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Understanding California's Geology

Our Resources - Our Hazards


GOROON (. V~ VLECK. Sftn,'ory


RANDAll M. WARC. DQc;too

DivisIon of Mlrr,; .mel Geology DEPAIlIMENI Of CONSUVAllQN
CACTUS GOlD MINE ..•................................................... 85

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California Earthquake Preparedness :\!nnth

CALNUIAIIClLOlW. ._ .............
.....,.,. . ol'I COI_ _•• .,........"
. . . . . . . . . ,... 0-. ... ,"'. . .

...... _..._---_c..
. . . . . .IFIII.CA _ .
, . . . . . . . CA."II_ ,
7 ....... April 1990 is California Earthquake

...... ....",.W. 3IO . . .

Preparedness Month. The devastating

...- . .

s e 7
..CA-.. . . .

.... $CIlID',_......'''

en,s¢, ._ , 'II 1
magnitude 7.1 eanhquake that occurred
011 October 17. 1989 in the Santa Cruz
Mountains made Californians acutely
aware of the need to be: prepared for an
earthquake event. Approximately 80
_ I l I I X I P I F D I I I . ' FII ,_ percent of the people in California live
"AM IID1' IJIC .FIIMY IIJDClJISIEOOY THI in seismic hazard zones where damaging
.........osrccu_,.mD?J. earthquakes may occur.

The Deparlment of Conservalion. Divi-

Slon of Mines and Geology joins with
DES and other Slale, fedel'1ll, and local
groups 10 provide informalion 011 earlh-
quake preparedness to California citittns.
See page 90. Ihis issue, for procedures
and actions recommended by the Siale
Omce of Emergency Services (DES) 10
plan. pr3Ctice:. and proteci yourself. your
family. your home and workplace from
Ihe effecls of earthquake hazards. ~

" CALIFORNI.... ceOlOCY ....p"ll990

Coastal Landslides Caused By
The October 17, 1989 Earthquake
Santa Cruz County, California
Departmenl of Earth Sciences
Uni... e~ity of California, Sonto Cruz

,, , '*-L!vermore
T he Oc:tobcr 11. 198geunhquakc
(magnitude 7.1) ruptured a 24-milc
(40 km) long segment of the San Andreas
fault zooe in the Sanla Cruz Moumains,
about 54 miles (90 k111) south of San
Francisco (Figure I). The hypocenter wa~
at a depth of 11.5 miles (18 km), and
?,' ,
peak recorded horiwlIlal ground accclcr3- ~,
lions varied from 0.64 g11lvity (g) in Cor-
ralitos. 0.54 g in Capilola. and 0.47 g in
Santa Cruz (Shukal and others. 1989). ~,
This was Ihe largest earthquake in Cali-
fornia since the 7.7 magnitude event on "" ,
the White Wolf fault ncar Bakersfield in LOC4T10N "'41'
1952. and the evcnl on the San
Andreas fault since: Ihe: 1906 earlhquakc \
(McNally and others. 1989). The \
earthquake caused damage and local \
emergencies in Alameda. Conlra Costa.
Marin. Monlerey, San Benito. San Fran-
cisco. San Mateo. Sama Clal"'oI, Santa
Cruz, and Solano counlies. At least $6
billion in damage resulted from the earth-
quake: 62 people died and 3.757 were ",, Sanla
injured (Plafker and Galloway. 1989). \,
EJ:tensivc ground frolcturing and crack·
ing in the Santa Cruz Mountains resulted
from a combination of the severe shaking
and the reactivation of a number of very
large "anciem" landslide masses. lique- " ==
'-... ." ". ...;10 '" II ..
Monterey Bay
faction led to subsidence and formal ion of Landing
sand volcanoes (also called sand boils)
along the San Lorenzo, Salinas, and Pa-
jaTO rivers a.~ ....-ell as in the Moss Landing "Salinas
area. Widespread failure of the sea cliffs
also took place between San Fr:mcisco
and Monterey.
. . Monterey

Landsliding in marine teTmc,;: terroiin

has been as a geologic hazard pnmarily by lilhology. structure. ~lratig­
figo.or. 1. Son fronci1CO Boy oreo. $howin.g the
along much of the California coastline raphy. and eJ:posuTC to wa\'c energy epicenrer of the October 17. 1989Lomo p".to
(Cleveland, 1975). The Sleep. often (Griggs and Johnson. 1979: Griggs and eorthquoke in rhe Sonto Cruz Mounroin$, of,-<.
unvegetated sea cliffs bordering northern Savoy, 1985). These proces~s include .hock zone. mo,n trOCI of rhe Son AndreO$ Foull,
Monlerey Bay clearly reflecllhe effects of bolh hydraulic imlKlct and scour from ond other nearby foults..
active erosional processes. Erosion rates winter Slorms. as well as ma..s movements
here. due 10 both marine :md nonmarine associated with imense rainfall. and, Icss
P'"ocesses. vary from severoil inches to frequently. IIm..5 mo\,cments associated
several feel per year and arc controlled wilh earlhquake~. Although construction


... F,gllre 2. Pion view and
,howlng the locolion and
d,menslons 01 sea e1,H
faIlures os well a, the ge-
ology between Seabright
Beo~h and N_ e"9hton
State &eoch.
I• =

Sol•• -.I.....

of coo),lal proccclioo l>lruclurcs ha.~ Large e:lrthquakcs. such a, lhc October Thc.'>C new strong-motion dala for
~Iowcd cm.ion of the coastline by marine 17, 19119 evenl, arc liiso c:I[);lblc uf pro- coo...t:ll Santa Cruz CounlY arc ...urnma-
prOCC1>~ in some arca.~, mass failure ducing ~ca dirf failurc. !'ilr ex:ullplc. In ri~cd on Table l. It b signific:llll for
conlinuc." 10 take place along both pro- lhe Ocluber II. 1865 (:lppro~'I1l:ltc 6 5 coastal bluff ~tability thai ""rI;mf gnH.lI1d
tected and unprorcclcd bluffs. Thus. sci- m:lgnilude) Sanl:l Cru~ Mount:lms carlll- mOllon of :lbout 0.40g 10 O.60g occurred
cnli.~IS. planners. and developers find thaI quake, lhe .'itllllfl C"'= SI'",i",,1 I 1l:\6S) along the coaStline in the ncar-field. It is
recent events continue 10 push the limits reported that ovcrh:lnging cliff, rctlmlO infcrred thalllQrbmwl ground motion
of coa~lal crO!>iOll landward. grnded HJad~. "below Soquclthe high was 1m the order of0.47g 10 O.64g for
diff~ crumbled into the "C:I," and "a l'on- nC:lr-ficld coa.~tal cliff.... The illlen...ity of
lIyt1rJ.ulic impact and scour arc respon- linuou... cloud of du...t rO.'oC along the cliff... ,haling W:IS VllI on lhe Modified Mer-
sible for cTO!>ion al lhe base of the sea hctwecn CaSlro's Larnlmg (no....• called c:llIl scale. The durntion of ~trong mOl ion
diffs wherever cO:I...I..1protection 1>1 rue- Rio Del Mar):loo Sanla Crul." Durm!' .... hieh :lrrcclcd cliff silibility was on lhe
lures or wide protective beaches arc lhe gre:lt 1906. 8.3 nl:lgnitude carthquakc ordcrof 10 1015 second....
absent. Typically, the cliffs arc undercut "much c;jrth fcll from bluffs ne:lr lhe
over lime Wilh subsequent failure of lhe town" (Capilola)(Uwson. 19(8). It I'" On Novcmber l. 191:19. :I leam of gcolo-
overlying material. As this material falls 3warenttllat I:lrge earthquakes can cause gi~IS videot:lped and phol<>gmllhed the
into the surf ~.onc. it is broken down by inst:ulIaneous clifT relrc:lt :md also coastline belween Oolinas and Monterey.
continued wave aclion lind carried away WC<lkcn .;e:l cliffs through seismic shak- C:llirornia from :m airplane and nOled
(Griggs and Johnson. 1979). mg. forming cracks :lnd ris... ures, thcre!)y many land...lide p:lrlicularly be-
1000re:J.'ing lhe suS(;eplibility of the cliffs twecn Capilol:l and MO.'>s Landing (Figure
Sea cliffs over-steepened by WdVC to sub.'>Cqucnt failurc. I). The videotupc facilit:ltcd subM.-quent
induced erosion al their base arc also mapping of individual ...!ides onto a ttlJlO-
SUM:cpliblc 10 mass failure during hc:lVy EFFECTS OF THE OCTOBER 17. 1989 gmphic ba.'>C map (I inch = 100 fcCl).
minfatl as a result of eleV3led groundwa- EARTHQUAKE ON COASTAL BLUFFS
ler condilions. Such failures are common
in bedrock along joints* or othcr wcak Three key ~tmng-rnOlion ...tmion... tI!'Cr-
plano. and within lhc overlying. less aled by lhe Division of Mine... :lnd Geol-
consolid<ltcd marine lerracc deposilS. al- ogy provided lhe fir~l quantilalive record~ TABLE 1. NEAR.FIElD STRONG MOTtON
luvium. or ...o ils. Sea cliffs protcctcd from for an e:lrlhquake which affcctcd cO:l...lal lorna Prieto Eor1hquok. of Qclober 17, 1989
marinc crosional processes commonly de- bJuff~ (Slwkal :111(1 olhc...... 1989). Prior to
velop a lalus ...Iope at their base whereas October 1989, enginecring geologiMs location of Epic.ntrol
Station Distance AcclerQllon
the upper portions remain steep. Ilcavy who ...ludicd C(>a... tlll bluff Mability wer\'
f"Jinfall may induce failure in both lhe limitcd ttl dc.'>Criptivc interpretlilions of
Co<rol;t01 SMIP 4.4 mi 90" O.S09
talu......lopes and :llong the Cltposcd up!'Cr ...lrong molioll in the ncar-ricld. or h:ld 10
U, 0. 4 79
portion of the dirr. Foreltample. inlen."C eltlr.lpol:lle in'lrument:ll dala ten, of 360" 0. 64 9
r:lin...lOrms in Janu:lry 1982 cau."Cd wide- miles from:m cpicenler to lhe chff sIte. Copitolo SMIP S.6mi 90- 0.479
~prcad failure along lhe cliffs of nonhero By fortuilou... circum'lluICc.... the cpi- U, 0.60g
Monlerey Bay between New Brighlon CClllcr, thc ctla~t:ll c1irf.... :lnd lhe ~Irnng 360- 0.54g
Stale Beach and Rio Del Mar. These motion inSlrUmenl... were all cIO\C 10 exh SonIa Cruz SMIP 9.9mi 90- 0.44g
...lOnns cndllngered cliff top slrueture~ other for the Loma l>riela carthquale. U, 0.40g
:lIld danmged or de...troycd beach h(lu.'>C~ Thi"'l'rovides a new:loo unique dlll:l M't 360· 0. 47 9
(Grigg.~. 1982). which will he helpfUl for quanl Itam'e Dolo from Shokol and others. (1989).
:In:ll~is of eoa-'ital bluff... c1"Cwhcre.


More detailed !round observalions com-
pan:d lithologies. ltlruclllntl and slroli-
graJlhk weaknesses. and potenllal for
additional failure (such as bluff lOp crack!.
landward of the failure area). A review of
hisloric aerial slereo photogmphs and re-
lated Iiterniure. used 10 compare the Oc-
tober 17. 1989 even! 10 bolh prior hlsloric
earlhquakes and recent large storms, indi-
cated thatthe:.c observations Iypify Ihe
effttlS uf large earthquakes 011 sea cliffs
;ll\d that Ihese effects are compantble to
lhose resulting from heavy rninfall.

Coaslal bluff failurel> resull ing from

the Oclober 17, 1989 earthquake occurred
bo:tween San Francisco and Monlerey in
a \,:mety of lithologies and slope condi-
tions. In norlhern Monterey Bay. oclw,,:cn
Se:tbright Beach 10 Ihe norlh and Sunsel
Stale Beach 10 the ,Mluth. there arc excel-
lent c'\:tmples of lhe lithologic and mor-
phologic control over earthquake.induced
sc:t cliff failure. Three main differences Photo 1. Jai,,1 conlrolled wedge foiture i" tho P1ionne PU"limo Formot'on. Mor'''' e.o,io" procoss.,
in lilhology along lhe coastline of north- undercut the!O cliff•• which lOlled olong Inler.o<:l,n9 jo,,,t plo"e..
ern Monterey Bay result in three dl.slinet
types of earlhqu:tke induced failures.

