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European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.48 No.3 (2011), pp.424-433 © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2011 http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr.htm

A Novel Implementation of Xilinx FPGA Based Four Switch Three Phase IGBT Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive Using PWM

Nalin Kant Mohanty Research scholar, EEE Department Anna University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India E-mail: nkmohanty2003@yahoo.co.in

Ranganath Muthu Professor, EEE Department, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam, Tamilnadu, India E-mail: ranganathm@ssn.edu.in

Abstract

This paper presents a novel Xilinx FPGA implementation of four switch three phase inverter (FSTPI) fed Induction Motor drive using PWM control technique. In this proposed experimental work, Xilinx FPGA program is used to generate the controlled PWM pulses for FSTPI to drive the 3-phase Induction Motor. The complete XILINX FPGA based FSTPI fed induction motor drive is implemented in real-time using SPARTAN-3 processor for a 3-phase 3 hp induction motor. Simulation of FSTPI fed drive is carried out using MATLAB SIMULINK. The Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this drive system. The proposed FSTPI fed Induction Motor drive is found acceptable considering its energy savings, cost reduction and other advantageous features.

Keywords: FPGA-Field Programmable Gate Array, FSTPI- Four Switch Three Phase Inverter, IM-Induction Motor, PWM-Pulse Width Modulation, THD-Total Harmonic Distortion.

1. Introduction

The induction motors are called the workhorse of the motion industry because they are most widely used motors for appliances, industrial control, and automation. They are robust, reliable, simple, cheap and available in all power ratings. The squirrel cage types of induction motors are very popular in variable-speed drives. When AC power is supplied to an induction motor at certain specifications, it runs at its rated speed. However, many applications need variable speed operations. Due to the progress in the field of semiconductor field i.e. power electronics and Integrated circuits enables the application of induction motors for high-performance drives. These power electronics not only control the motor’s speed, but can improve the motor’s dynamic and steady state characteristics. In addition, this improves the energy savings and reduces noise generation of the motor. A standard three-phase voltage source inverter utilizes three legs (six-switch three-phase voltage source inverter or SSTPI), with a pair of complementary power switches per phase. A reduced switch voltage source inverter (four switch three-phase voltage source inverter or FSTPI) uses only two legs, with four switches. The Several papers report on FSTPI structure [1]–[6].

A Novel Implementation of Xilinx FPGA Based Four Switch Three Phase IGBT

Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive Using PWM

425

The advantages of FSTPI is the reduced cost of the inverter, lesser switching losses, lower EMI and less complexity of the control algorithms and interface circuits to generate PWM logic signals. Xilinx field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) are standard integrated circuits that can be programmed by a user to perform a variety of complex logic functions [7]. The high level of integration available with these devices (currently up to 500,000 gates) means that they can be used to implement complex electronic systems. Furthermore, there are many advantages due to the rapid design process and reprogrammable functions. The time required to design a prototype logic circuit by using XILINX FPGA is less. It is also possible to create, implement, and verify a new design. The FPGA architecture consists of three types of configurable elements - a perimeter of input/output blocks (IOB), a core array of configurable logic block (CLB), and resources for interconnection. The IOB provides a programmable interface between the internal array of logic blocks (CLB) and the device's external package pins. CLBs perform user-specified logic functions, and the interconnect resources carry signals among the blocks. A configuration program stored in internal static memory cells determines the logic functions and the interconnections. The configuration data is loaded into the device during power-up. This paper presents Xilinx FPGA based PWM control of FSTPI fed Induction Motor drive. Xilinx software ISE 9.2i is used to generate controlled PWM pulses by using VHDL programs. The final design is a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), a type of logic chip that can be programmed and implemented to drive the system. The variation of speed of Induction Motor can be obtained by adjusting the duty cycle of PWM pulses in Xilinx programs. FPGA-based applications in power electronics and electric motor drives can be found in [8]– [10].Simulation and experimental results illustrate the use of the FSTPI to supply the three-phase AC power to drive the 3-phase Induction Motor.

