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What Is Correct Chinese?

Author(s): Yuen Ren Chao


Source: Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 81, No. 3 (Aug. - Sep., 1961), pp. 171-
177
Published by: American Oriental Society
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/595651
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W AT IS CORRECTCHINESE?*
YIJENREN CHAO
OF CALIFORNIA
UNIVERSITY

To ERR IS HIJ; to correct is worse. For But it was in the matterof pronunciation,as it
the trouble with men, to paraphraseMencius a still is, that people concernedthemselvesmost.
little, is that they like to correctothers.l But the In spite of the great diversityof dialects,therewas
urge to be correctand to correctothers is incor- alwayssome sort of consensusas to what was the
rigible. There has always been a quest for and correct pronunciationof a word. For example
the upholdingof a norm in such a basic human everybodyagreedthat hao in the (ancient) Rising
institutionas language. You are all familiarwith Tone meant 'good' and in the (ancient) Going
(:onfucius' dictum about the importanceof the Tone the putative form of ' good' i. e. ' to find
rectificationof names2 and aboutMencius'interest good, to like.' It did not matter that a speaker
in the technique of teaching the more civilized from the north and one from the southwestwould
languageof the state of (:hyi to a speakerfrom the have the actual pitch patterns of the two tones
state of Chuu.3 For correctnessin languageis not almost exactly reversed. A scholarfrom Peiping
correctnessin languagemerely, but all that goes and a scholarfrom Chungkingcould understand
with language,and what aspectof life does not go each other, and agree with each other perfectly,
with language? when they discussed the tonal membershipof
Before taking up the main questionof what is wordsundertraditionaltone classes,since changes
correct,let us first have a brief reviewof what was in the abstract sound classes of words were in
correctin the recent past. During the days when general much less rapid, both historically and
I went to schoolin China,backin the 1890's,there geographically,than in the acousticalqualities of
was no suchthing as a standardnationallanguage. sounds, and the actual sounds were beneath the
Nevertheless,everyliteratepersonhad to write the concernof most of the literaryscholars.
correctcharacters,form the right sentencesin the This tradition of standard pronunciationwas
classicallanguage,and pronouncein their reading representedlargely in the series of dictionaries
accordingto the traditionwhichwent back,at the starting with Luh Tsyr's Chiehyunnof 601 A. D.
latest, to the Swei and Tarng dynasties. which was accessiblesecondhandthroughthe Go-
It was easy enoughto tell what werethe correct angyunnof 1007 A.D., much cited in the Kangshi
forms of characters. There was even a standard Dictionaryof 1716, the last namedbeing the chief
handbook,TzyhshyueJeuyu (GFuide to Character dictionarythat was in generaluse when I learned
Study), by Long Chiiruey,bpublished in 1872, to readand write. It was the only court of appeal
which scholarsscoffedat, becausethe standardsof in case of an argument. On a much smallerscale
formwerenot alwaysbasedon real etymology,and one can compareit with the series of Webster's
often quite arbitrary,but which the candidatesat dictionaries, with their system of diacritically
the civil serviceexaminationscould not affordto markedletters, in terms of which two personscan
ignore without incurring the risk of disqualifi- agreethat they both pronouncethe word o-f-t-e-n
cation. with a " short o " and " silent t," even though one
As for diction, grammar,and style, the only actually pronouncesit as ['vfn] and the other as
acceptiblepracticewas to followthe practiceof the ['afn]. The actualphoneticvaluesdid not matter.
ancient writers and nobodyin those days I am There was, to be sure, the Guanhuahor Man-
talking aboutthe pre-Hu Shih days wouldthink darin, a knowledgeof which officialsgoing to the
of writing anythingexcept in classicalChinese. court would find useful. But a command of
* Presidential Address delivered at the 171st meeting Mandarinduring the imperial days was regarded
of the Society, Philadelphia, March 28, 1961. rather as a conveniencethan a matter of prestige
1 Ren jy huann, tzay haw wei ren shy,a Bencius and having a southernaccentwas more of an in-
4A . 23; Legge, 11fencius( 2nd ed., Oxford, 1895), p. 311.
2Analects, XIII.3, Legge, pp. 127-128. conveniencethan anythingto be ashamedof. As
3 11fencius,3B.6, Legge, p. 275. a matter of fact the central and southerndialects
171
CHAO: What Is CorrectChinese?

llave preserved more ancient distinctions than tional distinctionshavebeenobliteratedas a conse-