Between Seabright Heaeh and New It is eXlcnsively JOinted ;lIId l>ul>Ceplible to cliff heigh!. and t(l('* support. High eliffl>
Brighlon St:lle Beach (Figure 2). sca wedge failure along joint \urfaces (l'holO "ith widct~ \paced. l>ub-\'enieal Joinh
cliffs are cui into a marine terrnee that is I). The unconl>Olidaled lermce deposlt\ and in:ldequ:tte toe \upportl>uq:tined the
up to 75 feel (25 m) high. This lerrace typically COlll>ist of marine cobble\ over- largc\t ml>t"lllaneou~ and incipient fail-
consists of an uplifted w:tvc<ut bedrock lain by l>hallow marine to eolian l>ands. ures in Iloeakened or undercut sedimentary
platform Ihat is overlain by several feCI of aoo a fluvial conglom(Tdte that is capped rock. Toe support in the form of a shore
terrace deposits (Figure 3). The wa\'C cut by a thin soil horizon. The nearly \erlical platform. revetment. !>Cawal!. or wide
platform il> in a Ihiekly bedded to massive SC;I cliffs in this arca are :tcllvcly crodmg beach i!enerdlly inhibited failure. AI·
siltstone wilh prominent she1l1ags* (Pli- where they are not pr01ceted by revel- though the densily of failures diminished
ocene Purisima Formation). Even lhough mellls. SCllwalls. or a wide l>andy beach. away fronllhe cpicl.'ntral region. sc\'cral
the Purisima Formation IS well indurated. In generdl. where unprotecled. lhe large slides and rockfalls occurred as far
eoarse.grnined ;Ind ",,'CII-jointed Purisima north as D:tly City (photo 2).
Formation erodcl> at a relatively rapid rate
(about 12 to 24 inches per year: 30-60 eml Dall1:tge to private property ;lnd public
yr) (Grii!gs and John'\On. 1(79). struclurel> was minlm;ll ;llong the cllffl> of
thb area with the cxception of the diffs
Scbmic shaking inilialed numerous 1Il111ledi;ltc1)' eal>t of Capitola. In this area
rock faits and blod. falb :tlong this \Ce· bedrock :tnd lerraee dcposits loppled to
tion of coast. Undercut :tnd weakened the beach below:too extenl>ive bluff lOp
bedrock and frneturcd promontories col- fmt'lurmg abo occurred. This eauscd fur-
lapsed along with btufflOp lermce depus- ther damage to walb and foundationl> of
lb. Failure alongjointl>urfaces allowed an ;lpartmcnt eomple\( (already o\'erhang-
large blocls 10 l>Cpardtc from more Inl:tCI mg the \ca diff. PhotO 3) and additional
rock. The si/.t ofthesc failures wa~ de- failure to an :tbandoned diff top public
pendenl on Jomt spacmg and ortentation. rood in the Capitola area.

I'rom New Brighton State Beach 10

Aptos Creel (Figurc 4), an interbedded.
pebbly. eross-bo:dded. moderdtely indur-
ated. and weall) Jointed sand~lone mem-

- / -'
... Figur.3 810ck diogrom UlOw,
ing 'eo cMI"N"'ure ond IypICol
foitu.e .lyle ,n '00 cliffs unde.·
10,,, by well·to,nled P1iocone
ber replaces the JOinted sihl>lOne member
in the Purisima Formallon and underlies
9O-114-foot (30-38 m) high cliffs. TerrJee,mo fQlmohon .a"tono. deposits. conMsting of poorly conMJli·
Nole tho 10.... 0" crock. in the daled s:tnds and inlerbedded pebbles.
P1ei.tocene Ie.roco dopo"" ond poorly sorted fluvial conglomerate. and a
u..dereul .eo cliff thin ~oil horizon. lire aboul 15 feet (5 rn)

CAlifOIlNIA GEOLOGY Apfllt990 n

Photo 2. Lorge coo.tolland.lide near Daly City. Nore th.e pro.umlty of cliff
top hou1."" 10 Ihe head scarp.

F'tlolo 3. 81uHs eOSl 01 Capirolo. Collapoe of lerroce depo.il1 and ..mderlY"'9. ~

exlenSlyely JOInted ,il"Ione further uncHIrmlftfld the eKpa.ed
foundallan of Ihil aparlmenl building

Ihid: and thin to the cast. Seawalls :lnd

rc\·clmcnts. which protcctlhc beach fronl
dcvelopment. isolatc the base of Ihe eliff
from marinc crosion: the upper portions
ofthc cliffs continuc to fail periodically.

Seismic \haking initialcd t.....o types of

failurc here. Trnnslation· (uniform move-
ment) along a joint or wcathcring \urfllce
produced many large slides up 101110 feel
wide (60 m .... ide) Ihal originated in Ihc
upper 36 fcct (12 01) of Ihc sca cliff
(photo 4). Thc scarps of Ihc'iC slides lcnd
to cut vcrticall) through thc Quatcrnary
tcrr.ICc deposit~ and thcn nauen as thcy
approach Ihc Purisim:l FOrm:lllOn (Figure
5). Decp ten~ion cnlcks cut through thc
terrace ueposit~ (Photo 5) :IOU wlh 3-18
feCI (1-6 m) lanuward of maoy of the
scarps: ucpth of cracks Icnds to increa!>C
wilh Ihe si/.c of the scarp (Figure 6).
Some intacl blocks and much l00:.c o;()ll
cascaded down lhe face of the cliff. form-
lOt; 60 foot (20 m) high coalescing talus
cones lhat partially buried somc auto-
rnoblles and blockcd access to homcs
(Photo 6). Pharo ... hrenl<ye leo cl,ff failure abe.... La. 0101 Doye. Failure occurred in the upper 36 f_ (12 m)
of Ihe c~ff and loose molenal cascaded down Ihe .I""p slope. Note the many hous"" both obeye and
below rloe land.llde thor are leopard,zed by >lope faIlure.

78 CALIFORNI .... GfOLOGY ....p"ll'1'90

""" I


In the lo\\.cr 30 fecI (10 ml of the cliff. damage (PhOIO 7). The loose surficial f,gure 4. Plan view and long,tvd'nolse<;lion
the sandstone was undercut by fr.telUring sand liquificd and flo\loed downslope over showing lhe location onod dimenllons of sea cliff
along intersecting conjugate joint scts. a wealhered. Ic~s permeable surface and failures as well os the geology be_n New
Blocks 3 feel (I m) thick and scvcr.l1 (eel into hom~ :lIthe base of lhe sea cliff Srighton Sklte Beach ond Apto. Creek. A 5Onod·
.to". member rlplous the siltstone rnember of
high broke up easily and formed small (Griggs. 1982).
the Pliocene Pumimo Formation fTp)inthi.oreo.
lalus cones. Though fraclured and par-
tially detached from the cliff. many
blocks did not fall and !'Cmaln as unstable

Between Aptos Creek lind Rio del Mar.

semi-eonsolidalcd coli:1n and fluvial
sands (lfthe Plcbtoccnc Aromas Forma-
tion form 75-120 fOOl (25-40 Ill) high,
~ICCP cliffs (Figure 1). The upper 6-15
fect (2-5 rn) arc more cohesive than the
underl)ing p;lrtly consolid:llCd and
weakly cemented sands. Sea walb and
re\'Clm<:ntS thaI prOll:cIlhc back-beach
de\clopmcnl abo protccllhc cliff toe
from W:I\'C lIlducc<l erosion. However. lhe
bluffs continue to fail periodically. as
they did in the IOQ-year Slorm in January
1982 lhat caused eon~lderJble properly

"----,. Photo 5. Deep tension crock in terrace depows. These crocks oflen cut through house foundations
'Ul•..,......... and ,ndicote the polenllOl extent of future fo,lure

Three type~ of earthquake-illdueed fail-

~''''.'',". " ures prevailed along this streich of coast.
"'., ' .. ', ~, 0 The firsllype was a shallow dry SlInd
flow te~s than 3 feel (I m) deep. 15·30
Q <l1li Figure 5. Siock diagram ,how. feet (5-10 m) wide. and 30·60 feel 110-20
ing structure and !ypt<:olioilurl m) long. which origlllalcd well below the
""'., ....... .tyle ,n .eo c1,ff. unodenain by
5Ondstone rnember of th.. Pli.
bluff top (Figurc 8. Pholo 8). A vertical
scarp eUlthroogh a thin. cohesive soil
ocen" Pu,",,,na Formo~on. NOI"
thot th" f<Silure occurr..d ,n th" la)er 10 a failure surfaec lhat paralleled
uPfl'Or portion of the cliff ond lhe bluff face. LOOM: ~and or small blocks
of more eoheSI\"C malerial. often held to-
,, mot"riol cascaded down the
sleep slope gelher by rOOlS. slid along lhis surface
arlCllhen ramped over the less Sleep lalus
dcposil~ allhe base of the slope.

CAliFORNIA OfOlOGY "p"ll990

Photo 6. Vi_ facing east along lo. Olos Drive. ..
Moteriallrom a foil,,'e in rhe "pper port of the
bluff cascaded down lhe slope and blocked
til. ,ood. Nole the relephone pole b'oken by
til. Iondolode

The !>Ccond I)pe of earthquale failure.

larger Iran~l:llional slides. scveml feCi
deep and up to 90 fecI wide_ occurred in
the upper 30-45 fcct (10-15 111) oflhe diff
face where ncar-\'Crtical cliff tops e,\;isled
before the earthquake. These f3ilures
were similar to the failures in Ihe sand-
slone member of lhe Purisima Formalion
(Figure 5). A 3-9 fOOl (1-3 m) \erlkal
scarp cullhrough Ihc morc eohcsi\c soils
Ihal were underCUI by dov. nslope failure
of underlying. less cohesivc soils. Large
inlaCl blocks, }·6 feet (1-2 Ill) lhick. and
loose sand from lhe upper portion of Ihe
cliff cascaded down the slope and lension
cracks up 10 30 fecI (10 01) rormed 13nd-
ll.':Ird of the ~carp~.

_ _ lension crath
A'1":JCs caT p
~lhilure surface
iI "'I'i.~dcbris

100 ft

COnlour interval = 5 feel

.. : ....
• •

Fig"re 6. Deloil. of 'eo d,H fo.I,,'es and len"on crack. Not. the prevolence Photo 7 Slope foilure In 1982t1lot de,troyed a house on ~h Drove. Thi.
of rens.on crocks near the lorge la,I",e. rype of ~o diH fail",e i. very " ro rhat cOU$ed by the October 17, 1989



q OA '.:
:. : . "
:", '.

The lhmll)pc of c:trlhquakc f•• ilurc i:- failure III Ihl' :Irea IXcurred "hen ,h:ll- figure 7. Plan view and long'ludnal'IlCI,,,n
a Iran,I:oliul1al ~liuc. South of M;lI1rc~~1 10"- 'I:tb, ull ltl.l fCCllhtd., "cre dCI:let>ed show,ng the locol,on "nd dimen""", 01 leo cliH
Slale B.::ach (Figure 9). ".nds cOll1po~ing and lr:uhlalcll ,horl Ji'1l!nce\ UOWlhl\lf!C foilurel and lhe geology between Aplol Creek
the dirf, arc Ie" consolid,l[cd and the II'hOlo 9). Till' form of hluff relreat h:!, ond R,o Del Mar.
elirf, arc therefore Ie" l>lllbic. Thi, threalened -e\cr,tl horn.:, :Hld alka'l O'IC
mc[ch of elm, b fronted b)' a wille prn- will bcr;;:ll)('.':lted.
lcctlve "each. During the canhquakc. "
w.:ry large [mn,laltonal slide. 300 feet
(rOO m) wide and 6-9 feel (1-3 01) deer.
undermined 15·)0 fecI (S·IO m) of lhe
dirf'tJp above lhc PI:tcc de \1cr dcwlop-
menl (hgurc II. l>holo H), Large mt,lt'l
block, toppled frollllhc upper 15 feci (S
QI) ,If ,jope while inlact p,lh:hcl> of \nil
held IOgclhcr by rOOIS. and 100M- loOlIlU slid
down the slope 10:. ru."I"',l)'. One hllu'c
and iI' retaining wall S)'\IClll were Ur1ckr-
CUI by the slope "ollap!>C in this area: llle
hou\c had to he dl'moli~heu.

FlInhcr 10 Ihe 'OOlh. Ihe waslal bluff~

mlhe SUl1scl Slale Beach arta (Figurc 9)
con~i'l of weaUy eon~oliualed PICI'lo-
l'Cne dunes (WI'iConsin age; Dupre. 1975)
which havc hccn \Iahili7cd by \'<'~Wl:lli<m.
HOlllcl> ha\'e lx.'Cn buill 00 lhe eroding
edge of lhis :!ncienl dunc complex. Slope

Photo 8. Very lorge dry >and flaw above Place de Mer d.....elopmenl. HaUl.. at the top and bolt of this
10,lure _re 01 r;11t.

. "
.'- Thc lilhology of Ihe M:3 clifT maleri:lls
:..- 0;:"'- - - ,.."'.....
. -
c()fIlrottcd lhe mode of failure al mOSI
loealionl>. Promontorie~. headlands. and
narrow peninsulas Of ridges along lhe
1...··'- _ l·OO.,1 were consi~lclllly the siles of lhe
mO~1 extensivc failure (Pholo 10). On a
larger -.c:lle. SC1<:miSIS also noted Ihi\
e((crl in lhc 5ama Cruz MOUnlainl>. as
a !"el>ul1 of lhis earthquakc (pla",er and
"- Galloway. 191:19). and in Olher areas
where large earthquakcs havc occurred in
lhe pa~1 (ilarpallu olll<:n.. 1981). In lhese
Figure 8. alock diagrom 01 dry IOn<! flow in weakl, conlOlidaled dunel. non-coal>tal :lrC3_~, lhe ground surface
Notelhe lenlion crocks in lhe coOO;"e I","oce 10,.•. Iopo£r:lphy e:lused refleclion of s.::ismic

CIIllrORl'llll. GEOLOGY Apo,II990 81

SunK' Sl)'e Dc..:"
Manrcua Slile Sneh

Q. * 00"",,,, A,,,,,,,, F.,...,...

LI_~lc·'_-,y·=' __ql:''---='Lj4__'':J' ~hk:o
Qo 0-"""'" ._4,


",:1\0; cOIl-trul'Ii\c Interferem:.:-· Ihl.'ll place III lhe pa.!>l :md aid In rel:uing lhe'C figure 9. Plan ",ew and longitudinal secl,on
amplified the iocoming i>Cismic energy, failures 10 enher ltChnnc or ramfall Cllcnh. show'ng me locallon and d,menlion. 01_ cliff
mcr.;~'I.'Cd Ihe <I) natuic ~trc~i>CS. alld foil"" .. and geology b<!tween R,o Del Mar and
cUll,cd rock or ~oil failure. 1I0\\le\'er. the SunSe! Slate Beach.
For cX;l!l1ple. lhe aenal photo~nlph, of
,it.... of the ground \urfacc structure th"1 lhe norlhern MOlllerey Hay eoa,tltne e~­
can refiecI incoming ~cisrnic wa\"cs mU~1 lend back 10 1928 and,~ the changes
be on the '3mc order a~ the seismic wave- 1),·er;1 pcriod uf 60 )·ears. These phOlo- dell1~ of bluff failure ofthi, I) pc are
length (Harp and mhen-. 1981). Thus. graphs e1eilrly s~ periodic shallow retallvcly common. occurrmg every
variations of lhe topography with dimen- failure or sloughing of lhe bluf" and lO-t5 years on Ihc3VerJge.
\Ions of lens of miles will inlcrolct with wide,pread bluff failures lhal occur after
long seismic waves. On the OIhcr hand heavy precipitation. MO!>I often. lhe fall· If [ar1:t.' scale. de"p-,e,lted bluff failure
\ca diff... ""hi{'h arc lens of feel high will ure, He miliated III lhe bluff top terrace o,:curred dunng lhe t906 earthquake. or
nOl respond to long w:l\'c1cnglh.... Ther,'- deposit, and may eXlend atllhe way 10 in the t\\'o llmgnilUde 6.0 e'·ent~ lh31 oc-
fore. the fcpc;llcd failure along lhe lhe baM: of the bluff. Where lhe lhiekness curred on the off~hore San Gregorio f;lUlt
coast:ll promonlOrics and narrow ridllc\ i, nf lhe failed m:lterial l~ great enough. lhe m 1926, it might be expecled lhat .'>Ome
proffilbl) due 10 lhe bek of tiltcral support 1>tt.o.ep slope, produce fJow~ lhat dallmge e\idcnce WQuld be prc.\Cnt in the 1929
durmg lhe imen"C shakin1: r..l lher lhan to ilnd deslroy the homc~ below. The inci· :Icri;ll pholognlphs. The poow~. hO\levcr.
topo~r.lphic amplification.


