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Thermo mechanical Properties of

Thermo-mechanical
Fe18Mn0.6C TWIP Steel

Lei, Chen
June. 28th, 2007

Materials Design Laboratory


Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology
Pohang University of Science and Technology

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Contents

• Introduction
• Experimental
• Results and discussion
• Conclusion

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Introduction
Austenitic TWIP: 45~65%,,
45 600~1100MPa
Ferritic
40

35
on, %

Ferritic
Microalloyed
30
ongatio

25 Multi-phase Ferrite matrix


Ferrite+Martensite
20
Total elo

Ferrite+Bainite+RA

15 RA-steels Martensite matrix


Bainitic RA-steels Bainite matrix
Martensitic+RA
T

10
Bainite+RA
5
Martensitic
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800
Tensile strength,
strength MPa

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Introduction

TWIP Steel Properties:

• High manganese concentration: 15~30 mass%

• Fully austenitic microstructure

• Low SFE, ~20mJ/m2: twinning-induced plasticity

• Mechanical properties: high strength,


strength large uniform elongation

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Introduction

Twinning Induced Plasticity:


Low SFE,, mechanical twining g deformation
Deformation twins reduce the effective grain size
Glide distance of dislocations reduced
“D
“Dynamical
i l Hall-Petch
H ll P t h effect”
ff t”
Dislocation source

Λ Λ

Twin

Λ dislocation
Λ: di l ti mean free
f path
th

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Experimental

Mechannical testing
T
Tensile
il testing
t ti
In-situ infrared (IR) thermography

Microstructure analysis
Optical Light Microscopy
Scanning Electron Microscopy
X-ray Diffraction
Transmission Electron Microscopy

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Experimental

TWIP steel: Chemical composition

Sample No. Chemical composition wt.% Thickness


C Si Mn P S Al [mm]

4 0.58 0.004 17.68 0.013 0.008 1.60 2.60

7-4 0.61 0.002 17.66 0.013 0.008 <0.01 1.25


7-9 0.59 0.004 17.68 0.013 0.008 1.59 1.25

12-1 0.59 <0.001 17.84 0.009 0.007 0.052 1.46

Mainly use: Fe18Mn0.6C Adjustment SFE

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Results and discussion
{111}γ Deformed
1000 Un-deformed

800
• XRD: Fe18Mn0.6C fully austenitic steel
ntensity

600 • No γ−ε or γ-α’ phase transformation


• Texture changed from {111}γ to {220}γ
In

400

{200}γ {220}γ
200 {311}γ
{222}γ

0
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
2θ, deg

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In-situ IR thermography Fe0.6C18Mn TWIP steel

M
Measuring
i gauge

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Thermography of Fe18Mn0.6C TWIP steel

Time 165s 166s 167s 168s 169s 170s 171s Main features:
Localized deformation band initiation
and propagation
Stable band velocity
Moving band strained measuring gauge.
gauge
strain

Main features:
o Stable inclination
53 .1
Stable width
Temperature gradient
4.32mm

∆T=5.02℃ ε = 0.29
∆T=11.44℃ ε = 0.38

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Localized deformation band characteristic
40 40

eformation band velocity, mm/sec


c
eformation band velocity, mm/sec
c

35 35

30 30

25 25

20 20 • The
Th deformation
d f ti band
b d velocity
l it decrease
d
15 15 with increasing strain
10 10
• The specimen broken when the band’s
5 5
velocity
l it reduced
d d to
t zero, i.e.
i theth specimen
i
De
De

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 reached max. strain
Time, sec True strain
(a) (b) • Continuous decrease of band velocity result
0.09 9
i a iincrease off b
in band
d strain
t i and
d di
dislocation
l ti
0.08 8
density within the band
0.07 7
B
nd, ∆ε

0.06 6
ρm, 1012m-2
Strain of ban

0.05 5

0.04 4

0.03 3

0 02
0.02 2

0.01 1

0.00 0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
True strain True strain
(c) (d)

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Stress-strain behavior of Fe18Mn0.6C TWIP steel
1200 (d) 1000

(b)
1000
960
s, MPa

Eng. stress, MPa


800 (c) Main features:
S
Serrated
t d s-e curve
Eng. stress

600 920
Plateau-jump type
400 Type A
880
200 Type
yp B
Dynamic strain aging phenomenon
0 840
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.20 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.30
Eng. Strain Eng. Strain
(a) (b)
950 1160
Type A Type B
940 1140
Eng. stress, MPa

Eng. stress, MPa

930 1120

920 1100

910 1080

900 1060
0.225 0.230 0.235 0.240 0.245 0.250 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65
Eng. Strain Eng. Strain
(c) (d)

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Stress, strain and temperature at the measuring gauge
• Localized plastic deformation gave the serrated stress curve
curve, measuring gauge elongated when
deformation band passed through.
• The specimen was heated up when a deformation band came, and cooled down a little when the
band passed away.

1200 0.7 120

1150 110
0.6
100
1100
ng. stress, MPa

90
Eng. strain

us
05
0.5

T, Celsiu
1050
80
1000
0.4 70
En

950
60
0.3
900 50

850 0.2 40
120 160 200 240 280 120 160 200 240 280 120 160 200 240 280
Time sec
Time, Time sec
Time, Time sec
Time,

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TEM Fe18Mn0.6C un-deformed

Main features:
Large grains
Grain 1 Low dislocation density
y
Wide annealing twins

TWIN
Grain 1
Grain 2
g111

Grain 2
500nm

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TEM Fe18Mn0.6C deformed

Main feature:
Thickness of deformation twins: ~ 60nm
Thee ttwin bou
boundaries
da es aare
e not
ot flat
at
Many micro-twins internally faulted
Micro-twin thickness is variable

Twin 111 220

002 111
Twin

111 Twin

111

80nm

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Conclusion

• The tensile deformation of Fe18Mn0.6C TWIP steel is achieved by the initiation and propagation
of narrow isolated mobile shear band.
band
• The deformation bands were typically 4 mm wide and made an angle of 53.1°to the tensile axis.
The band strain and velocity however were strain dependent.
• At low strains, the initial deformation band strain was ~0.005 and the band velocity was
~36mm/s. Close to fracture the deformation band strain increased to ~0.09 and the band velocity
was reduced to ~4mm/s.
•TEM images of undeformed material showed very large grains, low dislocation density and
annealing twins.
• Highly deformed specimens showed a large amount of deformation twins that were internally
faulted.
• From a technological point of view, it is important that the DSA phenomenon should be avoided.
This ensures stable material behavior during sheet forming processes as DSA gives rise to non-
homogeneous plastic flow and may lead to surface defects on formed parts.

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