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L5 - MANIFOLDS & WELL CLUSTERS

• DRILLING TEMPLATES

• TEMPLATE MANIFOLDS

• WELL CLUSTERS AROUND A MANIFOLD

• DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

• MANIFOLD COMPONENTS
– VALVES
– CHOKES
– CONTROL MODULES

• PROTECTION

• EXAMPLES
POSSIBLE SUBSEA TIE-BACK OPTIONS
INDIVIDUAL WELLS
- NO MANIFOLDING
Control umbilical

10” Production Flowline

6” Test Flow
TEMPLATE
MANIFOLD

MANIFOLD WITH
CLUSTER WELLS
M A I N F OCOMPONENTS
MANIFOLD L D C O M P O N E N T S

V A LV E S

• G A T E A N D B A L L D E S IG N S

C H O K E S

• S L E E V E / C A G E D E S IG N

C O N TR O L M O D U LE S

• O N T R E E O R M A N IF O L D
• N o . O F C O N N E C T IO N S

IN S T R U M E N T A T IO N

• P R E S S U R E / T E M P E R A T U R E
• F L O W
• P O S IT IO N IN D IC A T IO N
• L E A K D E T E C T IO N

P IP E W O R K A N D M A T E R IA L S

• C A R B O N S T E E L , D U P L E X , C R A
• S E A L S U R F A C E S IN L A ID
• T H E R M A L E X P A N S IO N
• E R O S IO N / C O R R O S IO N
• IN S U L A T IO N

C O N N E C T IO N S
B O L T E D , C L A M P E D , H Y D R A U L IC . S C R E W E D
Template Functions
• The primary function of a subsea template is to provide guidance for positioning
wells and controlling their positions relative to one another.

• Some specific functions of a subsea template are:

– To provide a guide for positioning the well conductor and guiding the conductor during
installation.

– To control spacing between adjacent well conductors.

– To provide guidance and support for the BOP in some cases.

– To provide guidance and support for well completion equipment (e.g. trees) in some
cases.

– To accommodate pre-installation of well flowline piping and facilitate interface of the


production trees with their flowlines.

– To accommodate pre-installation of tree control hardware and facilitate interface of the


production trees with their controls.
Typical Drilling Template

ALBA FIELD PRE-


DRILLING TEMPLATE
(ahead of jacket
installation)
Manifold functions
The general function of a subsea manifold is to gather and distribute production
through an arrangement of piping and valves. Some specific functions are:

– To collect the flow from individual satellite wells into a production header
and control the delivery of the commingled flow to a field production
gathering flowline

– To collect the flow from several field production gathering flowlines and
deliver that flow to a larger production export pipeline.

– To isolate the production from individual wells and deliver it to a well test
header or a well test flowline.

– To segregate high pressure and low pressure production into separate high
pressure and low pressure headers and flowlines.

– To control the flow from individual wells by means of subsea chokes. Wells
may be choked at the trees or at the manifold.
Manifold functions (contd)
– To distribute injection water or gas from a common supply header to
individual injection wells (water injection or gas injection manifolds).

– To distribute lift gas from a common lift gas header to individual wells (lift
gas manifold).

– To facilitate pigging of subsea pipelines by provision of pig isolation


valves, tees and pig detector instrumentation mounted on the manifold
structure.

– To provide structural support of the piping and flowline connector at the


flowline connection interface.

– To provide ROV or installation tool interfaces for installation of flowlines,


chokes, pig launchers, pig receivers and other components.
MANIFOLD
PRODUCTION PRODUCTION PRODUCTION PRODUCTION
FUNCTIONS FOR WELL 1 WELL 2 WELL 3 WELL Spare
3 PRODUCTION &
2 WATER
INJECTION PT PT PT
WELLS + SPARES PT

SMPM

Pigging
Loop

PRODUCTION
WATER INJECTION
GAS (for Lift) WATER INJECTION WATER INJECTION WATER INJECTION
WELL 1 WELL 2 WELL Spare
TEST LOOP (with
Multiphase meter
MANIFOLD SYSTEM FROM MALAMPAYA DEEPWATER GAS FIELD
NUMBER AND TYPE OF WELL
• PRODUCTION, WATER INJECTION, GAS INJECTION
MANIFOLD DESIGN • GAS LIFT
CONSIDERATIONS • SINGLE / DIAL ZONE OPERATIONS
• DISTANCE FROM HOST FACILITY
• VERTICAL, DIVIATED OR HORIZONTAL WELLS
INSPECTION MAINTENANCE & REPAIR
• PHILOPHY OF OPERATION
• RELIABILITY AND NEED FOR ACCESS
• GENERAL VISUAL INSPECTION
• MAINTENANCE, VALVE OPERATIONS
• REPAIR BY REPLACEMENT
WATER DEPTH AND SEABED TYPE
• LOADS ON STRYCTURE
Self Weight, Impact Snagging, Environmental, Thermal
• FIXING BY GRAVITY BASE, SUCTION PILE OR PILE
INSTALLATION
• LIFT WEIGHT
• TRANSPORT TO SITE
• AVAILABILITY OF LIFT VESSEL AT LOCATION