Seismically indu(·cd coastal bluff fail-
ure wa~ common up to 47 miles (75 km)
from the epicenter of the 7.1 magnitude
Oclober 17 carlhquilkc. The e1iff failure
1ll del/eloped arCilS of the coa.\l
rhl.., to ~lrU'·lure~ on the bluff lOp a~
\lell a, the pril/ate and public structure,
on lhe beach below. One death oc,·urred
on a beach IlOrth of Santa Crul when
~l '>Cction of weak bedrock in a cliff
coJlajhCd onto a sunbathcr.

The lWO geologic hazanh eonsi'lenl I)

identified ill CO:ISlill ~Ite:. in con~ultin~~­
port.!> arc ltCi~mically induced slope fail-
u~ and slope failure induced by excess
waler. Soil properties and ,tope configu-
mtion arc commonly used in sile-'peeifie
,lope ,tilbility analy,b. S\IIdy Orhl'lOri·
cal ~tereo aerial phOl~raph~ can indi'"ale
"here and \lhcn slope failure has tilken
Pholo 9. large dry KInd flows ooo,..e Stole Beoch, One of lh. bluff lap hOllles will b<! moved
foo1her bock Irom the edge 01 the c1,ff

" o.L1fO~NI'" GEOLOGY "'p,,1 19'10

___ EI ..... two

r t l O d t o ~ _

ioiIlt - 0 --. 01 ftadur. ow portillo '"'

... losinahel . . - .... ~ _

....... 01 ~ lISUOI, hon:I rod
h..yh...... "--'11 Oft a aurfoce
oftar fin., IIICIIarioI t - bNn blown
~ by wind ow wo.n.d OWO)' by

... - .... __ -vin ol

IlkJurbed ......... 01 0 IoftdaW" ow

• ',0 • • 1....
IDw. --t'" 01 a _

:I_C~~do=' hp.

Oft 0
•• 00toiJ.fod .........

~ poraIel to ....

Photo 10. hlens,ve slope failur. and ctocking on a narrow ridgil Th,s house w.11 be tom down or>d the
slope will be groded to 0 sofer angle. H.,.,.... below 'h'l foilur. wete evocuoted

MItigation and risl reducllon measures

began wilhm one week of the earthqu;U,.c
show a bluIT configuration .... Uhoul e\i- the top of bluffs. sc\"CrJI <,trueturcs \lerc and included fellC"ing oIT d3ngerous Sites.
dence of any major or deep seated failure. immedialely damaged \lhell c1iITf3ilure culting back o\whangs. and removing
There are extensive areas along Ihe upper lIndermllled the foundallons (PhOlO 3). In lrees from the top and stope of the sea
bluff\ in lhe Rio Del Mar area lhal appear nearly all ea~es of f:lilure. tension cracks cliff. At Silcs where bluff lOp houses had
dCVULd of \'egetalion in lhe 1928 phOlo:.. up 10 JO feel (10111) formed behind the 10 be demolished due to lhe lhreallhey
suggesting n:ccnt failure. [n general. the head of !>Carp~. and in .;ome cases cuI IJOSCd 10 hou"Cs at beach le\1::1. eXlensive
aerial phot:o record Indicates that the lype through hou~ foundation~ (Phot<K 5 and grading was n.-qulred to rcmo\'c and
of coastal bluff failure expected In lhis 10). Crncking 3nd slope failure "ere <;() stabilize the cr.acked bluff top areas.
area during a map earthquake is similar eXlenSI\1:: at thn."'e bluIT top sites that the
to that c'!.pected dunng intcnsc rainfall homes had to be demoh~hed. Two of CONCLUSIONS
C\"Cllh. namely <,hallO\\ surficial failures. Ihcse hOnles were bUIlt 011 vcry narrOl"
up to sc\Cral fCCllhld: al most. The (kto- peninsulas (Pholo 10); the third wa~ at The October 11. 1989 earthquake
ber 17. 1989 earthquake provided an op- the cre~t of a \'cry high. steep. narrow pro\'ided an opportunity 10 obsene lhe
portunily to check these interpret:nions seclion of bluff lOp (PhOIO !I). The~e bluff effect~ of a large earthquake on ~Iope "Ia-
and hazard assessments. top crael~ probably represenl incipienl billlY. Sea cliff f:lilures :llong the e:tto:n-
slidc.-. thaI may fail under winter con(h- ~i\"Cly dc\"Clopcd oorthern MOnIeri:'} Ba}
tions of increased plI1'l: pre!>SUre. The coastline demonstrated bolh lhe hazard
The area" "here lhe e.xtensl\"e damage depth and \I ldth of such cmcks can be II1duced by carthquales and the gcneral
occurred during the October 1989 earth- u.scd as a reas.onablc mdicator of polenllal lIl~tabllit} of coastal bluITs. FaIlures pr0-
quale. and \I here homes rcccncd the bluff top failure dunng \Ci,mic sh:dlllg. duced b} the recent earthquake Otturred
Illlr.>t dama!!c..... cre those that failed most In bluffs lhal were acth'CIy erodll1g (Photo
frequently dunng past epl"'Odc<, of lnlen\C Most of Ihe sea chff~ Included III thl\ 3) :lnd in bluff, thaI were protected from
ralllf:111 a\ ~hO\\n III aerial pholographs. ~tlldy were 100 'leer lU support ~Iopc con- marinc ero:.ion (PhOlO 4 j. Furthermore.
1\long northern Monlerey Bay. the area~ Slruclion. and lhc h:Il.ard of building on narrow ridgc~ ur pro11lontorie~ were 00·
of mOSl frequent f:lilure arc the ~lcep such tocallons IS verified by OO\Crvations. !>Crved 10 be 1lllJ!lllilely 10 !>u~tain SC\'erc
bluff\ CUI into the Pliocene l>unsim3 For- In SC\·crallocation~. nlld-slopc slte~ re- damage (PholO 10). Allhough the earth-
mallon from the L3.. Olas Drl\"elSeachIT cei~'ed debris from upslope failuro:!> quake caused masshe inSlantaneous fail·
StOlte Beach area to Aptos Creel. 3nd Inc (Photo 8), ure. r~idual. .....e alencd bcdrocl and soils
bluIT\ composed of the .....e aUy eon'Oli- ma} expenence IIlcreased erosIon and
daled PleIstocene Arumas Fonu:nion.
l1a:urd~ 10 hou~ al beach !c\'c1 re- failure rales as the typical cyt'1e of winler
\I hleh e'!.tend from Aptos Creel doY. n
!>ulted from failure of lhe cliffs behmd \tonns ballet'> the coastline. Current and
coast 10 La SeI\~J Beach. fUlure dc\l:Ioprnenl proposals along the
lhem. Such failures led to the damage
and e'laCUallon of a number of hou~~ in coa~l !>hould consider lhe evidence and
The lOp. slope. and ba.>e of coa\lal lhe Las Ola~ Drive and Beach Drh'e experience gaillcd from lhi~ earlhquake
bluff, an:: potentially endangered by areas. The hou\C~ bUill c1o"\l::Slto Ihe ba'C 10 evaluale bolh building con~lrnims and
eartt!qu3ke-induccd \Iope failure. lIecc!>- of the bluff!> wcre mo:.t !>u'Ceplible to thl~ lhe feasibilily of hazard mitigation
Sltatm!: costly mll1gatlon rnea~ure,. At t}peofdamage. measures.


Clevelond, G.B., 1975.londsM,ng ,n morine ter· Announcements
rOte terro,n ColifornlO D'~'l!on of M'nes ond
Geology Spe<:101 Report 119, 24 p
Dupr., WR. 1975, Mop lhowing ge-ology ond
liquefo",on potenhol 01 Quaternory depol,t.
in Sonto Cruz Counl)', Col,forn,o; U.S. Geo·
IogJ,oISu.... ey Mis<;e.loneous Field Stud,es Registration and
Mop MF·648.
Grog9', G.B., 1973. Eormquoke o,hy,ty between
Certification Examinations NAGT Spring Conference
Monlerey ond Holl Moon Boy, Col,forn.o:
CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY, ~ 26, no. 5, Eumm~hun\ by lhe S'a'e Iwart! of Rq~i~· The spring conference uf Nallonal A-'loOCi·
p.l03·ll0. lr~lIun for Geulu~'~h and Geuphy"e"IS for al",n uf GeulCJgy Teach"r~. Far Weslern
Gr,ggs, G B. 1982, Flood'r>g ond "ope fo,lure 19'Xl ~ re \l'heelulcd a, r"'l"",, Seellon .... 111 be held May 4-6. 1990 al C,'ru~
du"n9 the Jonuary, 19B2 ,torm, Sonto Cruz C"lIe~e In Af.U~a. CalifornIa. A lwo·d:.y
County. Col,lorn,o: CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY. Ge"l.l~'" ~nd Gcoph)"ei'l field I"p will cowr lhe geologic ,nlerprela·
y. 35, no. 7, p.158-163, Seplember 14, 1990 lion uflhe Precambnan and P..lleOI.OlC
Grig9S. G,8. ond Johnson, R.E., 1979, Erosionol mela",d.,nenlary rud.~, Cello7"ic lecronlc
l,nj:'lneerlnj:' Geul,,~.~' ond ,1,1f retreOl olong lhe northern feal urc" anel ml re,ourcc, of lbe San
Seplember l:'l. 11)9()
Sonto Cruz County coostline CALIFORNIA lJernardlllo Mounlam,.
GEOLOGY, y. 32, no 4. p, 67.76, hlMI filmj:' elale f"r lhe Seplemlll:r 1990
Gr'9gs. G 8. ond So~oy,l.E., 1985,l,~,n9 with ,'X:lllunallon, May I, 1'J90 iP'U"rn:.rL .'/'IIe). For addlllonal mfOrmalion cuntaCI:
the CoMornlO 'oost: Duke 'Y Press,
Durhom, NC. 393 p. 00. Trent. Geology Dcparlmen'
h.r appll,'allt'" fnrm\ c"nl....'l ,hc Boam
Horp, E.l. Wilson, R.C., ond Wieczorek, G.F., C,lru, Collcj:'e. Ho~ RRR
"fftel' al 1021 0 Str",,!. Rlll'l1l A·IOO. Sacrn·
1981,londslode, from the February 4. 1976. Al.u,~. CA 91702.
","nl", C,\ lj~" 14 Phone (lJ Ill) 44~. I '1211
Guatemolo eorthquoke, U.S. Geo109,,01
Su","ey PrOfesSlOnol Poper 1294.A,
lowson, A.C~ ond others, 1908. The CoMorrno
eormquake 01 Ap,,118, 1906. report of the Second International
Col,lornlO S'ole Eorthquake lr....e'I'901Ion 14th Congress - 1990 Conference - Geotechnical
Comm'SSlon, Cornegle 'n.Mute, Publi,ohon
87, Y. I, Woshington, D.C., 451 p.
Mining and Metallurgical Earthquake Engineering and
McNolly. K.C., loy, T~ P,otl,·Que,odo. M., Volen• Institutions Soil Dynamics
..e, G., Oronge, D. ond Anderson, R.5., 1989,
Sonto Cruz Mounto,nslloma Pne'o) eorth· The Fourleemb COllj:'re,s of Ihe C.luneil Tbe Second Inlernalional C"nference on
quake, EOS. TranSOC!lOns, ArnerKOn Geo· of M,n Inl.! and .\1clallurglcal [n~lll Ull(\n~. c.:Olechnical Earlhquake Engllleenng and
ph)'Sl'ol Un,on,~. 70, no, 45. p, 1463·1467. orl.!an"ed hy lhe In"nul'on of Milung and S",I l)ynanucs, organi/.ed by 'he Uni ......"ny
Plol1<er. G., ond Go/lowoy, J.P~ 1989,leuon. Melallurl.!), "",I be b"ld In I:dlllbur~h. of M"",uri·Rolla III e<>operallOn wllh nllle
learned Irom the loma Prieto, ColilornlO, Scotland. July 2-6. 19\K1 profes"onar cnglneermg and getJIeehlllcal
e<lrthquoke of Oc:tober 17, 19B9 U.S. soc,elles, WIll be held m Sl. Lou'S, M"soull
Geologi,ol Survey Circulor 1045. 48 p. on March 11·15. 1991
For full d"':lil, "f lhe Con~re", a"ocialed
Shokol, A.. ReKhle. M.• Venluro, C. Coo, 1., She,'
plenu) and lecbnlcal ""s"on\, and leehnlcal
burne, R., So~oge, M., Darrogh, R. ond Peter. wu", ,'()nlaC' ror n>Ol"C mf..,rmallon COlnaCI
sen, C., 1989, CSMJP strong·mol'On ,eco.ds
from Ihe Sonto Cruz Mounto,ns (lomo Pnetol. The Conference Off'''e Sbamsher I'rllhsh
Col,lornio earthquake of 17 Oc:tober 1989, [n\lllUllOll of r.-llnllll; and Me'allurgy Conference ChaIrman
Coliiornoo Strong Motion Inll'umentOllon Pro· 44 l'or'land I'la"c OcpartmcnlofC,\,lll:.nglllecnng
grom Report No. OSMS 89·06· D;Yl,"on of Unlver~lly of Ml"ouri·Rolia
London WIN 4BR En~land
M,ne. ond Geology. 195 p. ~ TelcphlJll" 01·580 3802 Rulla, MO 65401·0249 USA
hx: 01··06·5.188 'lclcphoOle J I4·3414411\1
Tt'lcfa.. 314·341-4729

