 +y 2

## x 4 +3x 2 y 2 + 2xy 3 + 2xy 2 ) −4y 4 − 6x 2 y 2 + 2x 2 y − 2x 3 y

dz = ( ) dx + ( ) dy
(x 2 +y 2 )2 (x 2 +y 2 )2

𝑥 𝑦

## 𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦)𝑑𝑥 + 𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦)𝑑𝑦 = 0

𝜕𝑓 𝜕𝑓
𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝜕𝑥 = 𝑓𝑥 𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝜕𝑦 = 𝑓𝑦

𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦) 𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦)

𝑅2

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
𝜕𝑓 𝜕𝑓
𝑀 = 𝜕𝑥 𝑁 = 𝜕𝑦
𝑀 𝑦 𝑁 𝑥
𝜕𝑀 𝜕2 𝑓 𝜕𝑁 𝜕2 𝑓
= 𝜕𝑦𝜕𝑥 = 𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑦
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝜕2 𝑓 𝜕2 𝑓 𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= 𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑦 =
𝜕𝑦𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
=
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑁𝑑𝑦 = 0

## 𝑥𝑑𝑦 + 𝑦𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥𝑑𝑥 ⟹ 𝑥𝑑𝑦 + 𝑦𝑑𝑥 − 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥𝑑𝑥 = 0 ⟹

(𝑦 − 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑦 = 0

𝑀 = 𝑦 − 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥, 𝑁=𝑥
𝜕𝑀 ∂𝑁
=
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝜕𝑀 𝜕(𝑦 − 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥)
= =1
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦
𝜕𝑁 𝜕(𝑥)
= =1
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥
𝑥𝑑𝑦 + 𝑦𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥𝑑𝑥
(𝑒 𝑥 − 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2 )𝑦´ + 𝑦𝑒 𝑥 = 2𝑥𝑦 3

𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑁𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝑑𝑦
(𝑒 𝑥 − 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2 )𝑦´ + 𝑦𝑒 𝑥 = 2𝑥𝑦 3 ⟹ (𝑒 𝑥 − 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2 ) = 2𝑥𝑦 3 − 𝑦𝑒 𝑥 ⟹
𝑑𝑥
(𝑒 𝑥 − 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2 )𝑑𝑦 = −(𝑦𝑒 𝑥 −2𝑥𝑦 3 )𝑑𝑥 ⟹ (𝑦𝑒 𝑥 −2𝑥𝑦 3 )𝑑𝑥 + (𝑒 𝑥 − 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2 )𝑑𝑦 = 0

𝑀 = 𝑦𝑒 𝑥 −2𝑥𝑦 3 𝑁 = 𝑒 𝑥 − 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2
𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
=
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝜕𝑀 𝜕(𝑦𝑒 𝑥 −2𝑥𝑦 3 )
= = 𝑒 𝑥 − 6𝑥𝑦 2
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦

𝜕𝑁 𝜕(𝑒 𝑥 − 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2 )
= = 𝑒 𝑥 − 6𝑥𝑦 2
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥

𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
=
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝜕𝑓
𝑓 = 𝑀.
𝜕𝑥
𝑀 𝑥 𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦)

𝑓 = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)
𝑓 𝑦

𝜕𝑓 𝜕∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑔
= +
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝑑𝑦
𝜕𝑓
=𝑁
𝜕𝑦

𝑑𝑔 𝑑𝑔
𝑔 𝑔=∫
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦

∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑐

(𝑒 𝑥 − 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2 )𝑦´ + 𝑦𝑒 𝑥 = 2𝑥𝑦 3 .

𝜕𝑓
𝑓 = 𝑀.
𝜕𝑥
𝑀 𝑥 𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦)
𝑥

𝑓 = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

## 𝑓 = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = ∫ (𝑦𝑒 𝑥 −2𝑥𝑦 3 )𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = ∫ 𝑦𝑒 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 − ∫ 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) ⟹

𝑓 = 𝑦𝑒 𝑥 − 2𝑦 3 + 𝑔(𝑦)

𝑓 𝑦
𝜕𝑓 𝜕∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑔
= + 𝑑𝑦
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦

𝜕𝑓 𝜕(𝑦𝑒 𝑥 −2𝑦3 ) 𝑑𝑔 𝑑𝑔
= + 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑒 𝑥 − 6𝑦 2 + 𝑑𝑦
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦

𝜕𝑓
=𝑁
𝜕𝑦

𝑑𝑔 𝑑𝑔
𝑒 𝑥 − 6𝑦 2 + 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑒 𝑥 − 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2 ⟹ = 6𝑦 2 − 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2
𝑑𝑦

𝑑𝑔 𝑑𝑔
𝑔 𝑔=∫
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦

𝑑𝑔
∫ 𝑑𝑦
= 𝑔 = ∫ (6𝑦 2 − 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2 )𝑑𝑦 = ∫ 6𝑦 2 𝑑𝑦 − ∫ 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2 𝑑𝑦 = 2𝑦 3 − 𝑥 2 𝑦 3
∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑐

𝑦𝑒 𝑥 − 2𝑦 3 + 2𝑦 3 − 𝑥 2 𝑦 3 = 𝑐

𝑦𝑒 𝑥 − 𝑥 2 𝑦 3 = 𝑐

𝑦𝑒 𝑥 − 𝑥 2 𝑦 3 = 𝑐,

𝑦 𝑥

## (𝑦𝑒 𝑥 −2𝑥𝑦 3 )𝑑𝑥 + (𝑒 𝑥 − 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2 )𝑑𝑦 = 0

𝑦𝑒 𝑥 − 𝑥 2 𝑦 3 = 𝑐

(𝑦𝑒 𝑥 )´ = 𝑦𝑒 𝑥 + 𝑦´𝑒 𝑥

(−𝑥 2 𝑦 3 )´ = −𝑥 2 3𝑦 2 𝑦´ − 2𝑥𝑦 3

## 𝑦𝑒 𝑥 + 𝑦´𝑒 𝑥 − 𝑥 2 3𝑦 2 𝑦´ − 2𝑥𝑦 3 = 0 ⟹ (𝑒 𝑥 − 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2 )𝑦´ + (𝑦𝑒 𝑥 − 2𝑥𝑦 3 ) = 0

𝜕𝑦
𝑦´ 𝜕𝑥

𝑑𝑦
(𝑒 𝑥 − 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2 ) + (𝑦𝑒 𝑥 − 2𝑥𝑦 3 ) = 0
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑥

## (𝑦𝑒 𝑥 −2𝑥𝑦 3 )𝑑𝑥 + (𝑒 𝑥 − 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2 )𝑑𝑦 = 0

(𝑦 − 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑦 = 0

𝑁 𝑦
𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦) 𝑦

𝜕𝑓
𝑓 = 𝑁.
𝜕𝑦
𝑁 𝑦 𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦)
𝑦

𝑓 = ∫ 𝑁𝑑𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑥)

## 𝑓 = ∫ 𝑁𝑑𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑥) = ∫ 𝑥𝑑𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑥) = 𝑥𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑥)

𝜕𝑓 𝜕∫ 𝑁𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑔
𝑓 𝑥 = + 𝑑𝑥
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥

𝜕𝑓 𝜕(𝑥𝑦) 𝑑𝑔 𝑑𝑔
= + 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑦 + 𝑑𝑥
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥

𝜕𝑓
=𝑀
𝜕𝑥

𝑑𝑔 𝑑𝑔
𝑦 + 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑦 − 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 ⟹ = − 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥
𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑔 𝑑𝑔
𝑔 𝑔=∫
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

## 𝑔 = ∫ − 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥𝑑𝑥 = −𝑥𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥

∫ 𝑁𝑑𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑥) = 𝑐
𝑥𝑦 − 𝑥𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 = 𝑐

(𝑦 − 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑦 = 0

𝑥𝑦 − 𝑥𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 = 𝑐

(𝑥𝑦)´ = 𝑦 + 𝑥𝑦´

## (𝑥𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥)´ = 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛x

(𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥)´ = −𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥

𝑑𝑦
𝑦 + 𝑥𝑦´ − 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥 = 0 ⟹ 𝑦 − 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝑥𝑦´ = 0 ⟹ 𝑦 − 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝑥 =0
𝑑𝑥
(𝑦 − 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑦 = 0

3𝑦 2 5𝑥
( 2
)𝑑𝑥 + (2𝑦𝑙𝑛 + 3𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑦)𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝑥 + 3𝑥 𝑥+3

3𝑦 2
𝜕𝑀 𝜕 (𝑥 2 +3𝑥) 3
= = 2𝑦
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝑥2 + 3𝑥
5𝑥
𝜕𝑁 𝜕(2𝑦𝑙𝑛 𝑥+3 + 3s𝑖𝑛𝑦) (𝑥 + 3) (𝑥 + 3)(5) − (5𝑥)(1) 1 5𝑥 + 15 − 5𝑥
= = 2𝑦 ∙ = 2𝑦 ∙
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 5𝑥 (𝑥 + 3) 2 5𝑥 (𝑥 + 3)
1 5𝑥 + 15 − 5𝑥 15 3
= 2𝑦 ∙ = 2𝑦 = 2𝑦
5𝑥 (𝑥 + 3)2 5𝑥(𝑥 + 3) 𝑥 2 + 3𝑥

𝜕𝑓
𝑓 = 𝑁 ⟹ 𝑓 = ∫ 𝑁𝑑𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑥)
𝜕𝑦

5𝑥 5𝑥
𝑓 = ∫ (2𝑦𝑙𝑛 + 3𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑦)𝑑𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑥) = 𝑙𝑛 ∫ 2𝑦𝑑𝑦 + 3∫ 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑑𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑥)
𝑥+3 𝑥+3
5𝑥
𝑓 = 𝑦 2 𝑙𝑛( ) − 3𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑥)
𝑥+3

𝑓 𝑥
5𝑥
𝜕𝑓 𝜕(𝑦 2 𝑙𝑛( )−3𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑦) 𝑑𝑔 (𝑥+3) (𝑥+3)(5)−(5𝑥)(1) 𝑑𝑔 3𝑦 2 𝑑𝑔
= 𝑥+3
+ 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑦 2 ∙ (𝑥+3)2
+ 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥 2 +3𝑥 + 𝑑𝑥
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 5𝑥

𝜕𝑓
=𝑀
𝜕𝑥

3𝑦 2 𝑑𝑔 3𝑦 2 𝑑𝑔
+ = ⟹ = 0 ⟹ 𝑔(𝑥) = 0.
𝑥 2 + 3𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑥 2 + 3𝑥 𝑑𝑥

5𝑥
𝑦 2 𝑙𝑛( ) − 3𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑦 = 𝑐
𝑥+3

5𝑥 3 5𝑥
[𝑦 2 𝑙𝑛( ) − 3𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑦 = 𝑐]´ = 𝑦 2 2 + 2𝑦𝑦´𝑙𝑛( ) + 3𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝑦) ∙ 𝑦´ = 0
𝑥+3 𝑥 + 3𝑥 𝑥+3
3𝑦 2 5𝑥 3𝑦 2 5𝑥
= 𝑥 2 +3𝑥 + [( 2𝑦𝑙𝑛(𝑥+3) + 3𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝑦)] 𝑦´ ⟹ (𝑥 2 +3𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + (2𝑦𝑙𝑛 𝑥+3 + 3𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑦)𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑁𝑑𝑦 = 0,

𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑁𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝐻(𝑥, 𝑦)

## 𝐻(𝑥, 𝑦) 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑁𝑑𝑦 = 0.

𝐻(𝑥, 𝑦)

𝐻(𝑥, 𝑦) 𝑥
1 𝜕𝑀 ∂𝑁
( − ) = 𝑓(𝑥)
𝑁 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝐻(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑒 ∫ 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥

𝐻(𝑥, 𝑦) 𝑦

1 𝜕𝑁 𝜕𝑀
( − ) = 𝑔(𝑦)
𝑀 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦
𝐻(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑒 ∫ 𝑔(𝑦)𝑑𝑦

1
𝑀 = 𝑦𝑓(𝑥𝑦) 𝑁 = 𝑥𝑔(𝑥𝑦) ⟹ 𝐻(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑥𝑀−𝑦𝑁
𝐻(𝑥, 𝑦)

𝐻(𝑥, 𝑦) 𝑦

(1 − 𝑥𝑦)𝑦´ = 𝑦 2

## 𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦)𝑑𝑥 + 𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦)𝑑𝑦 = 0