Mandarin,and some of the most prominentpho- quenceof regularphoneticchangein the Peiping
ologists came from those regions. Chern Lii dialect,but which are still significantin the pro-
(1810-1882), author of the epoch-makingChieh- nunciation of many of the more conservative
yunn Wao,was from Canton. Day Jenn (1724- dialects. Thus, the same character now pro-
1777), one of the leadersin the study of what is nouncedyihCapplies to ancient ie' 'easy' and to
now called archaic Chinese,was from Shiouning, zak 'change,' in modern Cantoneseyih and yek,
among some of the most inland mountains of respectively.In Mandarinthey have,throughper-
southernAnhuei,wherethey speakone of the most fectly regular processesof phonetic change, co-
outlandishdialectsof China. alesced into the same 4th-Tone syllable yih. In
There are variousfactorswhichhave kept down the combinationyih shyued,it is meaningfulfor
the prestigeof Mandarin,mostlyhavingto do with a Cantoneseto ask whetherit is yih hoak' easy to
the obliterationof ancientdistinctionsin the more learn' or yek hoak 'the study of (the Book of)
rapid phonetic change in the north. One is the Changes.' iFora speakeror readerfrom Peiping
loss of the so-called Sth Tone or the Entering the questionbecomesvacuous. For him it is just
Tone, the tone which had, and in Cantonesestill a case of the samewordwith two differentmean-
has, the consonantalendings-p, -t, and -k. In the ings. Again, in the Wu dialects, where the dis-
northerndialects the endings have been lost and tinction betweenvoiced and voicelessinitial stops
the tone class has been redistributedamong the and fricatives is still maintained,one finds teye
othertones, includingthe Even Tone, so that zzap pronouncedwith f- 5 in the sense of ' expense,
'ten' and ,zi 'time' are both pronouncedshyr in waste' but with v- as a surname;beyfwith [p-] as
Mandarin. Since classicalpoetrydependsbothfor ' back' and [b-] as turn one's backto '; bayg with
its meter and rime upon the tones accordingto [p-] as a transitiveverb 'to defeat' and with [b-]
ancientclassification,the southernershave a great as ' to be defeated'; f?shh from three different
advantageover the northerners,who to this day ancient forms, resulting in Wu (1) with f- 'to
still frequentlylike to composepoemsin the classi- repeat,to reply,' (2) with v-, Entering Tone, 'to
cal style and will thus need a knowledgeof the recover,'and (3) with v-, GEoing Tone, 'again,' all
classicaltones. threepronounced fuh in Mandarin. Little wonder
Anotherpointof prestigevalueis the distinction that Mandarinwas held in low esteem by the
betweenjtan ' sharp' and twan' rounded' in words literati.
which had older dentals and velars, respectively, But the illusionof no changefrom the old tradi-
but have coalescedinto palatalsbeforehigh front tion could be kept up only by turning one's eyes
vowels in the Peiping dialect. No native of awayfrom the fact of changein language,whether
Peiping distinguishesbetween si ' west' and hi regularlyby phonetic law or irregularlythrough
' sparse,'as did ancient Chineseor as do half of interdialectalborrowing,whether consciouslyby
the rest of the country, or as do most iErench setting up new norms or unconsciouslythrough
sinologistsin their romanizationof Chinese. The incorrectreading or misinterpretationof records.
prestige value, apart from the older standing of One of the most powerfulsocial forces for change
such a distinction, derives particularly from lies in the fact of what in Chineseis called Shyi
the fact that singers in the modern Pyi-Hwang fei cherng shi 'Habituated wrong makes right.'
style of drama,right in the city of Peiping as its Two wrongs do not make one right, but enough
metropolis,have adopted a standard of the so- wrongswill makeany wrongright. Thus,although
called Jongjou pronunciation,in which among the dictionarysays characterj ancient ts'iet >
otherthings such a distinctionis maintained.4 modernchie 'to cut,' but ts'iei' > modernchih in
Thirdly, and this is the most importantfactor k ' in all cases,'yet nobody,not even in my time,
from a philologicalpoint of view, certain tradi- says ichih for ' in all cases'; within my memoryit
has always been ichie or ichieh. To say ichih
4 Luo Shintyan, " Jiowjiuh-jong de Jiigeh Inyunn
Wenntyi " (Some phonological problems in the old-style
6 No final is given here, in order to cover a variety of
drama), Elastern Mrscellany, XXXTTT ( 1936), No. 1,
pp. 393-410. the Wu dialects, to which all these remarks apply.
CXAO: What Is CorrectChinese? 173