GSA/SSA Meeting SSA Meeting

A JOInt llIeellnj:' of lhc CUrUlllcrJn S«'lon The ScNOlulogical Soe.e'y uf America .... ,11
of lhe GeoICJg"al Sueiely of AmerIca (GSA) bold ,he annu:t1mcrling Ma) 2·4. 1990 III
and lbe Sc"molu!:t,cal SOCJel) of AmCrlca Sama Cru/, C"hfornla
(SSAj ""II be held March 25-27. 19'JI In
San l-rJnel'co. CalofornJa I·"r mrormau"n eunl:"':

Fur Ill"re IIlformallon eunlaCI GSA heel l'ollowdl. 1.·205

CIl·ehair RJ) Sullo\'an, Departmenl or Geo· Lawrence Li\'ermore NallOnal Laborah.ry
,,'u:nCl.·~. SJn hal""""o Sla'e UIll.-.:r~lly, Box IlOll
San Franc.\Co, CA.(415) 3311·2061. "r SSA Llvcrmore. CA 94550
C,,·chalr. r.~" Wung, Wood"'·ard·Clyde
Ctln\UllJ1l1\. OaUand, CA.
HI~) 1174·.1014



Photo 1. Aenol v,ew of Moddt. Bultes, (OCM ""no oreo, K.," County. Photo courtesy of CoCo Mines. Inc.

Cactus Gold Mine

Kern County, California
JOHN l. BURNETT, Geologist
Division of Mines and Geology

JAMES BRADY, Chief Mine Geologist
Cactus Mine

Sonc. the discovery ond wc:ce"ful mln,ng of

latcd peak of Miocene mle:mk rods and In 1979thc C:lelu\ mine prOJk'rty was
bulk Iow.grade hydrothermal gold ar, depolitl
,n Ne'fOdo during the 1960., 0 number of .imila.
Crewce()u, 1I1IrlN\1: I'QCl\ \urrounded by :Icquired by CoCa Mine!> Incoqx)f";ucd of
depoSIt> ho.... been Identified or>d m,ned In rhe Quatcrn:lr) ,llluvlal dCp<blt, (Pho!l) I: Denver. Colomdo. Commcrcinl produc-
MOlove Delerl, BOl,n on<! Range, and COO,I hgure 2) tion !>larted in August 1986. Gold produc-
Range. prov,nce. of CalifornIa. thoulonds 01 tion reached 26.400 ouncc~ in 1987. and
ounce. of gold o,e produced e<Kh year from Gold W,l',lirM nuned nlMlddlc BUlle~ the current annual outpul h aboul 60JXXI
well Colifornla depol,ls. Th, fine_grained gold In in 181)~ (Tro\el :md Morton. 1962) ;md a ounce!> of gold. Total projected produc-
these dlUomlnaled dopas'" con rarely be ...... j;rtlUp of ~l11all I11lne\ continued IJpcmtlng lion will be about 400.000 ounce!>.
""en under 0 mKroKop" ood must be assoyed
lhere until 1910. 1\'11111111; activity :It Mid·
10 determ,"e rhe gold conrent. ... edItor
die Butte re!>umed during the Dcpre'\ion GEOLOGIC SETTING
INTRODUQION :lI1d wa\ I:OntIl1UOIl\ from 19]1 to 1942
\\hen. during World War II. gold mining The we\tern Mojave [)e\Cn is a sHUc-
aC[I\C C;]CIU~ gold nunc h IOCMCd
T he
in the 1Oo'C,tcrn Moj:l\'c Dc'\Crt. about
60 mile, lIorth orlhe ('ily of LO!> Angclc,.
\\":1-\ b:lnned by the fedeml government.
\V:lr Production Board Limitation Ordcr
L·208 h:llted Of)Cr:ttIOIl':lt Middle Bunes
tuml blocl bounded on the southwest b)'
the San Andrea\ fault :tone and bounded
on the northwest by the Garlock f:lult
and :lh,lull) miles norlhcil,t of the llWon and all olher gold mine, 111 the United IUne (Figure I). Both fault lones arc
of Mopvc (Figure I), The gold Illllllllg Slate\ !J.ccau\C gold nuning \\;1\ deemed vertic:ll bre:lb in the earth'!> erustth:ll
opcrJlIon, arc;H Middle BUllc\. nn 1'0, non·e,:-cntlalw lhe w:lr eflim. have undergooe Mgnificant I:lteml offsct


... Figure 1. Generol Io<o~on ond regiorwl tedonlC
.enlng of the Codus gold mine. F>gIJnl' odapred
from CoCo M"'e", Inc,

CACTUS GOLD MINEG!!'O(,-" cant anlOllnt, of ore arc found in fault
breccia along these norlhy.e,t-Irending
\ "MOJAVE 0 0 lOne~ .

• 0
o Mineralogy
c:::::l~::'-Troplr;;o HIli

"Willows SlIdnll' HIli' Area~ of IlItcnse hydrolhermal alter..-

lion occur aoove and adJa.
cem to Mlme ore zone~. Hydrothermal
alteration occur, .... hell heated aqueous
N Mllutions rise up through joinl.\. fbsures.
or fau1l10ne~ and change I11lllerah ,'00
roch in the process. These altered lone~

,lithe Caclus mine aid in identifying ore-
be,lring Mruclurcs. Alunitc (a hydrous
aluminul11 and pola~sillm ~ulfatc) is the
m<ht common mincral within this alte.....-
. . LOS ANGElES lion lone. Kaolinitc clay. illite clay. and
hematite (iron oxide) abo occur v.ithin
zoncs of hydrothermal alteration.

Free gold and sll\,eroccur:lS subnu-

croscopic grains and are as~ocialed with
CDlbblcc. 1967). The G:lrJock f:lUh. the Thc richest ore at Middle BUlles i~ quartz (silicon dioxide). pyrile (iron ox-
c!o-.c,' of Ihc\C IWO region:!1 fault zone!> locailled along norlheasl-trending fault ide). ar.'>Cnopyrite (iron arsenic ~ulfide).
to lhe mine. b '\Cvcr.. lmilcs north of the lOnes. One such ll11neratiled fault lOne and iron oltides. Some ore lone~ are quite
Cacw, nUllc. Major geologic structures contains Ihe (aClO'i \t:1ll that was the fo- Jeep and cltlend below the decpe~1 explo-
.... ilhin Ihe mine area. ,ueh;t) nOnhC:lSI- cus of mmlllg aClivity m the 1930~ This .....tion holcs. All of the gold orc at the
trending ore ,"crnl>. run parallel 10 the p:lrticlliar fault lOne al.'iO hosls the Shu· mine site occurs in or ncar a coop..c-
Garlock fault lone and suggc'l a regional make pit dCpo!litthat is currelltly bemg grarned rhyolite that forms 'oC\'cr-11 intru-
rdalion~hip. mmed (Figures) and 4). Other ore zones ,i\'c domes. I n ~ome arcas of thc minc.
at the I11l1le occur on parallel northeast- O. I ounce of gold ore per ton can be
Although Cretaceous granitic rocks trclldmg fault~. The.... mlne.....llled fault found 20 feet bcnealh the ,urface. al·
and Miocene volcanic roch arc [he only lones III lUrn arc inter!oCcled by north· Ihough no deleclable gold lIIay occur al
c.~poscd unlt~ \\ithilllhc mine area. ....esHrending cross-cuHmg faulls: ,ignifi- Ihc ,urface.
nearby outcrops Hlcludc S(:\"crnl tyJ>C' of
metamorphic rock,. Teniary ~cdimcnlar)
rocb. and Quaternary basal! flows and
sediments. These diverse rock I) pes indi-
cate thallhis region hll~ been tectonically
:Jctivc in the geologic past.
Structure ond lithology
Middl' IkJtl••

Quam'. mon.wnne form~ the b:tSCmerll (1''1' 1::.::::1' Mloc.n. Pvroclut1c.

rock beneath the mine site and is overlain
by la\'a~ and pyrocl3~lIe flows. The
Mloc.". VoIc.nlC\DonN••
quartz mon/onile formed between 85 FI_• •nd Plug. \
IlIIlIian ycar~ ago and J 12 million years 1 Cre/.,,,ou.
ago and b a 8runite-like roc" containlllg \ Willow
,Spring. I Ofl MonlOnif.
equal amoum~ of orthocla~ and plagio-
clase feldsp:ns. Imrusive igneou~ domes
,\Hlla J
form a M:lI1i-circular feature e:dending o /
from Middle BUlles and Soledad Mountain --.

on the north 10 Tropico lIill and Willow Willow. Spring.
Sprlng~ Hilh on the !>OUth (Figure 2). ~"
Thl~ M:rt1i-circular fealOrc may represem
a ealde..... that formed when a scne~ of
concentric fracture~ resulted from a
N , 'J'
! 11ofl1..
collap,ing \'olcano (Figure 2). Figure 1. Geologv of Coctus gold mine. Middle Suite•• ond nearby I.olure•

, •
, ,
. Figure J. POl'f1on of tl>e W,llow Sprl"9~ (7.5-

/ m,nute) q\lOdrongle thowing MIddle Bulle. and

V ,
.. Ioc:olioo. and nome, of hilla,ie m,ne_, Line A·A'
,nc!,cole,lcxollon of geologK cron-slKhon
.how. on Figure 4.



~ lmti... i..hmlnrc bodie_ .....ere idemified

_.,. • I" 10
and mapped u~ing Information derived
fmm a drilling program. Currem mine
\ development is b) open pil mClhod~ and

M!oohj BUTT~S IIlcludcs ~ucccssi\'c benches thai arc
pl:lccd at 20-fool ..eTlical inlcnals up the
pll wall. The 3VCr:LgC ore gr.wc allhe
• "
!JlInc b O.Q.l5 ounce of gold per Ion:

, <f'
-/ -1'
, .;;::.
f'=' -..,..-
.- j
varying amount." of ~ilvcr ore abo occur.
"or example. of the 6.168.000 tons of ore
milled from the Shurnale pit. the average
gr,llk of gold was 0.038 ounce per Ion
and Ih.: ;I\'cr:lge gr.ulc of silver wa~ 0.4

ounee pcr IOn .

y,- "
- t " Gold and si!\'er rreo"er) h aOOUI 71
percent of the tOlal amount of prceiou~
I Illcwb I!lCM;nt in Ihc ure. Mined ore i~
I cru\hed, rni.\ed "ilh lime and ccment.

.... , or,
'" 1 ---'

-- -
then mo\"Cd 10 th(" cyalllde heap

leach pile via a con,eyor bclllhat i~


...(J'- ..). -
~ -r -- ~pr.l)"ed "'ith water. The 1Il0i~tCllCd cc-
-"".ii.. -
H ~::
-....:-, ... mem bind~ the fine ore parI ides and aids
3000 tt ,
- •
~ ;
percolation of the lC;lching \olution.

" ftgu,e 4 Generalized geologIC cross-sedlon 01

lhe (OCIvI gold m,ne a'e deposl"- Middle 8ulln.
Kern Counly See f,gu'e 310' loea~on 01 ero..
•ecllon A-A'.

laoklng Norll\eut A'


3200· ... Tlbr


C... lIFOI1N .... GEOLOGY ...""lt99ll 87

Cru,hed limestone is used to prevent actd
Conlpound' from forming and combming
wIth the c)"antdc to produce harmrul

After placement of the ore pile on the

lc:ach pad. dilute sodIum C)-anldc: I~
~pr11) .... d 0''Cr the: top. The solulton perco-
lates through the heap and dl'wh.... ~ the
rokl and sih-er. The resultmg .;olullon
(callc:d 3 "pregnant solution") I' then
chcnlleally processed 10 renlO'"e the dls-
\Oh....d gold and sil'·er. The lcX"hmg ....-ater
I) l\.'q'C]cd b:lck Into the s)'Stem The
]c;tchmg ;llld rccon:ry opcrallOfls :lrc
IlMJIHtoll:d to CIl~Urc lhat no Wlullon C~­
C;IPC~ lhe 'y'tem execpl by e'~oIporoltton.

When mmlng opcratlQll) arc com-
pleted. the slIe will be stablhlcd and re·
scc-dcd '0\ IIh grasSt:s and shruh~ adal'tcd to
lhe hIgh deserl climate. The quarr)
~ arc graded so thaI nunfall .... "11
dnun 'o\hlle: mining proccSSCj; arc on-
~mg Roc" heaps .... iIl be neulrahzed.
nnsed. and contoured. Ponds '0\ 111 be
C\-apor:ncd. neutralized. and bad.·lilkd
so that preclpltatlOll .... ill draIn n:atul'lllll)
onto the desert floor No former under·
ground .... orianp:an: open to the .wrf;acc SeismIc Intensity
and an"", surfa« worlmgs are: enclosed DIstribution Maps
by fencing and euth berrm.