𝑦 2 𝑑𝑥 + (𝑥𝑦 − 1)𝑑𝑦 = 0

𝜕𝑀 𝜕( 𝑦 2 )
= = 2𝑦
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦

𝜕𝑁 𝜕(𝑥y − 1)
= =𝑦
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥

1 𝜕𝑁 𝜕𝑀
( 𝜕𝑥 − ) = 𝑔(𝑦)
𝑀 𝜕𝑦
𝐻(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑒 ∫ 𝑔(𝑦)𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑦
1 𝜕𝑁 𝜕𝑀 1 −𝑦 −∫ −1 1
= 𝑀 ( 𝜕𝑥 − ) = 𝑦 2 (𝑦 − 2𝑦) = ⟹ 𝐻(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑒 𝑦 = 𝑒 𝑙𝑛𝑦 = 𝑦 −1 = 𝑦
𝜕𝑦 𝑦2

1
𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑦
𝑦 2 𝑑𝑥 + (𝑥𝑦 − 1)𝑑𝑦 = 0
1 1 1
𝑦 2 𝑑𝑥 + (𝑥𝑦 − 1)𝑑𝑦 = 0 ⟹ 𝑦 𝑦 2 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑦 (𝑥𝑦 − 1)𝑑𝑦 = 𝑦𝑑𝑥 + (𝑥 − 𝑦) 𝑑𝑦 = 0
1 1
𝑦𝑑𝑥 + (𝑥 − 𝑦) 𝑑𝑦 = 0 𝑀 = 𝑦, 𝑁 (𝑥 − 𝑦) ⟹
1
𝜕𝑀 𝜕(𝑦) 𝜕𝑁 𝜕(𝑥− )
𝑦
= =1, = = 1.
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥

1
𝑦𝑑𝑥 + (𝑥 − 𝑦) 𝑑𝑦 = 0

𝜕𝑓
𝑓 = 𝑀 ⟹ 𝑓 = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) ⟹ 𝑓 = ∫ 𝑦𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) ⟹
𝜕𝑥
𝜕𝑓 𝜕∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑔
𝑓 = 𝑥𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑦). 𝑓 𝑦 = + 𝑑𝑦 ⟹
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦
𝜕𝑓 𝜕(𝑥𝑦) 𝑑𝑔 𝜕𝑓 𝑑𝑔 𝜕𝑓 𝑑𝑔 1 𝑑𝑔 1
= + 𝑑𝑦 ⟹ 𝜕𝑦 = 𝑥 + 𝑑𝑦 . = 𝑁 ⟹ 𝑥 + d𝑦 = 𝑥 − 𝑦 ⟹ = − 𝑦.
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑔 𝑑𝑦 1
𝑔 ⟹ 𝑔 = −∫ = −𝑙𝑛𝑦 = 𝑙𝑛𝑦 −1 = 𝑙𝑛 𝑦
𝑑𝑦 𝑦

∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑐

1
𝑐 = 𝑥𝑦 + 𝑙𝑛
𝑦

1
𝑐 = 𝑥𝑦 + 𝑙𝑛 𝑦

1 −𝑦´ 𝑦´ 1 1
0 = 𝑥𝑦´ + 𝑦 + 1 ∙ = 𝑥𝑦´ + 𝑦 − = (𝑥 − 𝑦) 𝑦´ + 𝑦 ⟹ 𝑦𝑑𝑥 + (𝑥 − 𝑦) 𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝑦2 𝑦
𝑦
𝑒 𝑥 (1 + 𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = (𝑥𝑒 𝑥 − 𝑦𝑒 𝑦 )𝑑𝑦

## 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑁𝑑𝑦 = 0 ⟹ 𝑒 𝑥 (1 + 𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + (y𝑒 𝑦 − 𝑥𝑒 𝑥 )𝑑𝑦 = 0

𝜕𝑀 𝜕(𝑒 𝑥 (1+𝑥)) 𝜕𝑁 𝜕(𝑦𝑒 𝑦 −𝑥𝑒 𝑥 )
= =0 ≠ = = −𝑒 𝑥 (1 + 𝑥)
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥

𝑤
𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁 𝜕(𝑒 𝑥 (1+𝑥)) 𝜕(𝑦𝑒 𝑦 −𝑥𝑒 𝑥 )
𝑀(𝑦) = 𝑐𝑒 ∫ −𝑀𝑑𝑦 𝑤= − 𝜕𝑥 ⟹ 𝑤 = − = 𝑒 𝑥 (1 + 𝑥) ⟹
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝑒𝑥 (1+𝑥)
∫ 𝑑𝑦 1
𝑀(𝑦) = 𝑒 −𝑒𝑥 (1+𝑥) = 𝑒 −∫ 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑒 −𝑦 = 𝑒𝑦
1
𝑀(𝑦) = 𝑦
𝑒 𝑥 (1 + 𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + (𝑦𝑒 𝑦 − 𝑥𝑒 𝑥 )𝑑𝑦 = 0
1 𝑥 1 𝑦 𝑥 )𝑑𝑦
𝑒𝑥 𝑥𝑒 𝑥
𝑒 (1 + 𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + (𝑦𝑒 − 𝑥𝑒 = 0 ⟹ (1 + 𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + (𝑦 − ) 𝑑𝑦 = 0 ⟹
𝑒𝑦 𝑒𝑦 𝑒𝑦 𝑒𝑦
𝑒 𝑥−𝑦 (1 + 𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + (𝑦 − 𝑥𝑒 𝑥−𝑦 )𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝜕𝑀 𝜕(𝑒 𝑥−𝑦 (1+𝑥)) 𝜕(−𝑥𝑒 𝑥−𝑦 )
= = −(1 + 𝑥)𝑒 𝑥−𝑦 =
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

⟹ ⟹
𝑥−𝑦 (1 𝑥−𝑦 )𝑑𝑦
𝑒 + 𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + (𝑦 − 𝑥𝑒 =0

𝜕𝑓
𝑓 = 𝑁 ⟹ 𝑓 = ∫ 𝑁𝑑𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑥) ⟹
𝜕𝑦

𝑦2
𝑓 = ∫ (y − 𝑥𝑒 𝑥−𝑦 )𝑑𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑥) = ∫ 𝑦𝑑𝑦 − ∫ 𝑥𝑒 𝑥−𝑦 𝑑𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑥) ⟹ 𝑓 = + 𝑥𝑒 𝑥−𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑥).
2
𝜕𝑓 𝑑𝑔 𝜕𝑓
𝑓 𝑥 = −(1 + 𝑥)𝑒 𝑥−𝑦 + 𝑑𝑥 =𝑀⟹
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥

𝑑𝑔 𝑑𝑔
= −(1 + 𝑥)𝑒 𝑥−𝑦 + = 𝑒 𝑥−𝑦 (1 + 𝑥) ⟹ = 0 ⟹ 𝑔(𝑥) = 0.
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

∫ 𝑁𝑑𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑥) = 𝑐

𝑐 = 𝑦 2 + 2𝑥𝑒 𝑥−𝑦
𝑐 = 𝑦 2 + 2𝑥𝑒 𝑥−𝑦

## Forma de los Factor de

términos de la integración Diferencial exacta
ecuación diferencial 𝑯(𝒙, 𝒚)
1 𝑥𝑑𝑦 − 𝑦𝑑𝑥 𝑦
𝑦𝑑𝑥 − 𝑥𝑑𝑦 − = 𝑑( )
𝑥2 𝑥 2 𝑥
1 𝑥𝑑𝑦 − 𝑦𝑑𝑥 𝑥
𝑦𝑑𝑥 − 𝑥𝑑𝑦 = 𝑑( )
𝑦2 𝑦 2 𝑦
1 𝑥𝑑𝑦 − 𝑦𝑑𝑥 𝑦
𝑦𝑑𝑥 − 𝑥𝑑𝑦 − = 𝑑(𝑙𝑛 )
𝑥𝑦 𝑥𝑦 𝑥
1 𝑥𝑑𝑦 − 𝑦𝑑𝑥 𝑥
𝑦𝑑𝑥 − 𝑥𝑑𝑦 − = 𝑑(𝑡a𝑛−1 )
𝑥2 + 𝑦2 2
𝑥 +𝑦 2 𝑦
1 𝑦𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑦
𝑦𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑦 = 𝑑(𝑙𝑛𝑥𝑦)
𝑥𝑦 𝑥𝑦
1 𝑦𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑦 −1
𝑦𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑦 , 𝑛>1 = 𝑑[( )]
(𝑥𝑦)𝑛 (𝑥𝑦)𝑛 (𝑛 − 1)(𝑥𝑦)𝑛−1
1 𝑦𝑑𝑦 + 𝑥𝑑𝑥 1
𝑦𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑦 = 𝑑( 𝑙𝑛𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 )
𝑥2 + 𝑦2 2
𝑥 +𝑦 2 2
𝑦𝑑𝑦 + 𝑥𝑑𝑥
=
1 (𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 )𝑛
𝑦𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑦 , 𝑛>1
(𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 )𝑛 −1
𝑑[( )]
2(𝑛 − 1)(𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 )𝑛−1

𝑎𝑦𝑑𝑥
𝑥 𝑎−1 , 𝑦 𝑏−1 𝑥 𝑎−1 𝑦 𝑏−1 (𝑎𝑦𝑑𝑥 + 𝑏𝑥𝑑𝑦) = 𝑑(𝑥 𝑎 𝑦 𝑏 )
− 𝑏𝑥𝑑𝑦 𝑎, 𝑏 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑠
𝑑𝑁
= 𝑘𝑁.
𝑑𝑡
𝑁(𝑡) 𝑡

𝑑𝑁
= −𝑘𝑁, 𝑘 > 0.
𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑁 𝑑𝑁
𝑁 = −𝑘𝑁 ⟹ = −𝑘𝑑𝑡 ⟹ 𝑙𝑛𝑁 = 𝑘𝑡 + 𝑐
𝑑𝑡 𝑁
𝑐

𝑁 = 𝑁0 𝑡=0

## 𝑙𝑛𝑁 = 𝑘𝑡 + 𝑐 ⟹ 𝑙𝑛𝑁 = 𝑘𝑡 + 𝑙𝑛𝑁0 ⟹ 𝑒 𝑙𝑛𝑁 = 𝑒 (𝑘𝑡+𝑙𝑛𝑁0 ) ⟹

𝑃 = 𝑒 𝑘𝑡 ∙ 𝑒 𝑙𝑛𝑁0

𝑒 𝑙𝑛𝑁0 𝑃0

𝑁 = 𝑁0 𝑒 𝑘𝑡

𝑁(0) = 1 ⟹ 1 = 𝑁0 𝑒 𝑘(0) ⟹ 1 = 𝑁0

𝑁(3,3) = 0,5
1
1 1 1 𝑙𝑛 2 𝑙𝑛2
= 𝑒 (−3,3)𝑘 ⟹ 𝑙𝑛 = 𝑙𝑛𝑒 (−3,3)𝑘 ⟹ 𝑙𝑛 = −3,3𝑘 ⟹ 𝑘 = ⟹𝑘=
2 2 2 −3,3 3,3
𝑙𝑛2
1 = 𝑁0 𝑘= 3,3

𝑙𝑛2
− 𝑡
𝑁=𝑒 3,3

𝑁(𝑡) = 0,2 .
𝑙𝑛2
− 𝑡 𝑙𝑛2 𝑙𝑛0,2 𝑙𝑛20
0,2 = 𝑒 3,3 ⟹ 𝑙𝑛0,2 = − 3,3 𝑡 ⟹ 𝑡 = 3,3 −𝑙𝑛2 ⟹ 𝑡 = 3,3 ⟹ 𝑡 = 14,26
𝑙𝑛2

𝐹(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑦´, ⋯ , 𝑦 𝑛 ) = 0 𝐹
𝑦, 𝑦´, ⋯ , 𝑦 𝑛
𝑛

## 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = −𝑃(𝑥)𝑦 + 𝑄(𝑥) 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)

𝑦´ + 𝑃(𝑥)𝑦 = 𝑄(𝑥)

𝑃(𝑥) 𝑄(𝑥) 𝑥
𝑑𝑦
+ 𝑃(𝑥)𝑦 = 𝑄(𝑥)
𝑑𝑥
𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 𝑦
𝑑 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦
(𝑒 . 𝑦) = 𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 + 𝑦𝑃𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 ( + 𝑃𝑦)
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦
+ 𝑝(𝑥)𝑦 = 𝑞(𝑥) 𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦
𝑒 + 𝑃(𝑥)𝑦𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 = 𝑄(𝑥)𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 ⟹ 𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 ( + 𝑃𝑦) = 𝑄(𝑥)𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 ⟹
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑑 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥
(𝑒 . y) = 𝑄(𝑥)𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑥

## ∫ 𝑑(𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 . 𝑦) = ∫ 𝑄(𝑥)𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 ⟹ 𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 . 𝑦 = ∫ 𝑄(𝑥)𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑐 ⟹

1
𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 . 𝑦 = ∫ 𝑄(𝑥)𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑐 ⟹ 𝑦 = ∫ 𝑄(𝑥)𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑐 ⟹
𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦
𝑦 = 𝑒 −∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 (∫ 𝑄(𝑥)𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑐 ) + 𝑃(𝑥)𝑦 = 𝑄(𝑥)
𝑑𝑥

𝑦´ − 2𝑦 = 5

𝑃(𝑥) = −2 𝑄(𝑥) = 5
𝑑𝑦
∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 = ∫ − 2𝑑𝑥 = −2𝑥 ⟹ 𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 −2𝑥 − 2𝑦 =
𝑑𝑥
5 𝑒 −2𝑥
𝑑𝑦 𝑑 𝑑
𝑒 −2𝑥 − 2𝑦𝑒 −2𝑥 = 5 𝑒 −2𝑥 ⟹ (𝑦𝑒 −2𝑥 ) ⟹ 5 𝑒 −2𝑥 ⟹ ∫ (𝑦𝑒 −2𝑥 )𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 5 𝑒 −2𝑥 𝑑𝑥 ⟹
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

5
5 −2𝑥 − 3 𝑒 −2𝑥 𝑐 5
−2𝑥 2𝑥
𝑦𝑒 =− 𝑒 +𝑐 ⟹𝑦 = + ⟹ 𝑦 = 𝑐𝑒 −
2 𝑒 −2𝑥 𝑒 −2𝑥 2

## 𝑦 = 𝑒 −∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 (∫ 𝑄(𝑥)𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑐 )

𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥

𝑥𝑦´ + 𝑦 = 𝑥 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥
𝑑𝑦
+ 𝑃(𝑥)𝑦 = 𝑄(𝑥). 𝑥 ⟹
𝑑𝑥

𝑥 𝑑𝑦 1 1 𝑑𝑦 1 1 𝑑𝑦 1
´ + 𝑥 𝑦 = 𝑥 𝑥 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 ⟹ 𝑑𝑥 + (𝑥)𝑦 = (𝑥)𝑥 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 ⟹ 𝑑𝑥 + (𝑥)𝑦 = 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥
𝑥 𝑑𝑥

1
𝑃(𝑥) = 𝑥 𝑄(𝑥) = 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥
1
∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑙𝑛𝑥 ⟹ 𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 𝑙𝑛𝑥 = 𝑥
𝑑𝑦 1
+ (𝑥)𝑦 = 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 𝑥
𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦 1 𝑑𝑦
∙ 𝑥 + 𝑥 ∙ ( ) 𝑦 = 𝑥(𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥) ⟹ 𝑥 + 𝑦 = 𝑥 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 ⟹
𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑥𝑑𝑦 + 𝑦𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 𝑑𝑥 ⟹ 𝑑(𝑥𝑦) = 𝑥 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 𝑑𝑥 ⟹ ∫ 𝑑(𝑥𝑦) = ∫ 𝑥 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 𝑑𝑥 ⟹

## 𝑦 = 𝑥𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥 + 2𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 − 2𝑥 −1 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐𝑥 −1

∫ 𝑥 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦
=𝑦+4
𝑑𝑥

⟹ ⟹ ⟹
⟹ ⟹ ⟹ ⟹
𝑑𝑦
=𝑦+4
𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦
−𝑦 =4 𝑃(𝑥) = −1 𝑄(𝑥) = 4
𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦
∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 = −1𝑑𝑥 = −𝑥 ⟹ 𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 −𝑥 −𝑦 =4
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦 𝑑
𝑒 −𝑥 𝑒 −𝑥 − 𝑒 −𝑥 𝑦 = 4𝑒 −𝑥 ⟹ 𝑑𝑥 (𝑦𝑒 −𝑥 ) = 4𝑒 −𝑥
𝑑𝑥

𝑦𝑒 −𝑥 = −4𝑒 −𝑥 + 𝑐 ⟹ 𝑦 = 𝑐𝑒 𝑥 − 4.
𝑑𝑦
=𝑦+4
𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦
=𝑦+4 𝑀𝑑𝑦 + 𝑁𝑑𝑥, (𝑦 + 4)𝑑𝑥 + (−1)𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝑑𝑥
𝑀 = 𝑦 + 4, 𝑁 = −1
𝜕𝑀 𝜕( 𝑦+4) 𝜕𝑁 𝜕(−1)
= =1 = =0
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥

1 𝜕𝑁 𝜕𝑀
( 𝜕𝑥 − ) = 𝑔(𝑦)
𝑀 𝜕𝑦
𝐻(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑒 ∫ 𝑔(𝑦)𝑑𝑦

1 𝜕𝑁 𝜕𝑀 1 1 −∫
𝑑𝑦 1
= ( − )= (0 − 1) = − ⟹ 𝐻(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑒 𝑦+4 =
𝑀 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝑦+4 𝑦+4 𝑦+4
1
𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑦+4
𝑦 2 𝑑𝑥 + (𝑥𝑦 − 1)𝑑𝑦 = 0
1 1 1
(𝑦 + 4)𝑑𝑥 + (−1)𝑑𝑦 = 0 ⟹ (1)𝑑𝑥 − 𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝑦+4 𝑦+4 𝑦+4
1
(1)𝑑𝑥 − 𝑦+4 𝑑𝑦 = 0 𝑀 = 1,
1
1 𝜕𝑀 𝜕(1) 𝜕𝑁 𝜕(− )
𝑦+4
𝑁 − 𝑦+4 ⟹ = =0, = = 0.
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥

1
⟹ 𝑑𝑥 − 𝑦+4 𝑑𝑦

𝜕𝑓
𝑓 = 𝑀 ⟹ 𝑓 = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) ⟹ 𝑓 = ∫ 1𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) ⟹
𝜕𝑥
𝜕𝑓 𝜕∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑔
𝑓 = 𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦). 𝑓 𝑦 = + 𝑑𝑦 ⟹
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦
𝜕𝑓 𝜕(𝑥) 𝑑𝑔 𝜕𝑓 𝑑𝑔 𝜕𝑓 𝑑𝑔 1 𝑑𝑔
= + ⟹ =+ . =𝑁⟹+ =− .
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝑑𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝑑𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝑑𝑦 𝑦+4 𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑦 −1 1
𝑔 ⟹ 𝑔 = −∫ = −𝑙𝑛(𝑦 + 4) = 𝑙𝑛(𝑦 + 4) = 𝑙𝑛 𝑦+4
𝑦+4

∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑐

1
𝑐 = 𝑥 + 𝑙𝑛
𝑦+4

𝑑𝑦
=𝑦+4
𝑑𝑥

𝑦 = 𝑐𝑒 𝑥 − 4

1
𝑐 = 𝑥 + 𝑙𝑛 𝑦+4

1 1 𝑙𝑛
1 1
𝑐 = 𝑥 + 𝑙𝑛 ⟹ 𝑐 − 𝑥 = 𝑙𝑛 ⟹ 𝑒 𝑐−𝑥 = 𝑒 𝑦+4 = ⟹
𝑦+4 𝑦+4 𝑦+4
1
𝑦 + 4 = 𝑒 𝑐 𝑒 −𝑥 = 𝑐𝑒 𝑥 ⟹ 𝑦 = 𝑐𝑒 𝑥 − 4
𝐿 𝑅
𝐿 𝑅 𝑖(𝑡)
𝑑𝑖
𝐿 (𝑑𝑡),
𝑅𝑖 𝐸(𝑡),

𝑑𝑖
𝐿 ( ) + 𝑅𝑖 = 𝐸(𝑡)
𝑑𝑡
𝐿 𝑅
𝐿 𝑅

𝑞(𝑡)
𝐶 𝑞
𝐶

1
𝑅𝑖 + 𝑞 = 𝐸(𝑡)
𝐶
𝑑𝑞
𝑖 𝑞 𝑖= 𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑞 1
𝑅 + 𝑞 = 𝐸(𝑡)
𝑑𝑡 𝐶

1
2
𝑖

𝑑𝑖
𝐿 ( ) + 𝑅𝑖 = 𝐸(𝑡)
𝑑𝑡
1
𝐿=2 𝑅 = 10 , 𝐸 = 12 ,
1 𝑑𝑖
+ 10𝑖 = 12 𝑖(0) = 0
2 𝑑𝑡

1 𝑑𝑖
+ 10𝑖 = 12 2
2 𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑖
+ 20𝑖 = 24
𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑦
+ 𝑃(𝑥)𝑦 = 𝑄(𝑥) 𝑃(𝑥) = 20
𝑑𝑥
𝑄(𝑥) = 24 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑡 = ∫ 20𝑑𝑡 = 20𝑡 ⟹ 𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑡 = e20𝑡
𝑑𝑖 𝑑𝑖
+ 20𝑖 = 24 𝑒 20𝑡 𝑒 20𝑡 + 20𝑖𝑒 20𝑡 =
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
20𝑡 𝑑
24 𝑒 ⟹ 𝑑𝑡 (𝑖𝑒 20𝑡 ) ⟹ 24 𝑒 20𝑡 ⟹

𝑑 20𝑡
∫ (𝑒 ∙ 𝑖) = 24∫ 𝑒 20𝑡 𝑑𝑡 ⟹
𝑑𝑡
6 20𝑡
1 𝑒 𝑐 6
𝑒 20𝑡 ∙ 𝑖 = 24 ∙ 20 𝑒 20𝑡 + 𝑐 ⟹ 𝑖 = 5𝑒 20𝑡 + 𝑒 20𝑡 ⟹ 𝑖 = 5 + 𝑐𝑒 −20𝑡
𝑖(0) = 0 𝑐

6 6 6
𝑖 = 5 + 𝑐𝑒 −20𝑡 ⟹ 0 = 5 + 𝑐𝑒 −20(0) , 𝑐 = −5

6 6 −20𝑡
𝑖= − 𝑒
5 5

𝑑𝑦
+ 𝑃(𝑥)𝑦 = 𝑄(𝑥)𝑦 𝑛 𝑛𝜖𝑅
𝑑𝑥
𝑛 = 0, 𝑛=1

𝑣 = 𝑦 1−𝑛

𝑑𝑦
+ 𝑃(𝑥)𝑦 = 𝑄(𝑥)𝑦 𝑛
𝑑𝑥
𝑣(𝑥).

𝑦´ − 𝑥𝑦 2 + 𝑥𝑦 = 0

𝑑𝑦
+ 𝑥𝑦 = 𝑥𝑦 2
𝑑𝑥
𝑛 = 2 , 𝑃(𝑥) = 𝑥 𝑄(𝑥) = 𝑥
1 1 𝑑𝑦 1 𝑑𝑣
𝑣 = 𝑦1−2 = 𝑦 −1 = ⟹𝑦= ⟹ =− 2 .
𝑦 𝑣 𝑑𝑥 𝑣 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦 1 𝑑𝑣 1 1
+ 𝑥𝑦 = 𝑥𝑦 2 − 𝑣2 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥 ∙ (𝑣) = 𝑥 ∙ (𝑣2 ) ⟹
𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑣
− 𝑥𝑣 = −𝑥 𝑣,
𝑑𝑥
𝑥 𝑃(𝑥) = −𝑥 𝑄(𝑥) = −𝑥

𝑥2
𝑥2
∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 = ∫ − 𝑥𝑑𝑥 = − ⟹ e∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 − 2
2
𝑑𝑦 1
+ (𝑥)𝑦 = 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 𝑥
𝑑𝑥

𝑥2 𝑥2 𝑥2 𝑥2 𝑥2
𝑑𝑣 𝑑
𝑒− 2 − 𝑥𝑒 − 2 𝑣 = −𝑥𝑒 − 2 ⟹ 𝑑𝑥 (𝑣𝑒 − 2 ) = −𝑥𝑒 − 2 ,
𝑑𝑥

𝑥2

𝑥2

𝑥2 𝑒− 2 𝑥2 𝑥2
𝑧𝑒 2 =𝑒 2 + 𝑐 ⟹ 𝑧(𝑥) = 𝑥2
+ 𝑐𝑒 2 ⟹ 𝑧(𝑥) = 1 + 𝑐𝑒 2
𝑒− 2
1 1
𝑦=𝑣 𝑦= 𝑥2
1+𝑐𝑒 2

