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Introduction

Types of machines

Turbines

Impulse turbines—The Pelton Wheel

Reaction turbines—Francis turbine

Basic Equation for rotodynamic machinery (See 13.3.4)

Similarity laws and Specific speed for turbines

Performance characteristics of turbines

Rotodynamic pumps

Centrifugal pumps

Basic Equation applied to centrifugal pumps (see 13.4.2)

Similarity laws and specific speed for pumps

Performance characteristics of pumps

Cavitation

Introduction

A fluid machine is a device either for converting the energy held by a fluid

into mechanical energy or vice versa.

A machine in which energy from the fluid is converted directly to the

mechanical energy of a rotating member is known as a turbine

engine or motor is used.

A machine in which the transfer of energy is from the moving parts of the

machine to the fluid takes place is called a pump. The term "pumps" is used

when the fluid is a liquid.

When the fluid is a gas, terms such as compressors, or fans (or blowers) are

used.

pressure of the gas. This is accompanied by an increase in the density of

the gas.

1

A fan or blower is a machine whose primary objective is to move the gas.

Static pressures remain almost unchanged, and therefore the density of the

gas is also not changed.

velocities set up at its rotor. In turbines, the initial tangential momentum is

reduced by the rotor and thus work is done by the fluid on the rotor that is

then converted to useful power. In pumps, energy from the rotor is used to

impart (or increase) tangential momentum of the fluid, and the resulting

increase in tangential velocity is then converted to pressure energy.

Types of Machines

Turbines

There are two types of turbines, the impulse and the reaction. In both

types the fluid passes through a runner having blades. The momentum of

the fluid in the tangential direction is changed and so a tangential force on

the runner is produced. The runner therefore rotates and performs useful

work, while the fluid leaves it with reduced energy.

For any turbine, the energy held by the fluid is initially in the form of

pressure.

2

• Concerned with the power generated from a given head.

• Two types--impulse and reaction

1. Impulse Turbines

Conversion of the pressure to kinetic energy in a jet by allowing the fluid to

pass through nozzles. The jets of fluid impinge on the moving blades of the

runner where all of their kinetic energy is practically lost.

The Pelton Wheel Named after Lester A. Pelton (1829-1908), the Pelton

wheel is an efficient machine well suited to high heads (>500m). Maximum

power output is typically about 80 MW, but it can be as high as 400 MW.

Realizes efficiency as high as 80% largely due to improvement in the shape

of the vanes upon which the jet impinges. They are capable of working over a

wide range of conditions, a desirable characteristic for a turbine since they

cannot always work at full load.

with several spoon-shaped buckets evenly spaced round its periphery. One

or more nozzles are mounted so that each directs a jet along a tangent to

the circle through the centres of the buckets. Down the centre of each

bucket is a splitter ridge which divides the oncoming jet into two equal

portions and, after flow round the smooth inner surface of the bucket, the

fluid leaves it with a relative velocity almost opposite in direction to the

original jet.

The deflection of the jet leaving the bucket is limited to about 165°. While

180° is desirable, it will result in the leaving jet from one bucket interfering

with the neighbouring bucket.

leaving the bucket is small.

direction of whirl of the rotor, even though there may be other components

of forces resulting from the impact of the jet on the buckets. This force is

produced by the change in the absolute velocity component in the direction

of whirl (called the velocity of whirl). Refer to the diagram below for

erivation of the power generated by the velocity of whirl.

3

vw2

v1 u

u R1 v2 θ

R2=kR1

The change of the whirl component between the inlet and outlet is given by:

∆v w = v 1 − {u − R 2 cos(π − θ )} = R1 + R 2 cos(π − θ )

= R1 (1 + k cosθ )

Now

mass flow rate = Qρ

So

Rate of flow of momentum = Qρ (∆v w )

The energy at the wheel is in the form of kinetic of the jet and is given by

1

Qρv 12 per unit time.

2

Qρ (∆v w )u 2u (∆v w )

ηw = =

1 v 12

Qρv 1 2

2

Substituting for ∆v w from above and putting R1 = v 1 − u gives

2u (v 1 − u )(1 − k cosθ )

ηw =

v 12

v1

actual value is about 0.46 and an efficiency value between 0.85-0.9 results.