Usc permIts and reclamatton plans Due !tllbe: O\'Cr'#Iobc:lmlo,; dem&nd for The ~ illlmiity cbsIribulion rrwp8
~M: and \CI mte .... rety tnfonnaliuo '\how the upecIed dislribulion and inlcn·
were: appru'....d m t'o\O siages: (I) on Sep-
lember 5. 1985 the Middle BUlle opera- afIC1" tbe: L.1ft1a Prlda canhquakc of Ot:to- ""I)' of \CUmM: .aILlIII and the areu wllh
lIons (includmg the Winkler, Ella, Trent. beT 17. 19IW. !he: Di'rl\I(lO of MIM'S and a potCftfial for liquefaction. The ~
and Cresenl-Alunite dcposib) were ap- Geology (DMGII" malin,; a'rallaNe \Pt'- f nJftl SP60 and SP99 CO\Ief lhe 8ra1ft'
prO\'Cd. and (2) 011 February II, 1988 the cial black-hoc prlot\ of the ..cumic imco· ~ Anaeb area: !he maps from SP61
~ily distribulion map" fnlm lhe:: four DMG and SP78 cOYer the San Francisco Bay
Shurnnke deposit was appro\"Cd (l-igurc
4). All operalions al the minc are ap- C'anhquake pl.nnin,; ","C'norio!l: Special afta. Plebe mle the Special Pubhcalion
proved by Kern County and conforll\ to Publicallon 60. f..llrlhquake planntng number for eaiI seismic illteftldy dilui·

Slale gUldelmes. \Cenano for a f1'IAJnlludC' 8..1 cUlhquake bulion map you order. mapa areS2.00
on lhe Sao A~ faull In ....lUthC'nl each: P')'ftlCtllIIIUIC &401.....,. order.
California; SpC'CiaI PublM:alKJII6I, Earth-
REFER.ENCES SeDd ,... order 10:
quae planni.., scenario f« a magnilude
CoCa MInet. ttlC., 1989, Minong operotlOn •• porl, 1.3 c:U1hquale: 011 lhe San Andrea DiY. . of MiIta GcoIop
nl the San Fnncnco Bay area; Special
GerMP: I and NJlicalioal
OibbIM, n-..a.. w~ Jr~ 1967, Areal ~01 Pubbcallon 78. Earthquake planllln, Au.:. Dale Sticbcy
the ..,...... Moto"e Oflert. CoIifomIo: U.s. lCftWMt for a mq:nlludC' 1. S earthquake
......... on..
G-%vocol Survey Prol...-....l Poper 512, Oft the tbywaIrd fMdt in ItIC' So fnDctKo
IS3 p. SaJdklllo, CA. 95814-0131
Bay amt; and SpttiaJ Pubbcal~ 99.
1roael.I.W~ and MortotI., 1961, ""'- and
........,.,;ol _ _c... 01 1(..... CounIy, Coifornoo, EartbqatC' p1aDni., ~ for.-...
eat1hquake on lhe Ncwpon·I-.kwood
PrICft ....Iade' sab tu. a.t ........
Ptea.t allow IWO 10 tIIrce weds for
Co5fornIO o..r.- of Mone.. one! CHoolo9Y.
County R*pGf11, 170 p. ~ fauh zone: dehwcry, ~


A Page for Teachers

Earthquake Preparedness Education

anhquake preparcdne~s education is

E important for gmde school ,Iudcllts
in earthquake-prone areas bccau'>C a ma-
h~1 <If ":lnhquulc plann,nj! lnf"nnal'<ln
""ure..' The pl"t1tllng acli\llJe~ ll1cJudc ldcn-
l,fyll1l! thc nced 10 plan. IdellllfYll1! :lctual
lel·lOnic~. Curncula. softwarc. and supple-
memal informauonal malcriall"ls arc pro-
Vided for lcuchers and parenls for usc III
JOr carthqu;lke can be a trJunmtic experi- carthquale h..urd,. de\'clup,n!! roln and klll<krgartcn Ihmugh nmlh gradc clas'ie'.
ence for C\'cryonc and especially for procedure,. and documenllng lhe plan Th,' Many hlbhogrnphlC Cllallon, HlClu-dc read,ng
children, The tmuma and. of cour!;C. the p!ann,n!! pnlCc" rehc, on aCIl,'c ~taff parl,c- Ie"el, and length of boob. TellCher~ may
loss of life and property can be signifi- IpallOn Ilowcver. thc proce" remaIn, "mplc obla'n a free copy by wrlllllg to Ihe NallOnal
cantly rcduced by prep;lring for an earth- and erreCl'''' all(1 any ll1~I,lu..on "rovid,"g Ccnler for Earlhquale Enginccrlng Re:.earch.
quale disaster, SewrJI tools thllt are ,heller and C~fe for chIldren "'III b<"nerll Slale UnIVCf'lly of New York al Buffalo. Red
aY.litablc to aid teachers in Ihi!. proce~s fWIll u""g Ihe.... malcrial, Jadet Quadrangle. Buffalo. NY 14261 f(e·
are described here, quc~l T~chnleal Repor1 NCEER-89-Rolo; u\c
A copy "f 1:./lrthqullkt Prrf><jrt'd"'·H. cata- school leHerhead.
£{lrrhqu(l4t'~: A r..ucht'r" /'/It'4I1gt' for K-6 10j! llem no 1'1l9002IlAR. I ' S700 plu, SI50
Grallt'$. a CUrriculum gu,(1c (1c\'Clope(1 by Ih.. for p,,'lagl' and han(1It"g Send or<kr lU L"m<t Pr'ew. C<tIt/QrllW. Ear/hqlwAr: A
Nal100al SClencc Tcachcr~ A,~ociallon AIl,\G.I'.O Bo, 2050. Oalland. CA Col/retwll 01 Vitlro Imagrs. produced by lhe
9-l6O.\-~050. (4151.\64-7900. US <kologlcal Survey. I' a 53-mlnUle
(NSTAI for Ih .. Federal EmerJ!enc) Manage·
ment Agcnt') (FEMA). Thi) pactalle ,n('\u(1..• vidcOlape'o U.S. GeologICal Sur~
NCEEH fllbfiogrj,pl,,' of /:-"rthq,wkr £11,,-
malerials aboul both lhe ph)'slcal phenomena Open-Fde RCpofl90-12-H. CopIes may be
cIII"mMIJ/l'rl<lh. b} Kalherlne E.K Ross.
of ear1hquah-§ an(1 s:afel) mea,urc~ a chil(1 obtalncd by ... rlling 10 Vidcotransform Inc:..
publ1'hed by the Nalional Cenlcr for Earth-
can lake bi:fore. dUTlng. and afrer a quale 245(1 F.mbarcadero Way. 1'.1.10 AllO. CA
quake E;:n~lnecrlng Re'iearch (NCI:;I:.Rl, Itsl'
The gu,de reeognru. Ihal yOilng .lll(1cnl~ 94303, For further ,nformal'oo contxll)Qug
re,ource malenal, fur leacher, and adm,n,,-
learn bcM when Ihe)' arc acm... I}. ph)'lull) l'm-e. U.S. Geolog,cal Suney. 345 Mlddlc-
tr..lor. to starl an earthquake educallon
,n\'oh'cd and therefore ,ncludes §uggt.l'Olb f,eld Road. Mail SlOp 225. Menlo I':Irl. CA
proJ!rnm or leach a Illore detailed Ic',on on
for many hand§-on acll\l!leS, The 9.\025.(415) 329-4164
280-page paclaj!" conta,ns ~,~ un 11'. di, ided
eaTlhqualc'. ,,,Ic..
noc,. hunanll'. a"d plalc
inlO lhree !lra(1e le"c1~ (K-2. 3-4. S-M. All
unll.' lIIc1ude background maIer ,a I for Ihe
leacher: a >-cope amI ~eljuencc chart; maMer,
for producing lran)parCnclc,. hanlloub. a"d
I~~~f!,(~}.....~r .
",orhhccI~:.tnd hM~ or malcTlal~ and
I Plans to Make
FEMA dl~ITlbu!lon I. l,m,l..d 10 onc frel"
COP) per ~h"",l "h,le Ihe 'uppl)' lasts,
Requ~'b from Icacher,. wrlllen on ~houJ
lellcrhcad. should be d,recled 10 MaTlI)n Sr"'~"', 11>. r~,,, C1<n'or,.nd coll<"" ..... d h' ",er.,e'<If. ""',.,. I!am;,o"nl "'J1hq""u la >UCh 0" "",n,. "'_
Mceab<'. Earlhqualt b!ucallon l'lannmg "d""",,,,.,,,,,""" ,,,»<1><,, .,ll h••" I" ... ",jf·",U.,,,,n, ,ell·'"1 .... the" nwa ,,,,,'u'tt> ,n proItcl .n<l <lO'" f", ,II<
""okn' P''I'"~'.''' on<! ,I>< ,mmed",. ,."""'n<l,"I rommum'"" u",,1 ~ _ ....nee" ....... bI<
"'oJec!. FEMA. 500 C SUCCI. 5 W. Wa,h- Ik C"l,I,,,n,. hi....""" t·O<I< rr~""n 1"'1>10< on<! """'e """'....... " 12. Iv <kvo:1op <""'.......,. ......n<! '"
,nglon. OC 20472 Smgle and mulhple ."Opy et>n<lU<1 ··dl<1" .0'''' .noll>oW·' d"l[,
reque~ts from uther ~r,!up~ :lt1d lIId"'lduah II,,,,,,.,,., ou, """'",Id"hl."n .n<l ,1><" '.m,I"" ......, -ne ."f."",,,,,,,,, on<! ed...."o" '''' ".f1hq... k loOl'<ty_
",<!,'''ed''''" ,"".,n,,,,
)hould be ,enll" NSTA.I'uhltcallon~Ocparl.
ment. J742 ConneCllcut A\"Cnue. N W .
,;"', "."'.... <>on l>~. 1"''' '" ,~" """I"< .nol,m!",",",
WJ~hlll~lon. DC 20009 Cop,c, from NSTA I'"~h< .d...."o"'l" 'n Ap"l anol '~'o"s"''''' lhe
coo;t SI5.00 eal'h "'"' ~l
• <,·,JI'Idu<:'m~ • "'....... d"lI.o k>l .""",<11<) rla ....n<! • 1>W""'Io"t • 'f'U".1 _ '" ",h<:><~ """,mhly Iv llot
f;"rtltq","':r Pft'p<u<"h,t'ss Aon'l/Ir, fur ",oa:<lurr. M.. ~< ..... ~ ...... """'"'u......""",y,,...... ell""", of •• nhq...k> an<! the ,ml""lOnce of , . . .
ChIld Curt' 1'r<JlId<,n. publl,hcd b) Ihe Bay "'_I.... ""'"•. ",af<h .nd ''''''''''' .""''''' .nd II.>! 1"<'J'N""'"
a,d l<clln..,...... (h>I pl."",n, _ . _ ....... ,ar1 l·'ou,
Area RCII-Ional I:.arlhqu~le I'rcparedne" <OIl ,... """".. Of~ of 1''''''8''11<) Set,,,,,,,
I • IMpb"", ",<po.<d""", ,,,''''....._.' h,p t..lll< OJ<'"
,n )tN. ",,1o<>‫ס‬I
ProJecll8AREPP) and d"lrlbuled b} Ihc A~­ • ~"""t ond_h<J<,.., "''''''~ ''1'''p'''.". """ I",,,,,",,,
WC,~t,on of Bay Area Go\,crnmcms IA BAG). ,,,,·I""',,g h<J<,h""I....... e,,"''''''''. <""'I""." ""'" 'Ul<"- • t·''''d........., 0 hu", '" <I",,,,,,,,,,,.I>ll o>ffia:o
"a plannmg guide 10 a,d eh,ld e~fC pro- ....,,<.. - 'b""", "'......1• Ilw.., d"""1 on •• " .......l« • """,mbhng ".....'F...,. ~,.... /uclI ,,,,,Iu<k ,m"",WI<
"".'Y ,n',>tm.,_.n<l fin-t 1M! ",pp1,.,.
v,ders ,n (1eH'loplllg an eanhquale pl:ln Ihal • I"""""",..,,.ll "' an<! ........"" I" P'''I'''''' 0"
.a"lIq.... u ".....,.<"q pI>" I", ''''''' bm,I"" • ""'"....... ~lI<k1 "'p-I" ....."hqUIl« I""PO~
meet' an lnd"'ldual cemer\ unique needs ".hohl ..... )'tou. "'h<><~
The gUIde l·on,')l. of ~ilu:I1,on card, Ihal de- • Son<l'''1 ."k"_,,,,,, "",,'" ,'" po.<"1> 011 ''''' ",,,,.. II'>
,eflb<" whal nllt:hl occur ~I a chIld care ccmer
<"""""'1' pol"""""n<! I""",,du,n • C,,,,,,,,,,,'.. ,.._.., "''''''''' ,<> ...... - . . . ", 1""
<h.", .'''''''''''l« "".poI«1""'" ",pp1"", _ ....... pm<'"
• l'p.L"".,"I,.."",.... "" ".""'.p'''''y ..... ,h<o,''''' ......
durIng and arter an l"arlhquale. aell' 11)
,heet, Ihal conlain Informal Ion nccc"ar)' 10 • (.""".....,,,g ,n·",,,,,,,, I...""" ...... ~,"''I'' "" II"" IM!.
""'I... II\;O".I\<m.,,', dom.,. ......"mc:n' .."d "''''"
GlI,I"",," l.",..... . . "'.poredness Monlh ...........
.. Of'P'"'"""Y 101 In<he,,,. I""""'poh. ".ff...""""...
conducl V:lT1OU~ at'll"llles. ""or~ ,heel, 1<1 b<' ,,,bl<d lopon I", "" ..... " ..If 1"'"''''', .n<l rommun,'y ,..d.", 10 "BEATlll1 OlJAKE.-
photocop'cd for lhe :Kl"llic,. and a re""urce