## (𝑥𝑦 2 + 𝑦)𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑦 = 0

𝑑𝑦
+ 𝑃(𝑥)𝑦 = 𝑄(𝑥)𝑦 𝑛
𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦 𝑥𝑦 2 + 𝑦 𝑥𝑦 2 𝑦 𝑦 𝑑𝑦 1
(𝑥𝑦 2 + 𝑦)𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑦 = 0 ⟹ = = + = −𝑦 2 − ⟹ + 𝑦 = −𝑦 2
𝑑𝑥 −𝑥 −𝑥 −𝑥 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑥
1 𝑑𝑢 1
𝑢 = 𝑦 1−𝑛 ⟹ 𝑢 = 𝑦1−2 = 𝑦 −1 ⟹ 𝑢 = 𝑦 ⟹ 𝑑𝑦 = − 𝑦 2

𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢 1 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢 1 𝑑𝑢 1
= ⟹ =− ⟹ − 𝑦 −1 = 1 ⟹ − 𝑢 = 1.
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑦 2 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑥
1
𝑃(𝑥) = − 𝑥 𝑄(𝑥) = 1.
1
1 1 1
∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 = ∫ − 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑙𝑛𝑥 −1 = 𝑙𝑛 𝑥 ⟹ 𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 𝑙𝑛𝑥 = 𝑥.
𝑑𝑢 1 1
−∙ 𝑥 𝑢 = 1
𝑑𝑥 𝑥
1 𝑑𝑢 1 1 1 1 1 1 𝑥𝑑𝑢 − 𝑢𝑑𝑥 1
− ∙ 𝑢= ⟹ 𝑑𝑢 − 2 𝑢𝑑𝑥 = 𝑑𝑥 ⟹ = 𝑑𝑥 ⟹
𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥2 𝑥
𝑢 1
𝑑 (𝑥 ) = 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑢 𝑦 −1 1
= 𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐 ⟹ = 𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐 ⟹ 𝑙𝑛𝑥 − 𝑥𝑦 = 𝑐
𝑥 𝑥

𝑥𝑦´ + 𝑦 = 𝑦 2 𝑙𝑛𝑥
𝑑𝑦
+ 𝑃(𝑥)𝑦 = 𝑄(𝑥)𝑦 𝑛
𝑑𝑥
1
𝑥 − 𝑦2

1 𝑑𝑦 1 −1 𝑙𝑛𝑥
(− 2
) − 𝑦 =−
𝑦 𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑥
𝑑𝑢 1
𝑢 = 𝑦 1−𝑛 ⟹ 𝑢 = 𝑦 1−2 ⟹ 𝑢 = 𝑦 −1 ⟹ 𝑑𝑦 = − 𝑦 2

𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢 1 𝑑𝑦 1 𝑑𝑦 1
= 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑥 ⟹ 𝑑𝑥 = − 𝑦 2 𝑑𝑥 , (− 𝑦 2 ) 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥 𝑦 −1 = 𝑙𝑛𝑥 ⟹
𝑑𝑥

## 𝑑𝑢 1 𝑙𝑛𝑥 𝑑𝑢 1 𝑙𝑛𝑥 1 𝑙𝑛𝑥

− 𝑥 𝑦 −1 = − ⟹ 𝑑𝑥 − 𝑥 𝑢 = − , 𝑃(𝑥) = − 𝑥 𝑄(𝑥) = −
𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥
1
1 1 1
∫ 𝑃𝑑𝑥 = ∫ − 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = −𝑙𝑛𝑥 = 𝑙n𝑥 −1 = 𝑙𝑛 𝑥 ⟹ 𝑒 𝑙𝑛𝑥 = 𝑥
𝑑𝑢 1 𝑙𝑛𝑥 1
−𝑥𝑢 = −
𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑥

1 𝑑𝑢 1 1 1 𝑙𝑛𝑥 1 𝑑𝑢 1 𝑙𝑛𝑥
∙ − ∙ 𝑢 = ∙− ⟹ ∙ −∙ 2 𝑢 = − 2 ⟹
𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑥
𝑥𝑑𝑢 − 𝑢𝑑𝑥 𝑙𝑛𝑥 𝑢 𝑙𝑛𝑥
= − ⟹ 𝑑 ( ) = − 𝑑𝑥 ⟹
𝑥2 𝑥2 𝑥 𝑥2
𝑢 𝑙𝑛𝑥
∫ 𝑑 ( ) = −∫ 2 𝑑𝑥
𝑥 𝑥
𝑢 𝑙𝑛𝑥 1
= +𝑥+𝑐 ⟹ 𝑢 =
𝑥 𝑥
1
𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐𝑥 + 1 ⟹ 𝑦 = 𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐𝑥 + 1

⟹ ⟹
𝑃1
𝑃2 .
𝑦 𝑃1
𝑥 𝑎 𝑃1

𝑇1 , 𝑇2 𝑃1
𝑃2

𝑊 𝑃1 𝑃2

𝑇1 = | 𝑇1 | , 𝑇2 = | 𝑇2 | 𝑊 = | 𝑊|

𝑇2

𝑇2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 𝑇2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃

𝑇1 = 𝑇2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 𝑊 = 𝑇2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃

## 𝑊=𝑇2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 𝑊 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 𝑊 𝑑𝑦

= 𝑇 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 ⟹ 𝑇 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 ⟹
𝑇1 =𝑇2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 1 1 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦 𝑊
=
𝑑𝑥 𝑇1
𝐹(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑦´, 𝑦´´)

## 𝐹(𝑥, 𝑦´, 𝑦´´)

𝑝 ,
𝑑𝑝
𝑝 = 𝑦´ = 𝑦´´
𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑝
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑝, )
𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦
𝑝 𝑑𝑥
(1 + 𝑥 2 )𝑦´´ + 𝑥𝑦´ = 0

𝑑𝑝 𝑑𝑝
𝑝 = 𝑦´ = 𝑦´´. (1 + 𝑥 2 )𝑦´´ + 𝑥𝑦´ = 0 , (1 + 𝑥 2 ) +
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑥𝑝 = 0
𝑑𝑝 𝑑𝑝 𝑥 𝑑𝑝 𝑥
⟹ (1 + 𝑥 2 ) 𝑑𝑥 = −𝑥𝑝 ⟹ = − 1+𝑥 2 ⟹ ∫ = −∫ 𝑑𝑥 ⟹
𝑝 𝑝 1+𝑥 2
𝑐
𝑙𝑛
1 𝑐 1
𝑙𝑛𝑝 = − 𝑙𝑛(1 + 𝑥 2 ) + 𝑙𝑛𝑐 ⟹ 𝑙𝑛𝑝 = 𝑙𝑛 1 = e 𝑙𝑛𝑝
= 𝑒 (1+𝑥2 )2