2. Proposed Topology

The block diagram of the proposed system is shown in Fig.1.The drive system consists of a 3 phase AC supply, 3 phase Diode bridge Rectifier, 3 phase four switch Inverter, 3-phase Induction Motor and

controlled circuits (Xilinx processor and Driver circuit). The standard AC power supply is converted to

a DC by using a 3-phase diode bridge rectifier. A voltage source FSTPI is used to convert the DC

voltage to the controlled AC voltage. The output of FSTPI is fed to 3-phase induction motor. VHDL program is used in Xilinx software to generate the controlled PWM pulses at different duty ratio for

FSTPI to drive the Induction Motor at different speeds.

Figure 1: Block Diagram of FSTPI Drive.

different duty ratio for FSTPI to drive the Induction Motor at different speeds. Figure 1: Block

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Nalin Kant Mohanty and Ranganath Muthu

3. FSTPI

The power circuit of the FSTPI fed Induction Motor drive is shown in Fig. 2. The power inverter has 4 switches, S1, S2, S3 and S4 and a split capacitor. The two phases ‘a’ and ‘b’ are connected to the two legs of the inverter, while the third phase ‘c’ is connected to the center point of dc link capacitors, C1 and C2. The value of the capacitances C1 and C2 are equal.

Figure 2: FSTPI with Induction Motor

C1 and C2 are equal. Figure 2: FSTPI with Induction Motor Vc1 and Vc2 are the

Vc1 and Vc2 are the voltage across the DC link capacitors (Vc1=Vc2). ‘V dc ’ is the voltage across the capacitor C1 and C2 (V dc =Vc1+Vc2) .

4. PWM Generation in Two-Leg Inverter Using XILINX FPGA

PWM signals are generated from the Spartan-3 processor by writing VHDL program to control these 4 switches. The phase voltage is determined by the duty cycle of the PWM signals. The switching signal parameters namely switching frequency, the duty ratio and the number of pulses are easily controlled via VHDL programming language. The timing of PWM pulses are generated by using equations [6]. A small dead-time is given between switching off the upper switch and switching on the lower switch and vice versa. This ensures that both switches are not conducting when they change states from on to off, or vice versa. For the induction motor drive, the three phase voltage references in a balanced set are given by

V

*

V *

V *

as

bs

cs

=V cosωt

m

=V cos   ωt-

m

2π

3

 

=V cos   ωt+

m

2π

3

 

(1)

(2)

(3)

In this paper the scalar modulation scheme is adopted since it is simple and easy. The scalar modulation uses the phase voltages in calculating the switching time. Since the two phases of the induction motor are connected to the inverter legs and the third phase is connected to the neutral point of the dc link, the line-to-line voltage can be used for the PWM instead of the phase voltage. The c- phase is connected to the neutral point. From Eqns. (1) –(3), the two line-to-line voltage references are given by

A Novel Implementation of Xilinx FPGA Based Four Switch Three Phase IGBT Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive Using PWM

427

V

V

*

ac

*

bc

=V

=V

*

as

*

bs

-V

-V

*

cs

*

cs

=

=

 π  3V cos ωt-   m  6 
π 
3V cos
ωt-
m
6
3V cos  m ωt-   π   2 
3V cos
m
ωt-
 π 
2

(4)

(5)

3V cos  m ωt-   π   2  (4) (5) The magnitude

The magnitude of these two voltages is 3 times that of the phase voltage and displaced by π/3 relative to each other. By using the proportionality of the triangle, as shown in Fig. 3, the switching time can be calculated as

T

1

T

2

=

=

V

*

ac

T

s

+

2 V

dc

*

bc

T

s

+

V

2 V

dc

T s

T s

(6)

(7)

Figure 3: Voltage modulation in triangular comparison method

3: Voltage modulation in triangular comparison method When Vc1and Vc2 are exactly equal, the time duration

When Vc1and Vc2 are exactly equal, the time duration of T1 and T2 in Eqns. (6) and (7) gives the precise modulated voltages. However, due to the dc-link voltage ripples and the dead-time effect, the output currents as well as the output voltages are unbalanced and distorted. The deterioration of these waveforms can be eliminated by compensating for the dc-link voltage ripples and the dead-time effect.