l"d;"idulillolnd Family P",plredne!ill

• tk.k,
"now 1Map'nsI ,nsod<,n ":o<h
"",f~l{tO'> ruom-undc. ,"udy .abIo.
• Know .he dionl'" $pOI$-Wln""","s. "''''on. """"'''1
ob,ert'. fi,q>l:l«s, tan furn,'o,,,
• Olndl,l('l 1"'""otC d.. II•. l'h)"'C"'lly pl""", yourself and
you. chlld'en in ..Ie loca,OOftS,
• I...,.,n Ii'" oK! and erM (audlOplll""",.ry """"'01.0">11) I Prepare Home and workplace
earthquake drills.
from yOUl 10<:>, Red CrouCh.p''' 0' othe. rommun,'Y
• l><:ado: "'here )'QU' famoly ... ,11 fCUM" If SCJ"'l.",,,d If. ,uJOf ...uel 'n)'OU•• ,oa .oda}. f"U ''''Ih, be ",·"hou, d"«l a"" for ap 10 12 hou",. A'e
y.... prcpa,ed to be ",If-suffo<>on" I. ).... , f.m,ly? v...., ""'Ihbuf!w.<od·'
• "up. I'" of "mc'lIeney phone numbers
• Ch<>o:»o: an ""'-ul.,,.,o r""nd ..,1.,,,.., ...
Of 1Iom r,,,,,ly
mcmbe:'" .an •• 11 ,,',et ,he q.. ate 10 .cpOft "''''''.'0001,
Afle •• major earthqua"". ekct''''''y, ......'c,.•"oJ p. ma} be ou, of "',,"'ICC. Eme,gell<)"Oll ma} """ readl)'QU
lIome I',tparrdness for "''''' ..., daY". Make Si"")'OU h."" 'hoc follo"""1 "".... ,n)'QUI horrlC," YOY, oftice. Of ,n)'Oll' ca.
• tum """,. 10 "'u. off p •. ,...~lcr and c!«l,"',ty on ca.c
11M; lines arc dama",d
• Cb<'<t .... 'm""ys. roor, and ...,,11 fo.""b""",!of ".t-,l"l
MA" ,ure )">u. horne" boiled ,I> n, found."on COlli
.. llCCn",d ronl .." "",. ,f '''''re ale any '10c.non,
• S«urc ....,". !Kale. and .ppI.""..... .hat ""uld .........,
enough '" ruplu,~ u"~'y It~_
.. K~~p ~nd hu"y <:>Ill"o" on klw<• ....,I~,
.. S«u.~ hanllnl plan" ~nd kuvy
011"'' ' ' (e>-JI«'ally ,k~ kanyng 0"'"
.. Pu' lo'ol>c< on oab",o' <lotJ<>. .0 l""p 'hem o"""'d
f...."n or
fi.e ... ,Ioopi>lle.
">u.' iii" e't>nluoshc. 'hould boo Sy,,·
iNaicf ~;,
lOu. 6r:<l alll k" """uld hoc ,n a .,.,<1.
...... 'Q
lla"" ",,,,,,,,n' Of p'pe: "',e""h 'urn
.ble fOf all 'ypn of fi,,,s and *'ould ,... Io<:;o1lon and 'hou,,1d ,,,,,Iud< cme,_ off ..... nd .... 'e. ""I"", 'f """"""'}
be n.ll} ".,.,....,blc "'II<)' ,nS'ruc1l0"S
.. K"op Ham",.bk Of 1';IL"'<luu> l,qu,ds ,uok al plI,n!>,
PC" ,pr.),."
"k.n,ng l'fO\lu"h ,n ...b",,,,, Of """".ed
'm klwc. ""'I>'n.
• ,\b""a'" e..... '&<,"'1' f<J<J<l. w".. ,c, and Ofhe' ... ppl",•.
,nc:lud'''1 ""'d"" .... fi"" .,d l,' and do,h,n, 1'\\
Community I'r"pllredn~

.. ~u"c" 'ha' k>c-.. I orp"".,oonl of ",IIl"h you .,,, •

men,"", unlk-nake alopC<1lic pr"l"'.edne>s p,ol,a'" or
l<'Iu"" "1"""'" tr.,n,n,'0 be of ."'"••""" , """n'
of. d......lln' ear1hqua~" fla."'li~h'...t e,t.. """erie:> ..lI'U .... di>iafed-O..'
Kcep 8MI,,,,ll. ,n ",,,,, ...1 Io<:;o'",n, S'ore ..,,,,,raJ ...t nl....
pi...... ofw".'e, 10' eadl T,...... 'or """'ies
.:td>oll "'ill be Y,dYI for
.. 0.1"""'" a nc:'gbborlM)Ol! ea,'hqu.k" pRpa.ednc:"
F""· in <It''' of a POW'" fa,lu.e. E'lra pc
!>ane""" Lnr kIn&<,' 'f)'QU ~""P .hocm alo
Also keep a d",nfe"'.n'"""" '''''''''''''I cme.BCIlC)' btoad<a~s and
,.... lable'S 0' chlo"ne bleadl alfTent dlsas'e' ,nfo,m.'1OfI
.. C.-lu<'l ""'"'"1 fOf nc:,ghbofhood .."ukn.. ,n p'~.
I'."~d,,,,"'. fi,., al<l, fi,e wppr""""'.
dam,1I" .'....'nlCn'
,<I 'hoc fl«-"" '0 I"'"fy "'. . 'e.
'f ... ~.}.
.nd ",.roh .nd .~""""
.. Develop "" ""''''Ofk, he."'een fa... ,loo and
""'Ih_hood 'h.ou"'. ,l'lh .nd '~>ou.~ !>anl "'hoch
,nollMb a l"lIn, <If '001,.
e'lu'pmen' .......c"... and
"",,,,_hood .... ",be", "''''' ha"" """",al ,k,I" .nd
'CW<lfttS to ,ha",

.. Ilk-n"f} "",ghbon ",."" h""" """"al "",,<I> O' ",',II

,e<l""~ '1""',.1 ...,,,,.,,,,,

.. Ibw ""'gh""',
"1''''''0 ha"" ",h,'e nIl 0'" .f,,,, ,he
<l"alo 'f e'",)"OM and e''''J'h'''I'' OK dry 0< ...... nd llfO<I al'",u'e ...... looI-,.,., ",."Uf>. ctorlll'"ll' ..... !Ilooa-
Callf,,,n,,, u".hq"nlc""", Mon.h pro",lel; S'ore a """ ""'ek suppl} of lood 10' S,o.e ba,"""""'. eh..coal. .,a"••• "d 1:JI".
"'ank"f> and dOlh,nl m~y boo
.n oppor,unuy fo, ,nd",d".ls. fa... ,l.<>.•nd rommun,''''' each pe: ...... It .. preferable '0 .'",e m.'d>cs '01 rook'''1 '" <;a$C ""1",,,,, ,eq"ucd '0 keep """OIl II."" .......
1<I"REATTltEOUAKI" f<J<J<l 'hat doc> ..... ""'l""e (OlI\,ml a'e out 01' "''''''''' ...,'able IOf walk,nl 'h,ou&" deb'"

90 CAliFORN'A GEOLOGY Ap,,11990

To prevenl Illjury 10 your family :Illd minimize damage.

~bl~iaI> N_cI
Cabt""l .... 'c~ "bod Ttl'"
8.-ackc1$ Small Nalls Of II"",
'..:oS sac,",) s.c.....

-Wir 1~"llt.adSc ........

lOOk Nudd

• -- "..
SC' ·d"""
Ila"' .

C,esant .....,.""h

C.bindS Opt'n Sh~lns

Install p<><.I''''' C8lebln& blelle. Many ""....,oons arc lallall Bua,d I(T_ ~lf. Of 'Mull ..,GOd lrIm '"' front
.....labk a, hard...".c 51'"'''' of .helr l'l:ace be.~y obJcct> "" lowe. ""","'\

Tall t'umitun' lI.nginx Piflur~

In.tall IMW ~l.~ b,ac~." bt...... n ("m,I,,'" and .....11 SeT...., hooh ,nil' wood "",mben only (.Il.d 01 cellIni
.rud .110f' (Tht -I.. bracket .an hc ,"".lk<l "''''''cd JO"I.J. <:Iooe hoob """" for hanl'"& poet..."" '0 pre_
,;(I ,t ",II he hodd<n ....... J venl the" b1hni

_~""' E. " ....., 101 ' _..._ 1 0 0 . , _ , ( "


Ear1hquakr ')rill Re.-i_ PDlil-Enlhquake Plans
Enroll"S" yoo. famIly and co-.. o.kcn 10 p"rtl<,parc ,n Check and .cnew I" ..... "io;>ns
eart"'tuak" linn. I:."""IC"'Y p<OCflIu,r. ,lIQuid b<: 'c· Chtt~ IUJ'I'ly of eme,seney r""" Ind .... Ie' Chttk
_ d and ptK'~ pcrW)docally. medoca",,". lint .od m"Cflals. for .11 memb<:... of ,""
hou;ch<>1d ,ncllHhnc ,be ch, handoe.l'f'«llnd
PTKlICC ,akin. co",r:
e1de,ly. Rcpkn,sh upm,d SIlpplH:' of food. ""e•.
Prxh"" '.~,ns a)"'" . . ,f In n"hqul~ ";crc ,~k,nl!
n>e•.h e,ne. fi,e .,."..... rshtfS.1f>d !>;olle"",
pI_ n.t> .... 'II makc 1"'0f'lc: .......'e of !he: ""Ies' 1'1""'"
'01 ,h.", ,mmedi.,e en"ronmenl II"""",," f.m,ly plan'
lie_leW 'M '....,.,..,..btluoesofe.h fam,.y member ahe,
I'B<:IICC nllm.,
In urlhq... ke. Call 'M desoVt.,ed «>nun pefWll OUl·
""'alk ,h"""Jb ,"" poosible ro....,. from )'QU'
lOde of 'M a'ea '0 .cm,nd IlM:m of ,""" tolt. lie.....,...
IM:Nnt Ind "OIk pI_ Ch«~ 'O"'e ,f 'he pl.nned e",U
plans '<> I""k "I' child,e" and ekttk 'n,h sehools '"
3re e"'"'. Ind ,f ,hey _kl b«ome blocked In .n dlty (:I'e ""mefS ,<> en... ,e lhe f.m,ly plln .. ",II
1'n<:1,,,,, .h~",ff,
II""..".. rommunny pla'"
en .....el you. counl)' orcil)' office of Eme'l(e.. cy
I'n<:,,,,,, 'u,n,n. off el«t"a'y and ..... 'e... YOU' ""me s",n-;"'... or 'he Amerlean Ito:<l C....... for mo...
Ind office lie 'u.e e""ryor>e <:In do ,lot> quoekly. "'now ConlXl )'OW ""'P'-' pe'lOdoeally H) ,e""'"" earlh.
quake pll'" C"",.." )'OIlI' I<ocal Office of """"IC"'"
i..lonnat'o.. on how you "".. MREAT Tilt: QUAlit:,
""'"' '0 'u.n off II' bu' t:Io no, """"ICC ,10.. s'ep (Once
5<:",'''''''' fo, In upda'e on ,"" 10<:11 eme,.oney pl.n
11''' off. fen ..fe'y ,ea"""•. only)'OU. ulllny <:Ompany
""""kl,u", II bac:k on.)

OlifORNlA CfOlOGY 91
Book Reviews
.... "',....."'\""':',
., '",.

II.ooh revIewed lit thl~ leetlon 0'" nol availoble fa. pUf<ho~e From OMG


hnu~ fur R()ad~,tk and Tr~1I bfth b.hllun
/I) Ue~n Rmehart. Uden Ve'I"I, and BeHit
10 Willard; "d'led by Genn) Smllh 1989
Genn) Snuth H",,~,. A"a,lahle from Fro"nd,
ufthe Llbrar), Maml1lolh Chapter. I' O. Bo~
1-1611, M:lIllmuth La~e'. CA 935-16 Jill P
51195 !Induoc, la~ and flO'ta~l."I, papcrhad;

The ~ulde: co"e:r~ Ihe: fIfty-mIle pumon uf

the ea'tern ,Iopi' of the S,crra Ne'"dda Ihat
~traddle, 1111!hway 395 bct"cen Sher"lQ
Summ,t and Cunway SummIt MO)l of the
area de'>Crlbcd III thl~ ham.lbot,~ I ' wnh", lhe
In)o Nat",nal h,re,t
In the Road~lde~ !>Cclion. poInt' of imere:.1
alon!! H,!!hway 395 and alon!! "de road,
hr.iIIM:h"'8 e:a\l and "e:~1 melude .lune Lake:,
Lee V,non8. Mono Cmler,. Red Mealio", the
Mmare:b. l>C:vll, l'mllllle, Convict Lale.
McGee: Creek Canyon. In)" Crall."rs. and
Llltle: Lake~ Valley. The Trail. ,\.Cellon fo-
cusc~ on lhe Illgh SIerra. an area lhat i~ read·
ilyacce."hlc Tip\ are g,,'("n for wildcrne"
hike•. induding mformallon about flI:',mlls, Aenol view 01 Green Creek mO'Oln,,~. These lateral moralnt'!;, on the eo,1 slop" of the S,erra Nevada a
map•. lrall<. and "'mountaln·wl""'" s;ofcI) few mil"s north of Conway Summll, outline Ihe poth of the lowe, end 01 the ancient 910<1e,.
mea.ur('~. P/lo'o by Joitn S. Shellon.

