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Numeral systems by culture

Hindu-Arabic numerals

Western Arabic Indian family

Eastern Arabic Brahmi

Khmer Thai

East Asian numerals

Chinese Korean

Japanese

Alphabetic numerals

Abjad Hebrew

Armenian Ionian/Greek

Cyrillic Sanskrit

Ge'ez

Other systems

Attic Babylonian

Etruscan Egyptian

Urnfield Mayan

Roman

List of numeral system topics

Positional systems by base

Decimal (10)

2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64

3, 9, 12, 24, 30, 36, 60, more…

v•d•e

represents numeric values using two symbols, typically 0 and 1. More

specifically, the usual binary numeral system is a positional notation

with a radix of 2. Owing to its straightforward implementation in

electronic circuitry, the binary system is used internally by virtually all

modern computers.

Contents

[hide]

• 1 History

• 2 Representation

• 3 Counting in binary

• 4 Binary simplified

• 5 Binary arithmetic

o 5.1 Addition

o 5.2 Subtraction

o 5.3 Multiplication

o 5.4 Division

• 6 Bitwise operations

• 7 Conversion to and from other numeral

systems

o 7.1 Decimal

o 7.2 Hexadecimal

o 7.3 Octal

• 8 Representing real numbers

• 9 References

• 10 See also

• 11 External links

[edit] History

description of a binary numeral system around 800 BC.[1]

A full set of 8 trigrams and 64 hexagrams, analogous to the 3-bit and

6-bit binary numerals, were known to the ancient Chinese in the

classic text I Ching. Similar sets of binary combinations have also

been used in traditional African divination systems such as Ifá as well

as in medieval Western geomancy.

representing the decimal sequence from 0 to 63, and a method for

generating the same, was developed by the Chinese scholar and

philosopher Shao Yong in the 11th century. However, there is no

evidence that Shao understood binary computation.

Leibniz in the 17th century in his article Explication de l'Arithmétique

Binaire. Leibniz's system used 0 and 1, like the modern binary

numeral system.

paper detailing a system of logic that would become known as

Boolean algebra. His logical system proved instrumental in the

development of the binary system, particularly in its implementation in

electronic circuitry.

implemented Boolean algebra and binary arithmetic using electronic

relays and switches for the first time in history. Entitled A Symbolic

Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits, Shannon's thesis

essentially founded practical digital circuit design.

completed a relay-based computer he dubbed the "Model K" (for

"Kitchen", where he had assembled it), which calculated using binary

addition. Bell Labs thus authorized a full research program in late

1938 with Stibitz at the helm. Their Complex Number Computer,

completed January 8, 1940, was able to calculate complex numbers.

In a demonstration to the American Mathematical Society conference

at Dartmouth College on September 11, 1940, Stibitz was able to

send the Complex Number Calculator remote commands over

telephone lines by a teletype. It was the first computing machine ever

used remotely over a phone line. Some participants of the conference

who witnessed the demonstration were John Von Neumann, John

Mauchly, and Norbert Wiener, who wrote about it in his memoirs.

[edit] Representation

digits), which in turn may be represented by any mechanism capable

of being in two mutually exclusive states. The following sequences of

symbols could all be interpreted as the same binary numeric value:

1010011010

|-|--||-|-

xoxooxxoxo

ynynnyynyn

A binary clock might use LEDs to express binary values. In this clock,

each column of LEDs shows a binary-coded decimal numeral of the

traditional sexagesimal time.

value assigned to each symbol. In a computer, the numeric values

may be represented by two different voltages; on a magnetic disk,

magnetic polarities may be used. A "positive", "yes", or "on" state is

not necessarily equivalent to the numerical value of one; it depends

on the architecture in use.

numerals, binary numbers are commonly written using the symbols 0

and 1. When written, binary numerals are often subscripted, prefixed

or suffixed in order to indicate their base, or radix. The following

notations are equivalent:

100101 binary (explicit statement of format)

100101b (a suffix indicating binary format)

100101B (a suffix indicating binary format)

bin 100101 (a prefix indicating binary format)

1001012 (a subscript indicating base-2 (binary) notation)

%100101 (a prefix indicating binary format)

0b100101 (a prefix indicating binary format, common in

programming languages)

pronouncing each individual digit, in order to distinguish them from

decimal numbers. For example, the binary numeral "100" is

pronounced "one zero zero", rather than "one hundred", to make its

binary nature explicit, and for purposes of correctness. Since the

binary numeral "100" is equal to the decimal value four, it would be

confusing, and numerically incorrect, to refer to the numeral as "one

hundred."

Beginning with a single digit, counting proceeds through each

symbol, in increasing order. Decimal counting uses the symbols 0

through 9, while binary only uses the symbols 0 and 1.