S 1 , S 2 are taken as the switching functions for the 2-switches.According to the switching state, the output voltages of the inverter are given in Table 1. The switching states of two legs are shown in Fig. 4.

From Eqns. (6) and (7), the average voltages over one switching period are calculated as

Vac

Vbc

=

=

TV

1

dc

T V

2

dc

T

s

T

s

V

dc

2

 

V

dc

2

 

/

/

T

s

T

s

(8)

(9)

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Nalin Kant Mohanty and Ranganath Muthu

Figure 4: Switching states of S1 and S2.

and Ranganath Muthu Figure 4: Switching states of S1 and S2. Table 1: Switching states and

Table 1:

Switching states and output Phase voltages of FSTPI.

 

Switching states

   

Output voltage

 

S

1

S

2

V

ac

V

bc

0

0

-Vc

2

-Vc 2

0

1

-Vc

2

Vc 1

1

0

Vc

1

-Vc 2

1

1

Vc

1

Vc 1

5. Simulation Work and Results

Digital computer simulation model of FSTPI fed induction motor drive has been developed by using SIMULINK MATLAB. The simulation work has been performed for this drive system at different load conditions. Weighted total harmonic distortion (THD) has been used to evaluate the performance of the FSTPI with load and without load conditions in this simulation work. This FSTPI fed drive system consists of a three-phase diode bridge rectifier, a split capacitor, four switch three phase inverter and 3- phase squirrel cage Induction Motor.

Input supply voltage: 3-phase, 400 V (rms), 50 Hz;

Induction Motor: 3 hp 400 V, 50 Hz, 1500 rpm. The complete simulink block diagram of system is shown in Fig.5. This block diagram consists of 2 blocks. Switching pulses block generates the PWM pulses for 4-switches of FSTPI at the terminals Out1 to Out4 and FSTPI with IM block contains Diode bridge rectifier, FSTPI and IM. Vabc and Iabc block is used to display the 3-phase voltage and current waveforms. The Simulation circuit diagram of the drive system is shown in Fig.6. This circuit contains 3-phase input AC power supply, diode bridge rectifier, split capacitor, 4-IGBT switches and 3-phase 3hp IM. The 3-phase output currents of FSTPI i a , i b and i c with IM are shown in Fig.7. The output line voltage waveform V ab of FSTPI is shown in Fig.8. The speed and torque characteristics of induction motor with and without load are shown in Fig.9 and Fig.10. It is observed that the speed increases linearly and reaches the rated speed (1500 rpm) at steady state in 0.75 sec. At starting the torque increases and reduces to a minimum value when the speed reaches the rated value. In Fig.7 the same torque and speed curve is shown with full load at 10 N-m. The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) with load and without load conditions is shown in Fig.11 and Fig.12. It is found that THD without load is 9.32% and with load is 8.24%.

A Novel Implementation of Xilinx FPGA Based Four Switch Three Phase IGBT Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive Using PWM

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Figure 5: Simulink block diagram of FSTPI fed drive system

Figure 5: Simulink block diagram of FSTPI fed drive system Figure 6: The complete Simulation Circuit

Figure 6: The complete Simulation Circuit diagram of FSTPI fed IM Drive system

Simulation Circuit diagram of FSTPI fed IM Drive system Figure 7: Three phase output currents i

Figure 7: Three phase output currents i a , i b and i c

Figure 7: Three phase output currents i a , i b and i c Figure 8:

Figure 8: FSTPI output line Voltage V ab waveform

Figure 7: Three phase output currents i a , i b and i c Figure 8:

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Nalin Kant Mohanty and Ranganath Muthu

Figure 9:

Rotor

speed in

rpm vs

time

in

s

and

Figure 10: Rotor speed in rpm vs time in s and

Electromagnetic

torque

vs

time

in

s

Electromagnetic torque in N-m vs time in

without Load

 

s with Load 10 N-m

N-m vs time in without Load   s with Load 10 N-m Figure 11: THD of

Figure 11: THD of output phase current i a , without Load

11: THD of output phase current i a , without Load Figure 12: THD of the
11: THD of output phase current i a , without Load Figure 12: THD of the