would either not be understoodor, if understood in the other, then the moderatelyeducated,who
by the few who knew this reading,be regardedas never heardthe secondreading,will pronounceit
pedantic. anyhow,and so we are startedon the road to the
There are many factors which may start pro- one-character-one-pronunciation movement. Over
nunciationsthat deviatefrom the classical tradi- this road are strewn at differentstages all classes
tion " incorrect" pronunciations. iEollowingare of people more or less advancedin this general
some of the most important: movement. iEirst therewerethose caseswherethe
One sourceof errorhas been the misinterpreta- alternatereadingwas alreadyobsoletein my time.
tion in the use of the faanchieh systemof indicat- The exampleof ichieh vs. ichih mentionedabove
ing pronunciationin Kangshi or any dictionary was such a case. Another example is pyngt va
that uses this form of indicating pronunciation. screen': biingt ' to screenoff '; but the characters
The characterchyang,l ancientcg'tangin the Even u ' (that with which) to shut out the wind, a
Tone, meant 'strong, powerful' and is normally (folding) screen' have alwaysbeen knownto me
aspirated, 2nd Tone. When read 'g'tang, in as pyngofeng, neverbiingfeng. The verbv 'to use,
ancient Rising Tone, it meant ' stubborn' or to send' is shyy and the noun 'the sent one,-
'forced.' Now since about the lSth century,the envoy' (cf. German Gesandt), was supposedto
ancient Rising Tone with voiced stops and frica- be shyh. But I have always heard and said
tives have mostly gone over to the Going Tone.6 dahshyy ' ambassador ' and gongshyy ' minister.'
Thereforethe secondreadingof character1 'g'tang In the expressionfor 'humorous' or 'comic,' the
would normally be Mandarinjqanq, in the 4th "correct" pronunciationfor the first characterin
Tone, as indeed it is, in the sense of 'stubborn.' w is supposedto be guu. But since the pronuncia-
But in the sense of 'forced,' apparentlya mis- tion hwa 'slippery' is by far the most frequently
interpretationof the faanchieh: g'(i+l)1,ang = used that is associatedwith this character,it has
g'tangPresulted in the reading ch(yi+l)eang = displacedthe pronunciationguu and so hwaji is
cheang at the modernface value of the faanchieh the only form in which I have heardand used the
characters,and this has gained currencyas the expression w. Anybody who says guuji would
"correct" pronunciationin such combinationsas indeed sound rather hwaji now. Again, X in the
meancheangq ' to force oneself,'and that was the sense of 'fierce, ruthless' is baw. In the sense of
way I learnedto speakand read and that was the 'expose(d)' the "correct" pronunciationis puh,
way I correctedothers when they did otherwise. as one still tries to say in readingMencius:Chioqb
So here is a case of the habituatedwrong that yang yii puh jy ' with the autumn sun to dry
makesright. (expose) it.' But in y ' to reveal,to expose' it is
The most important factor which resulted in always,to me, bawluhand not *puhluh.
changes from the traditional standardshas been That was what I recall of usages at the turn of
the tendencytoward" one characteronepronuncia- the century. Half a century later, in mid-20th
tion." If two forms occur in everyday speech, century,the levelingof pronunciationfor the same
there is a good chance for the distinction to be characterhas of coursegone much farther along.
maintained,as bqannrin fangObiann 'convenient' In naming fractions n/rn which takes the form
but pyan in pyanyi 'cheap,'or kannS 'to look at' m parts' n, 'part' should be renderedby fenn.
and kan 'to watch.' But if a characterwith two But since the characterz is more often used as a
readingsis heardfrequentlyin one and only seen verbfen, fen has displacedfenn in expressionslike
6 The date varies with locality, and in Cantonese the
syh-fenjy sAn.aa s To look' is kann,' to watch' is
change described has not been complete even today. On kan, but bb 'watchprotect, (medical) nurse' is
the other hand, Lii Bor in his Pyiba Shyng already now called kannwuh. In early Chou dynastythe
rimed two Rising Tone words bUhmand fUhn with six form of governmentin cooperativeharmony is
Going Tone words,o which shows how early this change
already started, at least in Lii Bor's pronunciation. See known as cc and I was carefully taught to say
Jou Tzuumo, " GuanyuTarngdayFangyan-jong Syhsheng gongherwith gong in the 1st Tone. But now it is
Dwufaa de Ishie Tzyliaw" (Some data relating to the gonqhergwo ' a republic' and GonqherDaang ' the
pronunciation of the four tones in the Tarng dynasty),
Yuyan$ue Luncong (Linguistic EJssays), Shanghai, 1958, RepublicanParty,' just as in GonqchaanDaang
Vol II, p. 12. 'the CommunistParty.' To my conservativeears
174 CHAO: What Is CorrectChinesee