When the symbols for the first digit are exhausted, the next-higher

digit (to the left) is incremented, and counting starts over at 0. In

decimal, counting proceeds like so:

000, 001, 002, ... 007, 008, 009, (rightmost digit starts over, and

next digit is incremented)

010, 011, 012, ...

...

090, 091, 092, ... 097, 098, 099, (rightmost two digits start over,

and next digit is incremented)

100, 101, 102, ...

increment of the next digit to the left. In binary, counting is the same

except that only the two symbols 0 and 1 are used. Thus after a digit

reaches 1 in binary, an increment resets it to 0 but also causes an

increment of the next digit to the left:

incremented)

010, 011, (rightmost two digits start over, and next digit is

incremented)

100, 101, ...

One can think about binary by comparing it with our usual numbers.

We use a base ten system. This means that the value of each

position in a numerical value can be represented by one of ten

possible symbols: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9. We are all familiar with

these and how the decimal system works using these ten symbols.

When we begin counting values, we should start with the symbol 0,

and proceed to 9 when counting. We call this the "ones", or "units"

place.

multiplication problem. 5 can be thought of as 5 × 100 (10 to the

zeroeth power, which equals 5 × 1, since any number to the zero

power is one). As we move to the left of the ones place, we increase

the power of 10 by one. Thus, to represent 50 in this same manner, it

can be thought of as 5 × 101, or 5 × 10.

"move to the left" one place and use a "1" to represent the "tens"

place. Then we reset the symbol in the "ones" place back to the first

symbol, zero.

Binary is a base two system which works just like our decimal

system, however with only two symbols which can be used to

represent numerical values: 0 and 1. We begin in the "ones" place

with 0, then go up to 1. Now we are out of symbols, so to represent a

higher value, we must place a "1" in the "twos" place, since we don't

have a symbol we can use in the binary system for 2, like we do in

the decimal system.

+ (0 × 20). Thus, it equals "2" in our decimal system.

Binary-to-decimal equivalence:

the conversion guide below.

Here is another way of thinking about it: When you run out of

symbols, for example 11111, add a "1" on the left end and reset all

the numerals on the right to "0", producing 100000. This also works

for symbols in the middle. Say the number is 100111. If you add one

to it, you move the leftmost repeating "1" one space to the left (from

the "fours" place to the "eights" place) and reset all the numerals on

the right to "0", producing 101000.

Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division can be performed on

binary numerals.

[edit] Addition

The circuit diagram for a binary half adder, which adds two bits

together, producing sum and carry bits.

The simplest arithmetic operation in binary is addition. Adding two

single-digit binary numbers is relatively simple:

0+0=0

0+1=1

1+0=1

1 + 1 = 10 (carry:1)

Adding two "1" values produces the value "10" (spoken as "one-

zero"), equivalent to the decimal value 2. This is similar to what

happens in decimal when certain single-digit numbers are added

together; if the result equals or exceeds the value of the radix (10),

the digit to the left is incremented:

5 + 5 = 10

7 + 9 = 16

of an addition exceeds the value of the radix, the procedure is to

"carry the one" to the left, adding it to the next positional value.

Carrying works the same way in binary:

1 1 1 1 1 (carry)

01101

+ 10111

-------------

=100100

In this example, two numerals are being added together: 011012 (13

decimal) and 101112 (23 decimal). The top row shows the carry bits

used. Starting in the rightmost column, 1 + 1 = 102. The 1 is carried to

the left, and the 0 is written at the bottom of the rightmost column.

The second column from the right is added: 1 + 0 + 1 = 102 again; the

1 is carried, and 0 is written at the bottom. The third column: 1 + 1 + 1

= 112. This time, a 1 is carried, and a 1 is written in the bottom row.

Proceeding like this gives the final answer 1001002 (36 decimal).

[edit] Subtraction

0−0=0

0 − 1 = 1 (with borrow)

1−0=1

1−1=0

1101110

− 10111

----------------

=1010111

number of equal absolute value; computers typically use two's

complement notation to represent negative values. This notation

eliminates the need for a separate "subtract" operation. For further

details, see two's complement.

[edit] Multiplication

numbers A and B can be multiplied by partial products: for each digit

in B, the product of that digit in A is calculated and written on a new

line, shifted leftward so that its rightmost digit lines up with the digit in

B that was used. The sum of all these partial products gives the final

result.