• Energy to overcome friction in the bearings

• Energy to overcome friction between the wheel and the atmosphere

(windage)

4

Note that the frequency of the power generated is linked to the angular

velocity of the wheel. Any changes in angular velocity will alter the

frequency of the electrical output.

power demand drops, the machine is still required to operate at maximum

efficiency.

proportional reduction in the input power. The input power can be controlled

by altering the initial velocity of whirl. But if this is altered, the optimal

ratio of u/v will change. Thus, to maintain efficiency v cannot be altered.

Reduction in the input power is achieved by reducing Q, the flow.

And since Q is reduced, to maintain the same velocity v, the area of the jet

must be reduced.

the nozzle

Design Considerations

Ratio of bucket width to jet diameter-- about 4 to 5

Ratio of wheel diameter to jet diameter--minimum of 10

2. Reaction Turbines

The Francis turbine was developed by James. B. Francis (1815-1892). It is a

radial-flow reaction turbine. Its components are described in the Massey

textbook; also see figure below. It is particularly suited for medium heads

(between 15m to 300m) and overall efficiencies exceeding 90% have been

achieved.

Other types of pumps include the axial-flow turbine such as the Kaplan

turbine.

Net head across a reaction turbine --This is the difference between the

head at inlet (gross head of the reservoir, less any losses along the pipeline

to the inlet) and the head at outlet from it (see diagram on right).

5

H= Total head at inlet to machine - Total head at discharge to tail race

the volute or scroll case and passes through the guide vanes mounted on the

runner. The fluid passes the blades of the runner where it is deflected and

so its angular momentum is changed. From the centre of the runner the

fluid is turned into the axial direction and flows to waste via the draft tube.

Note the shape of the volute. The cross-sectional area is decreasing along

the fluid path such as to keep the fluid velocity constant in magnitude. The

guide vanes direct the fluid on the runner at the angle appropriate to the

design. The angle of the vane can be changed to alter the flow rate and

hence the power output.

The lower end of the draft tube must be submerged below the level of the

tailrace to ensure that the turbine is full of water.

v = absolute velocity of fluid

u = peripheral velocity of blade at point considered

R = relative velocity between fluid and blade

vw = velocity of whirl, i.e., component of absolute velocity of fluid in

direction tangential to runner circumference.

r = radius from axis of runner

6

ω = angular velocity of runner

Suffix 1 refers to conditions at inlet to runner

Suffix 2 refers to conditions at outlet from runner.

The power passed on to the runner from the fluid is due to the change in

tangential momentum. There may be changes of momentum in other

directions also, but the corresponding forces have no moments about the

axis of rotation of the rotor.

Now,

torque about given fixed axis = Rate of increase of angular momentum about axis

Therefore, the torque on the fluid must be equal to the angular momentum

of the fluid leaving the rotor per unit time minus the angular momentum of

the fluid entering the rotor per unit time.

to the rotor is δmvw1, and its angular momentum is δmvw1r1.

If the mass flow rate is m & then the rate at which angular momentum passes

through a small cross-sectional area having uniform velocity vw1 and radius of

curvature r1 is δm

& v w1 r1

& v w1 r1 .

7

Similarly, the rate at which angular momentum leaves the rotor is ∫ δm

& v w 2 r2

The rate of increase of angular momentum of the fluid is given by:

∫ v w 2 r2 dm& − ∫ v w1 r1dm&

From Newton's Third Law of Motion, the torque exerted on the rotor by the

fluid is:

T = ∫ v w1 r1dm

& − ∫ v w 2 r 2 dm

&

Note that the above equation involves initial and final state of the fluid. It

applies regardless of the path taken by the fluid between inlet and outlet;

also, it is independent of any losses occurring due to friction between the

blades and the fluid, changes of temperature.

Tω = ∫ v w1ωr1dm

& − ∫ v w 2 ωr 2 dm

&

= ∫ u1v w1dm

& − ∫ u 2 v w 2 dm

&

since u = ωr

The shaft work done by the fluid per unit mass is obtained by dividing the

above equation by the total mass flow rate m

& . Thus,

1

( u v dm& − ∫ u2 v w 2 dm& )

& ∫ 1 w1

m

= u1v w1 − u 2 v w 2

The energy available per unit mass of the fluid is gH, where H = the net

head.

8

u1v w1 − u 2 v w 2

Hydraulic efficiency = (if the products uvw are uniform).

gH

Note, this is not the overall efficiency, because a fraction of this energy is

lost to overcome (for example) friction in the bearings.

