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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD C12.

19-200x

Contribution #: [TF0605-159-1]

CONTRIBUTION
Project: TableFest II, ANSI C12.19

Title: Final modifications and review of Section 9.5, “Decade 4: Security Tables”

Author(s): Bin Qiu (leader), Richard Tucker

Name: Dr. Bin Qiu


Organization: Landis + Gyr
2800 Duncan Rd,
Address Line 1:
Contact: Address Line 2:
City, State, & Zip: Lafayette, IN, 47904
Phone Number:
Fax Number:
E-Mail Address: Bin.Qiu@us.landisgyr.com

Related Document(s): C12.19-1997, wg2-0507

Supersedes None

Submission Date: May 1, 2006


Revision Date:
• Industry Canada Task Force members
Distribution: • ANSI C12 SC17 members
• IEEE SCC31 members

Abstract: This contribution proposes corrections and modifications to Section 9.5, “Decade
4: Security Tables” for review and inclusion in the final draft of the ANSI/MC C1219
and IEEE 1377 working documents.

Objectives addressed
Final review and corrections.
and/or introduced:

Summary of proposed 1. Correct obvious syntax and grammar errors.


modifications to the 2. Resolve ambiguities and cross references.
Standard Document: 3. Introduce definitions where definitions are lacking.
4. Propose clarifying text where the document text is ambiguous or lacking.
5. Correct proper use of the terms may, can, shall, should, would throughout
the document.

Disclaimer:

Page 1 of 7
This contribution has been prepared to assist TableFest II. This document is offered as a basis for
discussion in accordance with the submission rules of TableFest II (ANSI C12.19-1997, IEEE 1377-1997,
MC-Requirements and TF9804-001).
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD C12.19-200x

6. Correct for C12.19-1997 and C12.19-200x backward and forward


compatibility according to Section 14 above.
7. Remove and aggregate duplication.
8. Identify areas that require significant normative change for discussion and
resolution (and propose in-place change).

Contribution List
Final Review
“Subject” Column
Contribution List
May 1, 2006
“Date” Column
Contribution List
Section x.x - Decade x: TLC
“Title” Column
Contribution List
Bin Qiu
“Contributor” Column

Disclaimer:

Page 2 of 7
This contribution has been prepared to assist TableFest II. This document is offered as a basis for
discussion in accordance with the submission rules of TableFest II (ANSI C12.19-1997, IEEE 1377-1997,
MC-Requirements and TF9804-001).
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD C12.19-200x

Transformer Losses Compensation

1. Transformer losses Consideration

Transformer losses are the sum of no load losses and load losses [1-4].

1.1 No-Load Loss and Exciting Current

The no-load losses are essentially the power required to keep the core energized. When the
winding is energized, the exciting current consists of real component (core loss) and a reactive
component (energy stored momentarily in the winding inductance). The typical distribution
transformer exciting current is less than 0.5% of the rated current.

1.2 Load Loss

Transformer load losses are result from the flow of load current in the windings. Load loss can
be divided into two parts: (1) I 2 R loss and (2) eddy loss.

− I 2 R Loss
It is caused by transformer winding electrical resistance when load currents flow.

− Eddy Losses

Eddy losses are caused by currents circulating within the winding conductors. Stray losses are
proportional to current frequency and thus can increase dramatically when loads with harmonic
currents are served.

A deeper discussion would include at least the following, however, they are not covered in this
document:
• Temperature correction
• Stray losses
• Harmonics

1.3 Transformer Losses Compensation

Depends on where the transformer is installed, the transformer loss compensation may be added
or subtracted dependant on the following two cases.
Disclaimer:

Page 3 of 7
This contribution has been prepared to assist TableFest II. This document is offered as a basis for
discussion in accordance with the submission rules of TableFest II (ANSI C12.19-1997, IEEE 1377-1997,
MC-Requirements and TF9804-001).
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD C12.19-200x

− Case 1
In case 1, the billing point is on the high voltage side of a transformer, the meter is located on the
low voltage side of the transformer. Transformer losses should be added to the kWh and kVar
measurement.

− Case 2
In case 2, the metering point is on the high voltage side of the transformer, the billing point is on
the low voltage side. Transformer losses should be subtracted from the kWh and kVar
measurement.

2. Transformer Loss Compensation Calculations [2]

Transformer Loss Compensation can be calculated using the following equations

TLC Watt Losses =


LineVoltag e 2 LoadCurren t 2
2
× IronWattLo ss ( In %) + × CopperWatt Loss ( In %) 1-1
RatedVolta ge TestCurren t 2

TLC Var Losses =


LineVoltag e 4 LoadCurren t 2
× IronVarLos s ( In %) + × CopperVarL oss ( In %) 1-2
RatedVolta ge 4 TestCurren t 2

In the above calculation, the transformer parameters are treated in aggregate and not as per phase
or element values.

TLC calculation could affect accumulators such as +KWh, -KWh, KVARh as well as registers
and Load Profile data and power factor.