Since there are only two digits in binary, there are only two possible

outcomes of each partial multiplication:

• If the digit in B is 1, the partial product is equal to A

For example, the binary numbers 1011 and 1010 are multiplied as

follows:

1 0 1 1 (A)

× 1 0 1 0 (B)

---------

0 0 0 0 ← Corresponds to a zero in B

+ 1 0 1 1 ← Corresponds to a one in B

+ 0000

+1011

---------------

=1101110

[edit] Division

__________

101 |11011

or 27 decimal. The procedure is the same as that of decimal long

division; here, the divisor 1012 goes into the first three digits 1102 of

the dividend one time, so a "1" is written on the top line. This result is

multiplied by the divisor, and subtracted from the first three digits of

the dividend; the next digit (a "1") is included to obtain a new three-

digit sequence:

1

__________

101 |11011

−101

-----

011

until the digits in the dividend have been exhausted:

101

__________

101 |11011

−101

-----

011

−000

-----

111

−101

-----

10

top line, while the remainder, shown on the bottom line, is 102. In

decimal, 27 divided by 5 is 5, with a remainder of 2.

symbols, sequences of bits may be manipulated using Boolean

logical operators. When a string of binary symbols is manipulated in

this way, it is called a bitwise operation; the logical operators AND,

OR, and XOR may be performed on corresponding bits in two binary

numerals provided as input. The logical NOT operation may be

performed on individual bits in a single binary numeral provided as

input. Sometimes, such operations may be used as arithmetic short-

cuts, and may have other computational benefits as well. For

example, an arithmetic shift left of a binary number is the equivalent

of multiplication by a (positive, integral) power of 2.

[edit] Decimal

This method works for conversion from any base, but there are better

methods for bases which are powers of two, such as octal and

hexadecimal given below.

significant, positions represent successively smaller powers of the

radix. The starting exponent is one less than the number of digits in

the number. A five-digit number would start with an exponent of four.

In the decimal system, the radix is 10 (ten), so the left-most digit of a

five-digit number represents the 104 (ten thousands) position.

Consider:

9735210 is equal to:

9 × 104 (9 × 10000 = 90000) plus

7 × 103 (7 × 1000 = 7000) plus

3 × 102 (3 × 100 = 300) plus

1

5 × 10 (5 × 10 = 50) plus

0

2 × 10 (2 × 1= 2)

Multiplication by the radix is simple. The digits are shifted left, and a 0

is appended to the right end of the number. For example, 9735 times

10 is equal to 97350. So one way to interpret a string of digits is as

the last digit added to the radix times all but the last digit. 97352

equals 9735 times 10 plus 2. An example in binary is 11011001112

equals 1101100112 times 2 plus 1. This is the essence of the

conversion method. At each step, write the number to be converted

as 2 × k + 0 or 2 × k + 1 for an integer k, which becomes the new

number to be converted.

59 × 2 + 0

(29 × 2 + 1) × 2 + 0

((14 × 2 + 1) × 2 + 1) × 2 + 0

(((7 × 2 + 0) × 2 + 1) × 2 + 1) × 2 + 0

((((3 × 2 + 1) × 2 + 0) × 2 + 1) × 2 + 1) × 2 + 0

(((((1 × 2 + 1) × 2 + 1) × 2 + 0) × 2 + 1) × 2 + 1) × 2 + 0

1 × 26 + 1 × 25 + 1 × 24 + 0 × 23 + 1 × 22 + 1 × 21 + 0 × 20

11101102

binary equivalent, the number is divided by two, and the remainder

written in the ones-place. The result is again divided by two, its

remainder written in the next place to the left. This process repeats

until the number becomes zero.

Operation Remainder

118 ÷ 2 = 59 0

59 ÷ 2 = 29 1

29 ÷ 2 = 14 1

14 ÷ 2 = 7 0

7÷2=3 1

3÷2=1 1

1÷2=0 1

2)118

2) 59. . .0

2) 29. . .1

2) 14. . .1

2) 7. . .0

2) 3. . .1

2) 1. . .1

0. . .1

binary numeral 11101102.

To convert from binary to decimal is the reverse algorithm. Starting

from the left, double the result and add the next digit until there are no

more. For example to convert 1100101011012 to decimal:

0 110010101101

0×2+1=1 10010101101

1×2+1=3 0010101101

3×2+0=6 010101101

6 × 2 + 0 = 12 10101101

12 × 2 + 1 = 25 0101101

25 × 2 + 0 = 50 101101

50 × 2 + 1 = 101 01101

405 × 2 + 1 = 811 01

811 × 2 + 0 = 1622 1

1622 × 2 + 1 = 3245

They are again based on the equivalence of shifting with doubling or

halving.

, the second , etc. So if there is a 1 in the first place after

the decimal, then the number is at least , and vice versa. Double that

number is at least 1. This suggests the algorithm: Repeatedly double

the number to be converted, record if the result is at least 1, and then

throw away the integer part.

10

Converting Result

0.

0.0

0.01

0.010

0.0101

repeating binary fraction 0.0101... .

Converting Result

0.1 0.

0.2 × 2 = 0.4 < 1 0.0001100110

as a surprise that terminating decimal fractions can have repeating

expansions in binary. It is for this reason that many are surprised to

discover that 0.1 + ... + 0.1, (10 additions) differs from 1 in floating

point arithmetic. In fact, the only binary fractions with terminating

expansions are of the form of an integer divided by a power of 2,

which 1/10 is not.

difficulty arises with repeating fractions, but otherwise the method is

to shift the fraction to an integer, convert it as above, and then divide

by the appropriate power of two in the decimal base. For example:

x = 1100 .101110011100...