Addlllonal (calllre. oflhe boo~ ,ncluOc

chllplns on the g"ology (completely revl<cdl.
clImate. fore<1 communllle:" ptam and anI'
I11all1f". and hl~tory. all "H,llen In layman'~
languagc Beautiful photos lllu_lrate chapr",..
"n "olcanoc, lfire:). ,Iacle'" (iccl. and m",-
mg bll"cr), Maps oflhe arclI are found on
lhe ,nside front and bac~ covcrs
Th... chapter on gcology ~umrnUII_e, the
paSI hIstory and pn>\"de' dues lIOOll1 th"
future Th... folio",,,,! cxcerpl ,~ from
'"The land~~'ape loda)" (p. 11-1-116)

While relentle~1 blfl ",ow uplift and 91ocIoIlOn

we." dromolo<olly chong,ng the 10ndKOpe,
dromo 01 a more colo.l.ophic: k,nd WO~ 0['0 con-
rribuhng 10 Ihe changing Kenery. All along the
S,erro I.on!, and e~pe'lOlly in rhe Mammoth-
Mono .egion. volcanic erupllons - many violent
- occompan,ed the foultlng along the .onie Although .perado< volconilm along lh. en·
hr. Sierro Nevado hod been going on 10' a long
lome, local voIconK: actIvIty ,,~coloted ."markobly
dun"" the ke Age.,,",o,", 10 lho mo'" ....ent
_re orvplionl north and we,1 of long Volley 01
Glon and Bold mountains ond 01 Son Joaquin
Mounloin .;dge - eruption, of loghl·colored
Iova, pvmice, and ofh (rhyolite and closely 'e·
Ioled rocks). Ev,denrly the ~ublerroneon magma
Mammoth Mounroin, Thi~ mounloln WOl bu,lt up by len or mO.e mojO!' volcanIC e.uptions rhot occurred that fed tho~e erupl10rti grew in lize and en"rgy
d"n"il the pe.iod about 200.000 yeol'$ ago 10 o.ound 50,000 yeo.. ago. Pharo by 8ev 51.......011 10 Ihe poinr tho! ,I could no longe' be conlo,n.d,


O_I~ Postpile. Thil bowl' flow e'upted about 100,000 yeol'$ ago in Ihe vol.
~olley '0 a deplh
ley 01 tI>e Middle Fork of the Son Joaquin IIi...... " filled 'he
01300 Ie.! fa. a di~Ionce of at leo~t th'ee mil.". A$ tI>e boselt cooled and
,h,ank, ~ lo,med a network 01 cmcl. which p,adtKed the Ii.... and si.·.K:led
columnl. lote' glociel'$ quottied owoy """,h of 'he flow and planed aH and Mono Craters. The c,aters fonn a cha,n 01 rhyolite d..-,
poI.. hed the kip 01 the flow. Photo by 8ev ShM!wn. PItoto by Jlober1 C. Frompton.

About 730,000 y&O,~ ago an e.-mauS e",ption ho~ been po,,',,'ely idenlified. lAs" ;. a geologic winds lhot di~lribuled lhe d.b," widely in 0)1
cen'ered neor little Antelope Volley ..p1oded term 10' dull·siz. po<1ide~ 01 vakonic ,oc:l.lln- di,ectiont, bullelt the Ih'ck••t occumulotion,
through o~erlY'ng rock, ~pewing glowing lava te.mi"enl eruption, within th.e colelero, but on a """",by. AU. Irom one of 'he~e e'uplions hos been
and blad. cloud. 01 enh high into the atmoophere. va.rty reduced 1C01e, IlIblequenlly filled much 0/ identilied in meadows as 10. away o. the ~oll.,.
The ,"';mated volume 01 glowing pumice and o,h the _,'ern hall 01 Ihe colelero with ....Iconic 0/ the linle Ke,n, 110 milet $Outh. Th'ee 01 th.e
disgorged il a , 150 cubic miles. (Mounl dome~ ond lava flow, o~e' the ne.1 600,000 younge~1 dom.s, which ore well.~pos.d and
St. Helen~ disgorged Ie.. lhan one cub'c mile.) AI y.oo. reodily accessible, 0'. a! Glo.. ond D&Odman
!he Ittupt>an continu.d and intellSi/i.d, ~uppor1 c,ee"; all th."" or. about 550 years aiel.
wOI progrelSivfIly remo~ed lrom the rool Over o...rIapping tile 'fO""'9"r erup'ion' within th.e llecenl ...idenc. serve. 10 ,emlnd u. lha, Ih.. "
Ihe enlir. magmo chamber, and il collopsed, caldera, a chain 0' n_ ~oIcanoe. began 10 earthquok. one! volcano counlry. Thot evidence,
Ieo~ing lhe .lIiplicol deprelSlon now .nown o~
propogote along a north-KIUI/lline ""ending gathe,ed .ine. the ~igorou~ &orthqua.e ~worm~
long Volley (old••o. The coldero e.tend~ we.,· from Mommath Mounlain fa< 30 m~e~, Ih.ough in 1980 and 1983, it bosed on: Ihe og.s 01 tI>e
.....rd from Ihe eo,t ~ide 01 long Volley 10 M,no.el Ih. Mono (raters 10 Mana lok •. The and mall r.cen! .fUption~ 01 Negil 1~lond and Ihe
Summit and lOulhword 'rom Bold Maunlain 10" 01 the.e young ....Iconee. it Mammoth Deadman do"",,; geophysical do'o lha' can be
Crowl.,. Oom. Maunlo'n, 0 compooile dome buill piecemeol by inle'Preted to indicol. Ih. pe....tence 01 a ,.,id·
Geophysicol meo,u.ement>, wppor1ed by recurring ~ilCau, e.lrvtions 01 gray 0. rec\disll uol magmo chamber beneolh Ihe caldera and Ih.
.ecenl drilling. indiCOle lhat the originol calclero kr.oa during an inl.rvol of 180,000 yeol'$, begin- po~lible m()Y.menl 01 new magma 10 depth. 0'
Roo. IOnk at leo,l 0 mIle, bul ,he colclera filled ning oraund 200,000 years ago and ending .hallow o. 3 .ilomele.., a SO cm uplih 01 th.e
ropodly will. e",pllng pumic. ond olh. Erosion 50,000 yeal'$:r.;. The Iova iI oprin~ wilh ',ny ground ~urfoc.; and th.lfl'Otrnodic "emol'$ from
and ~olconic ..tnnion. ho~e bIon· cleo' 10 whitish elelspo. cryltol~ and sh,ny bloc. 1980-83,0 peculiar pallern On a •• i~mog.aph
• eled tI>e pr.Knl floor 01 lhe colelero so com- 110••• 01 mica. thol iI beli""ed 10 indicot. th.e of
p1.tely tho! not .~.n a remnonl 0/ lhe malerial Ileginning '-0,000 yeo" ago in lhe north at magma. There it no reason to bel...... thol thi. ,,,.
Irom thaI ,"11'iOI cotody.m it e.po>ed inside Ih. Mono (<01.1'$ and occurring rno,e Or less ran- gion'llong hitlory 01 eorthqua.e~ ond....lconi~m,
caldera loday.lI it admi.obly uposed. haweve" domly therealte, 01 varioul pIoce~ along Ihe •• Iending bock inlO onliquity '00 remale '0 com·
soulheo~1 01 tong VoUey where it lor"" lhe brood .nlire north-south line. tile choin 01 young prehend. has abruptly end.d., during
..ponK 01 the VOlcanIC lab/eland. I'" w./oc:e has volcanoes erupted spo.adico.y. Unl,.e lhe long "'" pres.n' period 01 ,eloti_I,onquility, we can
_he,ed 10 a .o~y ton color. hcellen' e.po- Volley eruption. which left a gill"'nl>c depr..sion .njoy and r"...1in the beauty crealed Ih,oughout
Ill''" 01 til. $Ofl. porOUJ, pumiceout, IOlmon_ O' it> ~ignohJ'., "'" \'OUng ~olcon"," buill con- 'hat violenl hi~lory. And w. con /",,1 secure 'n lhe
colored hiH can be .een in lhe roodc:ut> along US 'Pic_s do..... '0 cOlnmemo.o'e 'heir <>clivi..,. eden..... nelwon 01 de~ices lhol continually
395 berw..n TOIns Place and ai~hop. further e~i­ The domet th.e!ole.. and mo.' po~si ... monilor chonge. rho, could indicate tI>e begin.
denee 01 Ihe mognilucie 01 Ihe long Volley erup' phcne of th.e volcanic proces•. They we,e pr•• ning~ 01 ,enewed oc:livity. AI lhe some lime......
rion come, f,om Kon$Ol and Nebmlko whe••, 01 ceded by ..pIosi~e "rupllon~ tt.os propelled will do well 10 .emembe. thaI Ihi~ it but on inl.r·
....erol Iocolili... o~h from Ihe long VolI.y event cloud. 0/ pumice and o~h high in'o th.e prevailing .....sion In Ihe ongoing production 01 high dromal


More Book Reviews

Eonhquak. 1"l1IrnOllo"ol Jouf",,1 Journol

FIFl'EEN SECONDS, Tile Grellt Cal.for- AMBIO, A Journal of the Human Envi- ROCKS & MINERALS. Hcldref l"ublica-
nia Earlhquak.c of 1989, A I~ to Ikncfil ronment. Royal S""ed,sh Academy of SCI- tiom. 4000 Albemarle Street. NW, Wa~hing­
Eanhquake Victims. 1989. The Tides Foun. coccs. 80... 50005. S·IOJ Stoclholm. ton, D.C. 20016. Annual subscription:
dalion. 15 Seconds ProjccL 1388 SUller S.....tdcn Copies a..allable H' U.S. from l'erga- S23.00 for individuals and $38.00 for institu-
Sheet, 10th Floor. San Francisco. CA 94109. mon Prcss Ltd. Falr.. ie.... l·ark. Elmsford. tions. Add $7.00 for subscriptions outside the
120 p. $19.95, paptr coyer. New York 10523. S43.oo per year U.S .. on- United Slates. Published bimornhly.
eluding airma,l postage. $ 125.00 per year In-
People wllo lived through lhe October 11. stitutIonal SUbSCrlptlOIl ($237 ,50It"'·o )"Cal"l;). General Interest in mineralogy is the focus
1989 '-"rna Prieta earthquake arc: tne focus of II I~Sl>CS per year of this magnine. thc official publication of
1his book. II is a collection of full·p:.gc pllo- bOlh the Eastern Federation or Mincrulogical
togr.tphs. both in black-and-.... hiIC and full- PUbliC awareness of and IntereM III envlr<m· and Lapidary Societies and the Midwe~l
color. which rc:('ord tile agony, pain. and Ulll' mental llrOlection and planned usc of nalUrdl Federation of Mineralogical and GeologICal
male strength of the people who endured .hc resourcts havc dra.... n tncr..a'lng allcntlon Societies. Feature articles on minel'1lllogy.
quake. The dc....Slalion - lhe 6a)' Bridge, during the lasl dccades. The environment I~ geology. and paleontology are iocludcd, as
the damaged homes, and the: raging fire- no..... an IIrea of general conctrn Major tllvi- well as boo~ revie.....s. announcements. and
is also recorded wilhin these pholugr.aphs. ronmtntal concerns. such as shifts l1l ,tralo- classified advertiliCments.
QUOIes from primary sources (rircfighlcrs. splteric, grecnhouse .....armlng of thc The No\'CmberfOecember 19119 (Volume
r('$idenls, civic leaders) accomp:lny the planet. acidificallon and defore,tatlon. arc 64. Number 6) issue of the magazine in-
photos. now issues of nll1l0nal and world polll'CS, cluded articles on "Amethyst sccpters.
All proceeds from the: sale of 15 Seconds AMIJIO publishcs rccent won tn the Inter- Salem. New London County, Connecticut,"
are 10 be donated 10 charities dedicated C'.t- related fields of cn.. ironmental management. "Mass ulinclions: astronomical influence or
clusively to the immediate or Ions-term relief techoology, and the natun>! sclCoces. II earthly causes?", "16th Rochester Minel'lll-
of victims of the quake. focuses on Significant developmcnts in thc ogical Symposium. contributcd papers In
fields of cnvirllnmemal research, policy. Icg- specimen mineralogy. " "Of mines and mto:
i_lation. and rdated aCll\"CS. to bring Impor- a look lit art Ihat depiCl.s mining." "Through
tant ,nformatlon to the allcntlon ofthc the 'scope; interview with Arnold Hamp-
Earthquak. intcrnallonal public. son." "World news of minel'1ll1 occurrences."
A r..cent issue (volume 18, number 5. "Rock chips: some miscellany, p.~rt II." and
TIlE QUAKE OF '89. Edited by the News 1989) contained articles on a wide vartety of "Spotlight on juniors: yesterday's juniors.
St.ff of the San Frnocisco Chronicle. 1989. envlronrnemaJly related tOpiCS. Coverdge was tuday'S profl'Ssiooal."
Chronicle 8ooks. 275 Fifth Street, San Fran- intcrnallonal. Among thc topics iocluded
cisco. CA 94103. 114 p. $9.95. soft cover. werc the mas~ death of harbor .\eals In Eu·
rope; t011C algal bloom in Nor",ay; catchment
Stories or the October 17. 1989. earthquake monlloring In Czechoslovakia; drought In
in northern California are recorded in this Ind,a. woodfuel "tuaIlOO. Zambia: de\ilting Son A"d'eo$ foull, Sout"',n Calolor",o
phoIo-essay. The book IS orsanized into Lalc Chilika. India: and environmenlal con-
SCW'n chapters ~ shock, confusion. horror. tanlln:ltlon. Costa Rica. SAN ANDREAS FAULT. Cajon Pass to
rescue. angUish. regrouping. and hope. Over One of the biggcSI ehalknges facmg man· Wallace Creek. Volumes I and II. Edl1ed by
100 photos. all in black-and-white and many kind is Ihe growing world population. Althe E, Joan 8aldwin. John II. FOSler. W. Lavon
page-sile, convey the dT1lma of the event. pre.>e:nt roll .. of growth. ",orld populatIOn will Le.... is. J. Kirk Hardy. Michael L. Raub, and
The accompanying narrative further adds to double from thc preSCnl fi\'C billion to teO Michael Rendina. 1989. South Coast Geolog-
the drnma of the evenl. b,lIiun within 50 years. Of the.\\: pe()ple. Ical Society.loc .. P.O. Bo.. 10244. Santa
ne:lrly 90 percent "",11 be living In cltle~ In Ana. California 92711-0244. S40.00 per SCt.
Third World coumrle~. If the Third World is sort cover.
to consume energy al the rdte of developed
countnc, tuday. a fi\'efold trtC"re3SC m gh>bal
energy U'\C will be needed In Just 35 >'ears.
A set of two volumes published in
conjunction with the South Coast ecolog,ul
Lack of energy. food and walcr. and o\"(:r· Society's October 1989 ficld lrip.
crowding. and the lrtC"reascd threDt ofepl- Volume I consists of a series of papers on
demic dlscaSe'S art socio-eeonomlC fKtor\ various aspects of the San Andreas fault and
.... pected to he,ghten the stress on the envi- Includes diSCUSSions on the hIstory of coo-
ronment. AM 1110 comhtnes the diSCiplines cepts and studics along the faull. the ~truc­
ofengtncer,. SClcntl_h. social planners. poll- tUT1l1 features and problems associated wllh
IIClans. and ~onormst_ to Inform :tnd to help the fault. palcOlectonlcs. neoteclonic, and
awn future cnvironmcntal dilemma, detcrmination of recurrence inlerVllls of large
AMBIO I~ a IIOlc.....orlhy Journal ""hlch earthquakes. and stress. snam. seismiCity.
dCM"n-es "',.... rec~nnlun and readc~hlp and prediction along the fault. Two blblio.
gl'1llplties conclude lhis volume

f,om the forward'