Figure 12: THD of the output phase current i a with load

12: THD of the output phase current i a with load 6. Experimental work and Results

6. Experimental work and Results

In the Experimental work the components used are an FPGA board, Personal Computer, Inverter module, Digital Oscilloscope and 3hp IM, as shown in Fig.13. The IGBT Inverter module consists of Converter, Driver circuit, Split capacitor and Driver circuit as shown in Fig.14. The component specifications of the complete drive system are given Table 2. A dual SPARTAN-3 processor board is used. In this dual processor board, one powerful FPGA processor is provided to generate the PWM signals and the other FPGA processor is used to quickly process the ADC input and DAC output. Both the FPGA processors are interfaced in the board. This board contains LCD, Micro switch and DAC used for interfacing applications. The experimental results namely the PWM output pulses, output current, output line voltage (V ab ) are shown in Fig.15, Fig.16 and Fig.17 respectively. These output waveforms are obtained using the digital oscilloscope. It is found that the simulation and experimental results are almost similar.

A Novel Implementation of Xilinx FPGA Based Four Switch Three Phase IGBT Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive Using PWM

Table 2:

Hardware Details

431

Components

Ratings

FPGA Board

(1) XC3S400-4PQ208C-2nos (2) MSPS SPI based ADC-4 (3) 26 pin FRC connector from FPGA 1 to interface with FPGA board-1 (4) 26 pin Double Row header for the ADC input terminations to FPGA 2-1 (5) 34 pin FRC connector for the terminations of PWM outputs from FPGA 1-1 (6) Level Translator for converting 3.3 V to 5 V from FPGA I/O lines-1 (7) OSCAR user configurable Clock to generate different output frequencies IGBT: 200V 25A, Driver circuit, Full bridge diode rectifier, Capacitor-2000 µF, 400v 3 hp ,3-phase, 50Hz,400v

Inverter module

Induction Motor

Figure 13: The complete hardware setup of FSTPI drives

Motor Figure 13: The complete hardware setup of FSTPI drives Figure 14: The inside part of

Figure 14: The inside part of IGBT Inverter module

Motor Figure 13: The complete hardware setup of FSTPI drives Figure 14: The inside part of

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Nalin Kant Mohanty and Ranganath Muthu

Figure 15: Switching pulses for FSTPI switches S1, S3, S2 and S4

15: Switching pulses for FSTPI switches S1, S3, S2 and S4 Figure 16: 3-phase output current

Figure 16: 3-phase output current waveform of FSTPI with IM

Figure 16: 3-phase output current waveform of FSTPI with IM Figure 17: Output Line Voltage V

Figure 17: Output Line Voltage V ab of FSTPI with IM

Figure 17: Output Line Voltage V a b of FSTPI with IM 7. Conclusion An FPGA

7. Conclusion

An FPGA based implementation of FSTPI fed IM drive using PWM control is successfully carried out in simulation and real-time experiment. MATLAB SIMULINK is used for simulation and the hardware implementation is carried out using SPARTAN-3 processor. VHDL (Very high speed description language) program is developed in XILINX to generate the controlled PWM pulses to drive the system.

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[2] Maurício Beltrao de Rossiter Correa and Cursino Brandão Jacobina, “A General PWM Strategy for Four-Switch Three-Phase Inverters,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 21, no. 6, pp.1618-1627, November 2006. [3] M. N. Uddin, T. S. Radwan, and M. A. Rahman, “Fuzzy-logic-controller-based cost-effective four-switch three-phase inverter-fed PM synchronous motor drive system,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 42, no.1, pp. 21–30, Jan./Feb. 2006. [4] C. T. Lin, C. W. Hung, and C. W. Liu, “Position sensorless control for four-switch three-phase brushless DC motor drives,” IEEE Tran. Power Electronics, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 438–444, Jan.

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