= 1100101110 .0111001110...

= 11001 .0111001110...

= 1100010101

x = (789/62)10

person familiar with hexadecimal, is to do so indirectly—first

converting (x in binary) into (x in hexadecimal) and then converting (x

in hexadecimal) into (x in decimal).

[edit] Hexadecimal

easily. This is due to the fact that the radix of the hexadecimal system

(16) is a power of the radix of the binary system (2). More specifically,

16 = 24, so it takes four digits of binary to represent one digit of

hexadecimal.

The following table shows each hexadecimal digit along with the

equivalent decimal value and four-digit binary sequence:

Hex Dec Binary Hex Dec Binary Hex Dec Binary Hex Dec Binary

substitute the corresponding binary digits:

E716 = 1110 01112

into groups of four bits. If the number of bits isn't a multiple of four,

simply insert extra 0 bits at the left (called padding). For example:

110111012 = 1101 1101 grouped = DD16

the decimal equivalent of each hexadecimal digit by the

corresponding power of 16 and add the resulting values:

4096) + (0 × 256) + (14 × 16) + (7 × 1) = 49,38310

[edit] Octal

octal uses a radix of 8, which is a power of two (namely, 23, so it

takes exactly three binary digits to represent an octal digit). The

correspondence between octal and binary numerals is the same as

for the first eight digits of hexadecimal in the table above. Binary 000

is equivalent to the octal digit 0, binary 111 is equivalent to octal 7,

and so on.

Octal Binary

0 000

1 001

2 010

3 011

4 100

5 101

6 110

7 111

does for hexadecimal:

178 = 001 1112

100112 = 010 0112 grouped with padding = 238

1278 = (1 × 82) + (2 × 81) + (7 × 80) = (1 × 64) + (2 × 8) + (7 × 1)

= 8710

are set off from the other digits by means of a radix point (called a

decimal point in the decimal system). For example, the binary number

11.012 thus means:

1 × 21 (1 × 2 = 2) plus

1 × 20 (1 × 1 = 1) plus

0 × 2-1 (0 × ½ = 0) plus

1 × 2-2 (1 × ¼ = 0.25)

the binary representation has a finite number of terms after the radix

point. Other rational numbers have binary representation, but instead

of terminating, they recur, with a finite sequence of digits repeating

indefinitely. For instance

= = 0.0101010101...2

either terminating or recurring also occurs in other radix-based

numeral systems. See, for instance, the explanation in decimal.

Another similarity is the existence of alternative representations for

any terminating representation, relying on the fact that 0.111111... is

the sum of the geometric series 2-1 + 2-2 + 2-3 + ... which is 1.

numbers. For instance,

not a fixed-length recurring pattern, so the number is irrational

• 1.0110101000001001111001100110011111110... is the binary

representation of , the square root of 2, another irrational. It

has no discernible pattern, although a proof that is irrational

requires more than this. See irrational number.

[edit] References

The Heritage of Thales, Springer, 1995,

ISBN 038794544X online

• Two's complement

• Finger binary

• Binary-coded decimal

exercises

• Introduction to Binary Numbers

• A brief overview of Leibniz and the connection to binary

numbers

• Simple Conversion Methods

• Binary System at cut-the-knot

• Conversion of Fractions at cut-the-knot

• Binary Digits at Math Is Fun

• How to Convert from Decimal to Binary at wikiHow

• Binary and Hexadecimal Tutorial

• Binary Numbers course module at Virginia Tech

numeral systems

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s

Quaternary is the base-4 numeral system. It uses the digits 0, 1, 2

and 3 to represent any real number.

as the ability to represent any real number with a canonical

representation (almost unique) and the characteristics of the

representations of rational numbers and irrational numbers. See

decimal and binary for a discussion of these properties.

a special relation to the binary numeral system. Each radix 4, 8 and

16 is a power of 2, so the conversion to and from binary is

implemented by matching each digit with 2, 3 or 4 binary digits, or

bits. For example, in base 4,

302104 = 11 00 10 01 002

programming in the discussion and analysis of binary arithmetic and

logic, quaternary does not enjoy the same status.

genetic code is represented by DNA. The four DNA nucleotides in

alphabetical order, abbreviated A, C, G and T, can be taken to

represent the quaternary digits in numerical order 0, 1, 2, and 3. With

this encoding, the complementary digit pairs 0↔3, and 1↔2 (binary

00↔11 and 01↔10) match the complementation of the base pairs:

A↔T and C↔G.

by the quaternary number 2033010 (= decimal 9156).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quaternary_numeral_system