3. Proposed TLC Table Structure

Table Identifier = xxx


Access: Read access only.
Description: This table shows total no load and load losses calculated by the end device. It also
contains the watt losses and var losses constants.

Disclaimer:

Page 4 of 7
This contribution has been prepared to assist TableFest II. This document is offered as a basis for
discussion in accordance with the submission rules of TableFest II (ANSI C12.19-1997, IEEE 1377-1997,
MC-Requirements and TF9804-001).
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD C12.19-200x

TYPE TLC_COEFFICIENTS_RCD = PACKED RECORD


KWCU : NI_FMAT1;
KVCU : NI_FMAT1;
KWFE : NI_FMAT1;
KVFE : NI_FMAT1;
END;

TYPE TLC_INFORMATION_RCD = PACKED RECORD


TOTAL_WATT_CU : NI_FMAT1;
TOTAL_VAR_CU : NI_FMAT1;
TOTAL_WATT_FE : NI_FMAT1;
TOTAL_VAR_FE : NI_FMAT1;
END;

TYPE TLC_RCD = PACKED RECORD


TR_CONFIGURE : UINT8;
TLC_CONSTANTS : TLC_COEFFICIENTS_RCD;
TLC_SUM : TLC_INFORMATION_RCD;
END;

Identifier Value Definition

TR_CONFIGURE 0…255 0: The billing point is on the high voltage side of


a transformer, the meter is located on the low
voltage side of the transformer.
1: The billing point is on the low voltage side of a
transformer, the meter is located on the high
voltage side of the transformer.
2…255: Reserved (Other potential
configurations).

KWCU Copper coefficient used in determining watt losses of the transformer due to load (Copper) losses

KVCU Iron coefficient used in determining var losses of the transformer due to no-load (Iron) losses.
KWFE
Iron coefficient used in determining watt losses
of the transformer due to no-load (Iron) losses
KVFE
Iron coefficient used in determining var losses of
the transformer due to no-load (Iron) losses.

Disclaimer:

Page 5 of 7
This contribution has been prepared to assist TableFest II. This document is offered as a basis for
discussion in accordance with the submission rules of TableFest II (ANSI C12.19-1997, IEEE 1377-1997,
MC-Requirements and TF9804-001).
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD C12.19-200x

TOTAL_WATT_CU Current total Watt copper loss accumulator.

TOTAL_VAR_CU Current total VAR copper loss accumulator.

TOTAL_WATT_FE Current total Watt iron loss accumulator.

TOTAL_VAR_FE Current total VAR iron loss accumulator.

4. Transformer Loss Compensation Calculation Example

Following is an example on transformer loss compensation calculation, transformer data is


borrowed from reference [2].

Transformer Data:

Rated KVA: 10,000


Rated Voltage: 69,000 – 7200/12470
Xfmr Tap Setting: 69,000 – 12,470
No Load Watt Loss at Rated Voltage: 9878 Watts
Load Loss at Rated Full Load: 41,427 Watts
% Imp at 75C: 6.92%
% Exciting Current: 0.38%
120 Volt, 4 Wire Wye,
Meter Current Class 10
2 Element

From the above parameters, we can get:


- No Load (Core, Iron) Losses KVA = 10,000 * 0.38% = 38.0
- No Load (Core, Iron) Losses KVar = 38 .0 2 −9.878 2 = 36 .96
- Load (Copper) Losses KVA = 10,000 * 6.92% = 692.00
- Load (Copper) Losses KVar = 41 ,427 2 −692 2 =690 .76

Based on equations 1-1 through 1-15, we can calculate and obtain the following Transformer
Loss Constants:
- Transformer Copper Loss Watt Constant: TLC WCu (%) = 0.537%
- Transformer Copper Loss Var Constant: TLC VCu (%) = 8.95%
- Transformer Iron Loss Watt Constant: TLC WFe (%) = 0.0762%
- Transformer Iron Loss Var Constant: TLC VFe (%) = 0.283%
Disclaimer:

Page 6 of 7
This contribution has been prepared to assist TableFest II. This document is offered as a basis for
discussion in accordance with the submission rules of TableFest II (ANSI C12.19-1997, IEEE 1377-1997,
MC-Requirements and TF9804-001).
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD C12.19-200x

5. References

[1] “Transformers”, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook, Harlow, James H..
[2] “Algorithm for Computing and Programming Transformer Loss Constants in Solid-State
Meters”, Alan, Hannah.
[3] No-load versus load loss, Merritt, S.Y.; Chaitkin, S.D, Industry Applications Magazine,
IEEE, Nov 2003
[4] IEEE Guide for Transformer Loss Measurement, IEEE Std C57.123-2002, 2002

Disclaimer:

Page 7 of 7
This contribution has been prepared to assist TableFest II. This document is offered as a basis for
discussion in accordance with the submission rules of TableFest II (ANSI C12.19-1997, IEEE 1377-1997,
MC-Requirements and TF9804-001).