Refer to the velocity diagrams above. The ideal condition, the one which

would minimise losses due to eddy formation, occurs when the relative

velocity at the inlet is in line with the inlet edge of the blade.

suddenly, resulting in violent eddies and dissipation of energy as heat.

directions, and the favourable alignment can be achieved by adjusting the

direction of the guide vanes.

outlet angle of the blade and the geometry of the outlet diagram then

determines the magnitude and direction of the absolute velocity v2.

For high efficiency, the velocity of the fluid at outlet, and hence the kinetic

energy, should be small. The desirable velocity at outlet is one without

whirl, that is, one that is perpendicular to the tangential velocity.

u1v w1

gH

The development and utilization of turbomachinery in engineering practice

has benefited greatly from the application of dimensional analysis. It has

enabled turbine and pump manufacturers to test and develop a relatively

small number of turbomachines, and subsequently produce a series of

commercial units that cover a broad range of head and flow demands.

machines the geometric similarity must apply to all significant parts of the

9

system—the rotor, the entrance and discharge passages and for a turbine,

the conditions in the tailrace or sump.

corresponding velocities in a constant ratio. The velocities represented in

the vector diagrams above in one machine must be similar to the vector

diagrams in the other machine.

(fixed ratio of forces) exists, then certain dimensionless parameters

representing these ratios are the same for each of the systems being

compared.

be considered:

Dimensional formula

D rotor diameter, here chosen as a suitable measure of [L]

the size of the machine

Q volume rate of flow through the machine [L3T-1]

N rotational speed [T-1]

H difference of head across machine, i.e., energy per [L]

unit weight

g Weight per unit mass [LT-2]

ρ density of fluid [ML-3]

µ viscosity of fluid [ML-1T-1]

P Power transferred between fluid and rotor [ML2T-3]

been derived:

Q gH ρND 2 P

Π1 = Π2 = Π3 = Π4 =

ND 3 N 2D2 µ ρN 3 D 5

Refer once again to the vector diagram of the velocities, and recall that for

kinematic similarity, then the ratio of the velocities must be similar in both

machines.

10

Consider the ratio of the fluid and the blade velocities, v and u respectively

in the diagram.

Thus,

Q

Π1 = D2

ND

achieved if Q/ND3 (called the discharge number of flow coefficient) is the

same for each.

Q

D µ D

fluid velocity, then the product represents the Reynolds number.

power parameter Π 4 with Π 1 and Π 2 as Π 4

(Π 1 × Π 2 ) , which is: ρQgH

P

Q gH P

φ1 , 2 2, = 0

ND N D ρN D

3 3 5

or,

gH P

φ 2 η, 2 2 , = 0

N D ρN D

3 5

operating conditions are expressed by values of N, P and H. It is important

to know the range of these conditions covered by a particular shape of

turbine. With this information, we can decide on which turbine to choose.

We therefore need some parameter that can define all the machines

11

belonging to a particular homologous series, independent of the size

represented by D. That is to say, we need a parameter involving all the

operating conditions—N, P and H—but one that does not involve the size, D.

The size D can be eliminated by dividing (Π 4 ) 2 by (Π 2 ) 4 to give:

1 5

1

2

NP

(gH ) 4

1 5

ρ 2

The specific speed for a turbine is defined as the speed at which the

turbine should operate to generate 1 KW from a 1 m head.

with maximum efficiency.

must be unchanged throughout the series. If the dimensionless parameters

Π ’s are unchanged, then the specific speed, derived from the division of

two of these dimensionless parameters also much be unchanged. A

particular value of this parameter therefore relates all combinations of the

N, P and H for which the flow conditions are similar for that homologous

series.

at which maximum efficiency occurs. Define a parameter Kn, the value of

the specific speed at which this occurs. So, whatever the operating

conditions—the values of N, P and H—all machines of a particular homologous

series have a particular value of Kn at maximum efficiency.

only fluid used in turbines, and we are concerned with operations on the

surface of the earth where g does not vary much from 9.81 m/s2. Thus the

specific speed is usually written without the ρ and g quantities and is of the

form:

1

NP 2

5

H 4

12

Performance Characteristics of turbines

Under normal conditions, a turbine will be required to work with an almost

constant head. It may be desired to operate the machine under conditions

other than optimal. Therefore a plot, called the characteristic curve, is

developed that shows the manner in which discharge, power output and

efficiency changes with speed.