FLOW & PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS


• PRODUCTION FLOW RATES + TURNDOWN
• GAS LIFT, WATER INJECTION
• CHEMICAL INJECTION
OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
• WELL TESTING (TEST LINE OR MULTIPHASE METER
• PIGGING (LOOP OR SUBSEALAUNCHER / RECEIVER)
• WELL SERVICING. WORKOVER
Template / Manifold Systems

BALMORAL TEMPLATE MANIFOLD


For 14 Well Slots
TEMPLATE MANIFOLD WITH PROTECTION COVER
4 WELL TEMPLATE MANIFOLD SYSTEM
Typical Well Cluster System
VARIOUS WELL CLUSTER
ARRANGEMENTS
Options 2 and 4 are most common
FIELD LAYOUT WITH
CIRCULAR WELL CLUSTER
(Also showing safe handling
areas)
LYELL FIELD MANIFOLD &
WELL CLUSTER (Circular)
MANIFOLD FOR 14 WELLS - Some 2000
tonnes weight
LARGE MANIFOLD - STRASPHEY FIELD
20m x 40 m - (note Reference Markers on
Frame)
TEMPLATE MANIFOLDS vs WELL CLUSTERS ABOUT A MANIFOLD (Advantages and Disadvantages)

TEMPLATE MANIFOLD WELL CLUSTER


Engineering - Complex due to number Of Components - Simple Independent Interfaces
and Contractor Interfaces - Separate Equipment Package
- Tolerated Interfaces on Tree and
Manifolds

Schedule - Template Required Before Drilling - Fast Track Early Drilling


- Integrated Testing Required before Hardware

Field Layout - Top Hole Locations - Flexible Well Numbers


Constrained by Template and locations
- Need for Spare Well Slots - Appraisal well Tie-in Ability

Installation - Heavy Lift and Levelling Required - Lower Weight Manifold Lift
- Not Sensitive to Levelling
requirement

Safety - SIMPOS Problems - Layout Permits Simultaneous


Drilling, Production and IMR
Protection - Inherently Better - Needs Protection on Trees
and Jumpers to be covered

Cost - Large Early CAPEX - Phased CAPEX

Intervention - Restricted Access to Central - Good Access and IMR


Manifold and TreeFaces opportunity

Decommissioning - Plug and Cut all Wells To Release - Simple abandonment


Structure Operations, Lower Weights
- Heavy Lift Vessel Required
GATE VALVE BALL VALVE
LAND BASED CHOKE SUBSEA RETRIEVABLE
SYSTEM - Showing Choking CHOKE WITH CROWN
Mechanism CONNECTOR
GRAPPLING
DROPPED
LOAD
OBJECT IMPACT

50kj
25kj
SNAG
60T

100T

CAPTURE LOAD

INSTALLATION AND OPERATIONAL LOADINGS ON A MANIFOLD


Max Lift Weight (in air) = 90 Tonnes
DRAGGING ANCHORS MANIFOLD PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS
- SHIPPING LANES
- CONSTRUCTION VESSELS
- PRODUCTION VESSELD (FPSOs, FPVs)
>> EXCLUSION ZONES AND PROCEDURES
FISHING GEAR
- DEFINE ACTIVITY
- TYPICAL IMPACTS - 15 KJ
- TYPICAL PULLING FORCES - 35 TO 60 TONNES
>> PROBABILITY + LEVELS OF IMPACT OR SNAGGING
DROPPED OBJECTS
Basic Sources
- DRILLING / COMPLETIONS AND WORKOVER
- SUPPORT AND SUPPLY
- DSV MSV
- ANCHOR HANDLING
- MERCHANT SHIPPING
Areas Addressed
- WHAT OBJECTS HANDLED, SIZE AND WEIGHT
- FREQUENCY OF HANDLING
- FREQUENCY = OBJECT DROP FREQUENCY x PROBABILITY
THAT OBJECT DROPPED FROM GIVEN LOCATION x
PROBABILITY OBJECT LANDS ON THE TARGET
- TARGET AREAS
- WHERE OBJECTS HANDLED
>> LEVELS OF PROTECTION 50 JK etc
>> SAFE HANDLING AREAS
LIST OF SOME POTENTIAL DROPPED OBJECTS

Object / String Dimensions Dry Mass Handling


W L H Tonnes Frequency (per year)
Drill Rig Anchor 5.4 5.4 5.9 12 133
ROV & Cage 3.4 1.8 3.4 3.5 47
Drill Pipe 0.17 0.17 27.9 0.9 312
36” Bottom Hole 0.9 0.9 35.3 15.5 76
Assembly
30” Conductor .76 .76 12.2 5.6 26
18 ¾” Wellhead 1.0 1.0 12,2 6.9 5
15 t Container 6 2.4 2.4 15 500
Full
15t Container 6 2.4 2.4 2.4 500
Empty
Gas Rack 2.1 0.6 1 2.5 64
Skip Full 3 1.8 1.8 5 200
Skip Empty 3 1.8 1.8 1 200
13 3/8” Casing 1 1 12.2 5.6 44
7” Liner 0.5 0.5 12.2 3.6 22
Trees 3.2 3.2 11.4 24 5
Tree Cap 1.1 1.1 1 3.2 12