"No oth.... geologic feature in Cal,/Of"'" hal

<III Damoged I>ou... in Oo!;Ia"d cou.ed by th. mag. been vn,ted a. much, studied 0$ inten.... eIy. nor
nitude 7.1 October 17, 1989 lama Priela eorth_ raised 0$ m..... h controve,." O. l+ofI Son Ar>dreos
quo!;e. Pfloro by Glenn 8o<cflo,d, louh. for a complete and In depth cOWl'age 01


the growlh ond development 01 knowledge about lurchcd pa't eactl other for a dlSlance of ulltu Fear thai San Francisco would lose its p0-
the fault, ... feed Mason HiW. 1981 art;d. which t"·cnty·onc fcet along Ihe Callforn.a COlI.t sition as lhe commercial hub of the wcst led
is reprinted in this volume, The resulting break slretehed about 290 mtles 10 the deternllnation of financial. industrial.
It was MalOn Hill and Tom Dibble. who, in from MendOCino to Monlerey eounlles. San and commercIal institutions and entitles to
1953, _,.the finllO propose in print t"of some Fruncl"Co at this lime 1"11' a city of410.000. suppres. informalion about thts 1906eanh-
roc.k unih hod been broken Dnd alhe' more thon One-"~Ih of the CIty was bu,lt on "made ...... quake dilaSler AI the same time l'Tofessor
300 miles in 0 tighlloIeroJ sense by th. Son A,,- f.lled land" John C. 8ranner. Geology Oeparlment at
d,eo. foull. Thi•• torte<! a con'rove"y among Stanford University. and l'rofeswr Andrtw
Ttll~ ne .... history oflhe San Francisco
ColilOtnio geologists, j,()ftI<l agreeing wilh Hill C. Lawson. Geology Department al Univer-
earthquake cuns."\ of Ihe follow,ng 'ecliuns·
• and Dibblee, and some mointoining thot verticol
Introducllon: The Great l:arlhquake: The
suy of California (Berkeley). were trying to
movement on the foull could e..plain the off.., providt scienliflC informal ion aooul the
Great Fire: The I'ohllcs of D.saster: and all
rod ..nils. eal1hquake.
epIlogue. The Future of San Francisco.
Research", at un...."i'i••, omonglhem Jolin whIch includes a b"ef reporl on Ihe crfeeb of
Tile authors researched U.S. Army and
Crow&ll and Perry Eh!ig. IInd"OVOflld, indivjd- Navy records in Ihe Nalional Archi\"ts. death
the OcHlbcr 17. 19119 earthqua~e. There l~
\lOlly. 10 oul this problem and also many 0/
also an cxten~iV<' bibliography.
nOliccs in Ihe daily newspapers of Ihe time.
their lIudenn .rudittd the Son AndreQS 10...11 o. 0 Ihe deaths rcgistered in the coroner's records.
part of!Mi, M-S. and Ph.D. th,,, ••. Grodvolly, Many eye-witness accounts by people "ho and made a public appeal 10 conlacl rdatives.
will> occumulofiot, of dolo, fII01lgllologilts be- Ii\"td through the quake - police officers. dcscendants. and friends or those woo died in
come convinced thot o. MuCh as 200 milliS of rePOrlers. a thlrleen-ycar old boy. rabhis. lhe 1906 dlsasler to determine the e~ltnt of
right lotllra! ofhel hod <><;curred. In tM lot. 1960. and nllnlSlers - arc given. The book rclales the loss of life
rhe theory of p10te ,,,daniel was developed or\Cl delails of Ihe dtsaster - lrapped viclims The book has 333 phOlographs. 321 never
J. 'uzo Wil..," propooed thot rhe San Andrea. i. dying in Ihe rubble of shabby lOOlh-Qf-Man.:et published before. which lel1lhe Slory of the
a lro",fonTl foull forming a part of the boundary rooming houses when fin: s"<ecps through earthquake and fire. Reproductions of col-
between the Pacific and North American Plot,", thc area: thc eataslrophic fat lure of San Fran- ored postcards and paintings are included.
1n the 196(h ol\d 1970. Robert Wollac. ol\d cisco's watcr supply: lQOllng: people camped This book is a valuable addilion 10 lbc
orhen of the U.S. Geological Survey mode oignjf. in oUllYlOg arells. hislorical record of San Francisco. ~
icont conlribution.1O the study of geomo<phic
fe.olu"" creal&d by recent .tipi along the Son
AfIdreOi loult. The.. are particulorly well pre·
.......&d on the Carma PIoi... ln lhe 1970. and
1980. Kerry Sieh 01 California IMlilute of Tech-
Compl.te oddreSl form on n...t page
nology ""Os the leading reHlOrch.r in eorthquoke Ir>dieole number of copies Price include.
chronology, recurrence intervol" ol\d slip role1o posloge and IOle. tax
oIong the southern Son AI\dre<n foult Oi a rewlt
of hi. inmol srudies at Pollett Cr~k. Roy Weldon

added to knowfedge of slip rotes by hi. srudie. in _ _ IU89 Mineral. of California. 1966 .•.•.•••.••..•..•••..••••.•.••...•... S 7.00
Cajon Volley. At the so.... ~me. geol09i'l1 ollhe _ _ 8'206 Geology and are deposits 01 the Bodi. mining district, Mono COf,Hlty,
Colifomia Dnrision of Mines and Geology (in. California. 1987 . S 18.00
duding Al60rrows, Jim Kohl., David B.eeby. Hal _ _ 6'208 2eo1ites in Colifornio. 1988 (new) . S 9.00
Weber. or>d othenl dicI delailed mopping along
the HlCtion of the fault in Los Angelti County. SPECIAL REPORTS
Stre... slroin, and Jeiirnicity along the foult _ _ SR70 Sond and grovelresourc.s of the Kern RiVe<" r>eot Bokersf..ld.
hove been ,tudi&d by a number of r......rch.n K.rn COf,Hlty. 1961 •...•.... S 1.00
and _mpl1 ore being mode 10 predict earth· _ _ SR1l9 lol\dsliding in..-ine terroce telroin. California. 1975 ..••...•••. S 1.00
quol<es. The Port.Jielc:l Earthquake Prediction Ex-
periment;' deocribed in officles in this vokome.H
_ _ SPJ3 Minerols and rocU. 196'2 . •• . . .• . .•• . . •• . •. . ......•..•••...• t 1.00
Volume II is a field nip road log for the _ _ SP60 Earthquake planning scenario lor 0 Magnitude 8.3 eonhquake on the
San Andrus fault from Cajon Pass 10 Wal- Son Ar>dreo. fault in JOUIh.em California. 198'2 .. t 8.00
lace Creek. Twenty plale5 al various scales _ _ SP61 Eorthquak. planning scenario for a magnitude 8.3 eorthquol<e on the
are inclUded. Aerial pho(os by John S. Shd- Son fault in Ihe Son Soy Oreo. 198'2 ..... t 8.00
don enhance the fidd Irip volume. _ _ SP78 Eorthquak. planning scenario for a magnitude 7.5 eorthquoke on the
Hayward fouIt in the Son francisco Soy oreo. 1987 •••.•..•........•. t3O.oo
_ _ Sf'99 Planning sc_rio lor a mojor eorthquah On the
Newporl-Inglewood fault Zonol. 1988 .•..•....••...••••.•••••.•..... t'2'2.00
_ _ SP101 Technicol ar>d economic fecn.ib;!ily of on earthquake ""Orning system
1906 Son fronc,sco Earthquake in Colifornia. 1988 .•.•.••..••..•........•..•....••...••••. t 13.00
Story and Phologr.aphs of Ihe San Francisco _ _ Cll Mines and mineral reSOUrC.s al K.rn County. 196'2 $ 8.SO
Eanhquake and Fire of 1906. 1989. By _ _ CR<4 Mines ol\d mineral r.sources 01 Trinity County. 1965 •..•.•...••.....•• S 10.00
Gladys Hansen and EmlMt Cundon ....ith
David Fo... ler. edilor. and Richard Hansen. CAUfOllNlA GEOLOGY
Pholo Researchcr. ClImeron and COmpan). _ _ 1 yeor 11'2 iuuesl ..••..........•...•...•............••.••••..••••.....•. $10.00
S4) Howard Street. San Francisco. CA _ _ '2 yeo" 1'2<4 iJwesl .. . . . $'20.00
9410~. 160 p. $29.9~. hard cover. _ _ Bock ;lSues (Specify volume ol\d monthllnd",iduol issues S1.00 eoch . $ 1.00

At ~:12:0~a.m. on Wednesday. April 18.

TOTAL AMOUNT ENCLOSED... . ••• . . • . . •• . ••. . ••• . •• .• . •• . . . • . . . . •• .• . •• $, _
1906. a diuMer struck in northern Califor-
nia. The PxiflC and North American plat.:s. PAYMENT MUST 8E INCLUDED WITH ORDER
responding to the geologit tension on Ihem.

p O.BOX 29llO
SACfW,ENlO. o.uFOfNA, 95812


DMG OFR 89-14

A BIIlUOORAI>I!Y OF VOLCANIC This is the: first eOfllprchcnslYC bIbliog- gl..IS haw bccnl>ludying volcanic lrelllO(
TRI:.MOR AND RELATED !>IIENOM- raphy 00 volcanIC tremor. it Iypc of seis- to learn aboutlhc movemenl of magma
ENA Ily Stcphen R. McNutt. 1989. mic activily recorded al :.cllYe volcanoc:s. beneath volcanoes. Evcntually. the '>Iud)
130 p. 510,00 Recenlly_ selSmologl.'>lS and vokanolo- of volcanic lremor may provide adcqualc
"",Hnmg of Immlnenl cruptions. The: bib-
hogrolphy was prepared as a Ilomm! lC:x>l
and a!,OIIl'Ce of mformation for research-
ADDRLSS fOR'1 fOR ALL ORm,RS e.... and others Interested III lhe: subj«1. A
PIeue pm! 01 type
cornpklc sel of rcfcn::occ:s §OCh as Ihl'> I'>
PAYMENT MUST BE INCUJOfO W1TH ORDER needed dunng limes of \'Okanic lrcmor'\
10 help ('\OIlu;l1(' lhe: actlVlly and IhI: hLc-
hhood of CruplKlRS.
The bibliography eorllau!S 6061111<:...
CITY _ reprc'>Cntlllg lhe: Ilo'Ofi of 521 authors
Most of lhe: enlrle'> arc JOUrnal artICle...
STATE _ ZIP bullhe: blbhography also inelude~ hool;.s.
el\lpllon report'>. ob!.crvatory serral pub-
TOTAl AMOUNT ENCLOSED: S - Ilcalll)llS. ab'i:trncls. and informal or un-
publi~hcd reporlS. The bibliography I~
CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY SUBSCRIPTIONS divided into fivc .'>Cclion..: (/\) rcfcrcncc\
lislcd alphabetically by {ir..t aulhor".. I:l~l
o 1 yr. $10.00 o 2 yr. $20.00 (Individual Issues are $1.00 each) namc: (Il) author index referenced to p;lrt
A. (C) rcfcrellCe~ li..led alphabelically hy
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enclose address labellrom pas11SS08. Iremor" or related lerms m lhe: 1111e. lind
oflcn slgnlrK:anl rnformallOfl I~ mcludc:d
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resuliis Ihal a search by
I,D, I EXPtR. DATE _ ACCT I for example. Ilo'OUld nllS" many
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o ADDRESS CHANGE: Send us an okf address label and your new address. al OrrK:es of lhe Division of MIIlC'i and
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Allow 60 days lor address change.
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(comb bound) may be purehased by pre-
Your ordef wbsc"phon QIWMM be ~sMd unless correcl amounl I, rernilled All 'nd
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.....................................................................-.-.- .

" C"UFOIlNr" G[OLOGY "",.1 t990