that makes the name of the RepublicanParty for sEq4h and say byeyee,which is again unaccept-
sound almost subversive. In the sense of 'win, able. The characterwohmm looks very much like
to be victorious' dd is pronouncedshenq, in the gann.nn So many people say gannshyq4ann°° in-
sense of ' able to bear' as in ee ' can bear the stead of the correctwoSshyzzanPP 'to turn around
responsibility'it is sheng. But most people say (with variousfigurativeextensions).' Pole vault
shenq renn now. The most frequentuse of :! is is called chenggal-ttawqq' push-pole jump.' A
tsorng 'from' or 'to follow,' whereasin the com- commonfolk-etymologyis to call it jaanggal-tiawrr
pound adjective gg ' second (cousin) ' the " cor- ' palm-polejump,'whereonly the right half of the
rect" pronunciationis tzonq. But nowit's tsorng- first characteris pronouncedfor the vfhole,and it
tarng. We noted beforethe three forms for h in seems to make some sense, too. In the term for
the Wu dialects. In the expressionhh ' again acupuncturejenjeoq4shyq4e, the second character
flourish,'a very widely used name in the textbook jeoq4'cauterize' has jeoz4ttfor its phonetic. This
trade,one wouldexpectit to be fowshingor, in the being a rare character,most peoplemistakeit for
Shanghai pronunciation,vew-hing. But every- jyh 'roast' and say jenjyEshyz4enUU which appar-
body calls those new series of textbooksvo-hingin ently makessomesense,too. Althoughthese seem
Shanghaiand fuEshingin Mandarin.Onlywe old- to be clear cases of mispronunciation,it is by no
timers from Wunjinn still proudly and stoutly means sa-feto prejudgethem. What if jenjyEshye
maintain that the first syllable should be in the shouldfinally gain over the correctjenjeoq4shyq4e?
Going Tone. But unfortunatelywe of the Wu- In such an eventuality,the only scientificthing to
dialect cities on the Grand Canal pronounceall do would be to report the facts. We might say
cases of ou as ei, so that a good classicallycorrect somethinglike this: " During the first half of the
vew-hing comes out actually as vey-hing, which 20th century, as a result of misreading,jenjeoq4-
soundslike a ratherweakanticlimaxin our heroic shyq4ewas often misread as jenjyEshyq4e.Now,
stand for the old order of things. Finally, to during the second half of the century, the term
return to that case of meancheang'to force one- jenjeoq4shyq4e has becomeobsoleteand acupuncture
self,' whichbecamethe " correct" form as a result is now called jenjySshyq4e."In the case of poh-
of an "incorrect"applicationof faanchieh. Since jannkk vs. poEdinq,there are other complications.
the form chyang 'strong' occursmuch more fre- On my field trips for my dialect surveysI would
quently,it is becomingthe only pronunciationfor meet with informantswho informed me that in
the character1. IIowever,it still grateson my ears their dialect ' a flaw' was called, let us say,
to hear the form meanchyangfor q, as do all the [p'odieng]. This would at once arousemy suspi-
newerforms just cited which are gaining general cion that the informantwas mispronouncingin his
acceptance. Taking a long view of the matter, I own dialect and so I would venture to suggest,
am of course no better than the deserter in contraryto my own field method, "Do you ever
Menciuswho laughed at anotherdeserterbecause also say . . .", and then I wouldgive the equivalent
he ran awayone hundredpacesfrom the front line of pohjann in the phonetic system of the dialect
and I ran awayonly fifty paces. being studied. "No," he would insist, "in our
Now if enoughwrongsmake wrong right, how dialect we always say [p'odieng]." And that is
many wrongsare enough? Wheredoes one draw final, since in matters of fact, the informant is
the line? Should the pronunciationsof the half- the ultimateauthority. You don'targuewith your
educatedhave equalvote with the pronouncements informantabout the facts of his language. You
of the authorities? Let us take somefairly obvious couldcheckhis informationagainst otherspeakers
cases of incorrectpronunciation. When a seam of the same dialect and find out whether he is
bursts,we say jann Ie shq,ann*Ie,iiwherethe pho- typical or atypical,and if most of them agreewith
netic is jj. A flaw is pohjannkk containing the him, you could drawone of two conclusions. One
same character. Many people who see the char- is that so far as his dialectis concerned,there have
acter for the first time in their readingjust read been enough wrongs to make the wrong right,
the phoneticand say poSdinq,which is of course even though in the 1961 StandardMandarinit is
wrong. The term for a villa is byeshz4h.llA com- still pohjann. On the otherhand, it is also possi-
mon erroris to read the top half of the character ble that this dialect has never gone through the
CHAO: What Is CorrectChinesee 5