2 (1 + 𝑥 )
2 2

𝑐 𝑐 𝑑𝑦 𝑐 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑥
𝑝= 1 ⟹ 𝑦´ = 1 ⟹ = 1 ⟹ = 1 ⟹
(1 + 𝑥 2 ) 2 (1 + 𝑥 2 ) 2
𝑑𝑥 (1 + 𝑥 2 )2 𝑐 (1 + 𝑥 2 )2
1 𝑐 𝑦 1
∫ 𝑑𝑦 = ∫ 1 𝑑𝑥 ⟹ = 𝑙𝑛((1 + 𝑥 2 )2 + 𝑥) + 𝑐2
𝑐 (1 + 𝑥 2 )2 𝑐
1
𝑦 = 𝑐[𝑙𝑛((1 + 𝑥 2 )2 + 𝑥)] + 𝑐3 .

## 𝑥 2 𝑦´´ = 𝑦´(3𝑥 − 2𝑦´)

𝑑𝑝
𝑝 = 𝑦´ = 𝑦´´. 𝑥 2 𝑦´´ = 𝑦´(3𝑥 − 2𝑦´) ,
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑝 𝑑𝑝 3𝑝 2𝑝2 𝑑𝑝 3 −2
𝑥 2 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑝(3𝑥 − 2𝑝) ⟹ 𝑑𝑥 = − ⟹ 𝑑𝑥 − (𝑥) 𝑝 = ( 𝑥 2 )𝑝2
𝑥 𝑥2

θ⟹ ⟹ θ⟹ θ θ θ
𝑢 = 𝑝1−𝑛 ⟹ 𝑢 = 𝑝1−2 = 𝑝−1 ,
𝑑𝑢 1 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑝 𝑑𝑢 1 𝑑𝑝
= − 𝑝2 ⟹ 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑑𝑝 𝑑𝑥 ⟹ 𝑑𝑥 = − 𝑝2 𝑑𝑥 ,
𝑑𝑝
−𝑝2 ,

𝑑𝑝 3 −2 1 𝑑𝑝 1 3 2 𝑑𝑢 3 2
− ( ) 𝑝 = ( 2 ) 𝑝2 ⟹ − 2 − 2 (− ) 𝑝 = 2 ⟹ + ( ) 𝑝−1 = 2 ⟹
𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 𝑝 𝑑𝑥 𝑝 𝑥 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑥
𝑑𝑢 3 2
+ ( )𝑢 = 2 ,
𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑥
3 2
𝑃(𝑥) = 𝑥 Q(𝑥) = 𝑥 2
𝑥3

𝑑𝑢 3 2 𝑑𝑢
𝑥3 ⋅ + 𝑥3 ⋅ ( ) 𝑢 = 𝑥3 ∙ 2 ⟹ 𝑥3 + 3𝑥 2 𝑢 = 2𝑥 ⟹ 𝑥 3 𝑑𝑢 + 3𝑥 2 𝑢𝑑𝑥 = 2𝑥𝑑𝑥 ⟹
𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

## 𝑑(𝑥 3 ∙ 𝑢) = 2𝑥𝑑𝑥 ⟹ ∫ v𝑑(𝑥 3 ∙ 𝑢) = 2∫ 𝑥𝑑𝑥 ⟹ 𝑥 3 ∙ 𝑢 = 𝑥 2 + 𝑐1 ⟹

𝑥3 𝑥3 𝑑𝑦 𝑥3 𝑥3
𝑝−1 𝑥 3 = 𝑥 2 + 𝑐1 ⟹ = 𝑥 2 + 𝑐1 ⟹ = 𝑥 2 + 𝑐1 ⟹ 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥 2 +𝑐 . ∫ 𝑑𝑦 = ∫ 𝑑𝑥 ⟹ 𝑦 =
𝑝 𝑦´ 1 𝑥 2 +𝑐1
𝑥3
∫ 𝑑𝑥 ,
𝑥 2 +𝑐1

x2 𝑐
𝑦= − 2 𝑙𝑛(𝑥 2 + 𝑐) + 𝑐2
2

𝑥
𝐹(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑦´, 𝑦´´)

## 𝑔(𝑦, 𝑦´, 𝑦´´) = 0

𝑝
𝑦´´ , 𝑝
𝑦
𝑑𝑝 𝑑𝑝 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑝
𝑝 = 𝑦´ ⟹ 𝑦´´ = = =𝑝
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦

⟹ ⟹ ⟹ ⟹ ⟹
𝑔(𝑦, 𝑦´, 𝑦´´) = 0 ,
𝑑𝑝
𝑔 (𝑦, 𝑝, 𝑝 𝑑𝑦) = 0

𝑦𝑦´´ = (𝑦´)2
𝑑𝑝
𝑝 = 𝑦´ ⟹ 𝑦´´ = 𝑝 𝑑𝑦. 𝑦𝑦´´ = (𝑦´)2

𝑑𝑝 𝑑𝑝 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑝 𝑑y
𝑦∙𝑝 = 𝑝2 ⟹ = ⟹∫ =∫ ⟹ 𝑙𝑛𝑝 = 𝑙𝑛𝑦 + 𝑐 ⟹ 𝑒 𝑙𝑛𝑝 = 𝑒 𝑙𝑛𝑦+𝑐 ⟹
𝑑𝑦 𝑝 𝑦 𝑝 𝑦
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦
𝑝 = 𝑒 𝑙𝑛𝑦 𝑒 𝑐 = 𝑐1 𝑦 ⟹ = 𝑐1 𝑦 ⟹ = 𝑐1 𝑑𝑥 ⟹ ∫ = 𝑐1 ∫ 𝑑𝑥 ⟹ 𝑙𝑛𝑦 = 𝑐1 𝑥 + 𝑐2
𝑑𝑥 𝑦 𝑦

𝑒 𝑙𝑛𝑦 = 𝑒 𝑐1 𝑥+𝑐2 ⟹ 𝑦 = 𝑒 𝑐1 𝑥 𝑒 𝑐2 ⟹ 𝑦 = 𝑐3 𝑒 𝑐1 𝑥