that the curves can be used not only for the turbine being tested but also

for other machines in the same homologous series. The parameters are:

P Q ND

, ,

ρD 2 (gH ) D 2 (gH ) (gH )

3 1 1

2 2 2

Note the assumptions upon which the equations are based, namely, that flow

is steady, uniform velocities at inlet and outlet with respect to magnitude

and angle made with the radius. Note that the equation for the energy

13

imparted to the fluid by the impeller is similar to that for a turbine (above),

except the signs are reversed. It is,

expressions for R1 and R2:

work done on fluid per unit mass =

1 2

2

{( ) ( ) (

v 2 − v12 + u 22 − u12 + R22 − R12 )}

In the equation for work done on fluid, we may set vw1 to 0 as initially the

fluid approaches the impeller without any whirl. Thus the equation simplifies

to:

work done on fluid per unit mass = u 2 v w 2

This energy increases the piezometric head of the fluid by an amount Hm,

called the manometric head. But the total energy supplied to the fluid (per

unit weight) to produce this head is given by u 2 v w 2 , which is known as the

g

Euler head. The ratio of the manometric head to the Euler head is known as

the manometric efficiency and is:

gH m

u2 v w 2

While quantities of primary interest for turbines are N, H, P, for pumps we

are more concerned with N, H and Q.

As had been done above for turbines, we can also derive an expression that

is independent of size, D. But just as we obtained an expression in N, H and

P for the turbines from the dimensionless parameters, we can also derive

1

Π1 2

for pumps an expression in N, H and Q from 3 . This gives:

Π24

1

NQ 2

Ns =

(gH )

3

4

The definition for the specific speed is the speed at which the pump

operating for discharging 1 m3/s of water against a head of 1 m.

14

From the dimensionless parameters given above for turbines, several useful

results can be derived for pumps. Consider the case for constant D (the

same pump under consideration but under different operating conditions)

and for ρ and g fixed, we get the following:

Q

Π1 = ⇒ Q∝N

ND 3

gH

Π 2 = 2 2 ⇒ H ∝ N2

N D

P

Π4 = ⇒ P ∝ N3

ρN D

3 5

These relations are often known as the affinity laws for pumps and they

allow performance characteristics at any one speed to be converted to any

other speed.

Pumps normally run at constant speed, with the interest being the manner in

which the head H varies with discharge Q and the variation of efficiency

and power required with Q. Thus the characteristic curve resembles that

shown below.

A particular machine may be tested at a fixed head while the load (and

speed N) is varied, and for these results to be applicable to other pumps in

the same homologous series, the characteristic is plotted using the

Q gH P

dimensionless parameters , 2 2, in place of Q, H and P

ND N D ρN 3 D 5

3

respectively.

15

Cavitation

Cavitation occurs when pressure falls below vapour pressure (at the

appropriate temperature). The liquid boils and bubbles form in large

numbers. At locations with higher pressure the bubbles collapse as the

vapour condenses. The liquid rushing in to fill the void collides at the centre

resulting in very high pressures (~1GPa).

This acting at or near solid surfaces can cause damage including fatigue

failure. This phenomenon is accompanied by noise and vibration.

of the machine.

Every effort must therefore be made to eliminate cavitation and this can be

done by ensuring that the pressure is everywhere greater than the vapour

pressure. (Air in solution is released as the pressure falls and this leads to

air cavitation.)

Conditions are favourable for cavitation where the velocity is high or the

elevation is high and particularly where both conditions occur. In reaction

turbines, the minimum pressure is usually at the outlet end of the runner

blade on the leading side. Between the minimum pressure point and the final

discharge point the following equation may be written:

16

pmin v 2 p

+ + z − hf = atm

ρg 2g ρg

v2 p p

− hf = atm − min − z

2g ρg ρg

parameter σ c can be defined such that

patm

− pmin −z

ρg ρg

σc =

H

For cavitation not to occur, pmin must be greater than the vapour pressure,

pv, that is

patm pv

− −z

ρg ρg

σ > σ c where σ =

H

expression can be used to determine the maximum elevation zmax of the

turbine above the tail water to avoid cavitation and is:

p

z max = atm − pv − σ cH

ρg ρg

17

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