stages of an archaic dental stop, ancient palatal station wants an announcer,the first thing to ask
stop, a modernretrofles afEricate,and by way of is whetherthe girl was born or at least educated
mispronunciation,back to a dental stop. Instead, in Peiping.
it may, if it is one of the Min dialects,have pre- I have dwelt on the matter of standardsof pro-
servedthe archaic dental all along, and then we nunciationat some length in orderto show what
would be insulting these good respectablepeople is involved in trying to establish and maintain
with mispronunciation!Thus even those appar- norms of correctness. As the same sort of prob-
ently clear casesare by no meansso clear that we lems will be met with in otheraspectsof language,
can judge them without close examination. I shall discussthem only briefly.
So far I have been consideringsound classesin In the transliterationand translationof foreign
the abstract. The result of the first attempt at a words and propernames, errors often occur and
phonemic,if not a phoneticstandardof pronuncia- sometimesbecomefirmlyestablishedas part of the
tion was embodiedin the officialdictionaryGwoin language. The form JyjtageA for Chicago was
Tzyhdeanwof 1919, in which the pronunciations obviously based on a mispronunciationof the
of characterswere spelt with the newly designed initial fricative as an afEricate. Some more lit-
National Phonetic letters. Just as the collabo- erary- and less literal-mindedwriters have tried
rators of ChieSyq4nn did in 601 A.D., "the rights unsuccessfullyto changeit to Shyjqagu¢B ' Valley
and wrongsof the south and north and the logical of the poets'- hardlya suggestiveepithetfor that
and the illogical of the ancientsand modernswere great prosaic metropolis on the lake, of which
argued"sw7 and they settled on a standardof the name is pronouncedcorrectly this time as
Mandarinpronunciationcalled Gwoin,henceforth Mikshigen.C 9
to be taught in all schools. It had the Sth Tone
or Entering Tone, distinction of sharp and In the translatingof foreignwords,a wordwith
rounded,two mid-vowelphonemes/o/ and /e/xx meanings A and B may be equatedto a Chinese
(whereasmost northern dialects have only one) word which only has meaning A, and when the
and variousother featuresalong traditionallines. foreign word is used in meaning B the same
Since no teacherspokein the nationalpronuncia- Chinese word is then used in meaningB, which it
tion as a native, it fell upon me to make phono- never had. If a student does that in an exercise
graphrecordsof this standardlanguage,to be used he is simply marked wrong. But if the translation
henceforthin all the schools. That was in fact gets published and published often enough, then
the system of pronunciationI taught at IIarvard the Chinese word will have acquired a new mean-
University in 1922 when instruction in Chinese ing. Thus weimiaw $ normally means ' delicate'
was resumedthere after an interruptionof forty only in the sense of 'fille,' 'sensitive,' etc., and if
years. But phonographrecordsor no phonograph applied to a social or political situation, weirniaw
records,it was found hard going to teach a lan- would not make any sense. But now one reads
guage which nobodyspoke. For thirteen years I weimiaw in all the newspapersin this extended
was the sole speakerof this idiolect, meant to be sense becausethe foreign word delicateis so used.
the national language of 4, 5, or 600 million Similarly,jychyrF'to support'has been extended
speakers. By 1932, without publicly announcing to coverpolitical supportwhichwas foreign to the
any radical change, the Gwoin TzyEdeanwas original semantie range of jychyr. Personally I
quietly revisedin the form of Gwoin(7harngyonq wouldstill say yeonghuhG in speakingof support-
Tzyhh?leyYY, 8 in which the actual content was ing a candidate.
The translationfor 'diehards'
based on the speech of Peiping. Thus at one is syy'yinqpay,H yinq being 'hard' as oppositeof
stroke,were createdmore than one million poten- 'soft' rather than the oppositeof 'easy.' A cor-
tial teachers instead of only one. Nowadays, rect translation would have beennan-syy-pay' diffi-
whetherat Peiping or at Taipei,whenevera radio cult to die -ers.' But I am afraid the form
syy'ytnqpaywi]] die hard.
jtn tong seh "; preface
t ¢ In lq4ennnan beei sh fez guFlb
to Luh Tsyr, Chiehyqbnn, 601. 9 Tsyrhae, however, still has ^jyrCanvD the last
8 A more readily available form x1OW is G>wornBtaq4joen syllable presumably pronounced ngan by the original
Eueybian,zz Taipei, 1947. transliterator. Cf. Nganhwes for Anhq4es.
176 CHAO: What Is CorrectChinese?

Questions of correctness in grammar have or in Chinesein particular. I am in full agree-


played a less importantpart than those of pro- ment with American linguists of the structural
nunciationor vocabulary. But a numberof Euro- school in believingthat the job of the scholaris
peanismshaveappearedin writing,thoughnot yet to recordthe usagesand state the conditionsunder
in speech, in recent decades. One of the basic which they are found, and that the job of the
features in Chinese syntas is that the modifier teacher is to teach what language is appropriate
precedesthe modified. But nowadaysone finds under what situations. One recites the Tarng
titles of articles and books like AliEsy Tzay poems in one style of pronunciation,you talk to
JonggwoI for 'Alice in China.' Since this word membersof your family in another. In everyday
orderis normallypossibleonly when tzay is used conversationyou say Jtel jieel le ? for 'what day is
as a predicativeverb 'is at' or 'is in,' my im- today?' On the platformor in the classroom,one
mediate reaction to Al?sEsyTzay Jonggwo is to discardsmost of the retrofles suffises and says
answer,Bu, Althsy bu tzay Jonggwo' No, Alice is Jtntian shernz ryEtz? ' Whatis the date today?2
not in China,Alice is in Wonderland.' 10 If the occasionis to write a commentaryon the
Adverbialclausesnormallyprecedethe principal grammarof Mencius,I would not be disturbed
clauses,except as an afterthoughtaddition. But even if you wrote in the pure classic language.
one reads now premeditatedmodifying clauses But if I had to report on current news on the
with conjunctions like ruguooL ' if,' jiEranM international scene-a job I can hardly fancy
'since' following the main clause, and such sen- myself doing the only thing to do would be to
tences sound to me definitely foreign in con- makeuse of all the new Europeanismswhich have
struction. becomea regular part of the journalistic para-
From the generaltone of my discourseyou will phernalia. Thus what is correct depends upon
see that I must have a good deal of sympathyfor what is appropriateto the situationand the status
thoseschoolmasters, whofeel nostalgicfor the good of the speakeror writer. If you want to communi-
old days when right was right and wrong was cate most ef3Sectively, then do such and such, so
wrong, and deplorethe degenerationof the lan- that correctnessin languageseemsto turn out to
guage when distinctionsare being obliteratedand be a hypotheticalimperativerather than a cate-
a pure language is becoming more and more gorical imperative. But it is one's duty to com-
foreign in vocabularyand grammar. While there municate ef3ectively when one uses language to
is a gooddeal of this in the way I feel aboutthings, communicate. ()ne ought always to use the lan-
I am certainly no syyyinqpay ' diehard' purist guage that is appropriateto the situation. Thus,
with regardto correctnessin languagein general by asserting the antecedent I am asserting the
consequent. In other words, correctnessin lan-
10The title of my translation of Altce's Adventxtes guage is in the last resorta categoricalimperative.
tn Wonderlandis Althsy Mannyou ChyzjrtngJth,J Shang-
hai, 1922, and that of Sheen Tsorngwens parody is
11Except when I teach Chinese to Americans,when I
Alq,hsyJonpp?uoYoujth,KShanghai, 1931, both of which
follow the regular word order of modifier-modified. cite both forms.
k. tM7 b b.

CHAO: What Is CorrectChinesee

a.futtit p.X hh.Y : yy*getmS


tSA§@ q tffi i i.g.tUgz 4
b.T rz 't '' %: A. tt"
tR.)k34 s. t kkh,i5E B.tW
c.% t.r 1I. MIJ
v C.''.ffitt
d.g u.4t xnm D. 2
e. * to. {t nn.3F E.F
f.it w.m oo.S FtE
g.QK X. pp.Sw G.gA
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