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baqteriebi, rogorc avRniSneT, arian prokariotuli organizmebi. zogierTi gamonaklisis garda


yvela baqteriuli ujredi formis mixedviT SeiZleba daiyos sferuli (kokebi), cilindruli (Cxirebi) da
,,moxrili” cilindruli (moxrili Cxirebi) formis mqoneebad. Sesabamisad, ZiriTad formebad iTvleba
kokebi, Cxirebi anu bacilebi da moxrili Cxirebi anu spiraluri baqteriebi.
kokebs Cveulebriv gaaCniaT swori sferos, burTis forma, Tumca SeiZleba hqondeT
lancetiseburi, yavis marcvliseburi an elifsoiduri formac. ganlagebis mixedviT SeiZleba gavarCiod:
 mikrokokebi – calkeulad ganlagebuli kokebi
 diplokokebi – rodesac wyvili kokia warmodgenili (mag Neisseria s SemTxvevaSi)
 tetrakokebi – 4 - 4 ad, kvadratulad ganlagebisas
 sarcinebi – “sarTulebad” ganlagebis SemTxvevaSi
 streptokokebi _ Zewkviseburad ganlagebis dros
 stafilokokebi – yurZnis mtevniseburad ganlagebis SemTxvevaSi
Cxirebi gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan zomiT, ujredis daboloebis formiT da urTierTganlagebis
mixedviT. SeiZleba qondeT swori (mag: nawlavis Cxiri), araswori (mag: korinebaqteriebi) an datotvili
formebi (mag: aqtinomicetebi). ujredis boloebi SeiZleba “wakveTili” iyos, rogorc cimbiris wylulis
bacilas aqvs, momrgvalebuli – rogorc nawlavis Cxiris SemTxvevaSia da maxvili, rogorc mag.
fuzobaqteriebs. ganlagebis mixedviT arCeven:
 erTeul Cxirebs – mag. enterobaqteriebi
 diplobacilebs – wyvilad, erT xazze ganlagebisas
 streptobacilebs – Zewkviseburad ganlagebuli, mag. cimbiris wylulis gamomwvevis
SemTxvevaSi
spiralur baqteriebs yofen:
 vibrionebad – msubuqad moxrili baqteriebis SemTxvevaSi, romelTac aqvT mxolod erTi
xveuli, romelic ar aRemateba spiralis brunvis 1/4 s, rogorc, mag. qoleris vibrionia,
 spiroqetebad – spiralurad daxveuli baqteriebi 2-3 xveuliT, mag. sifilisis gamomwvevi.

sistematikuri mimoxilva

baqteriebis daxasiaTebisas gaTvaliswinebuli unda iqnas maTi morfologiuri Tvisebebi, unda mieTiTos
maTi forma: koki, Cxiri, moxrili Cxiri; aqvT Tu ara kafsula, ujredebi arian gamocalkevebuli Tu arian
warmodgenili konglomeratebis (Zewkviseburad, mtevniseburad, da a.S.) saxiT, aqvT Tu ara Soltebi da
Tu aqvT rogor arian isini ganlagebuli, warmoqmnian Tu ara baqteriebi endosporebs da iRebebian Tu
ara gramis wesiT. morfologiuri aRweris garda, mniSvlovania mTeli rigi fizikuri – qimiuri
maxasiaTeblebi:
1. JangbadTan damokidebuleba – aerobia Tu anaerobi,
2. energiis moiRebis saSualeba – sunTqva, fotosinTezi, duRili,
3. zrdis damokidebuleba temperaturasa da pH ze,
4. aucilebeli sakvebi nivTierebebi,
5. arsebobis areali, ekosistema,
6. simbiozuri an parazituli urTierTqmedebebis arseboba,
7. ujreduli CanarTebis, pigmentaciis, kafsulis arseboba,
8. ujreduli kedlis komponentebi,
9. serologiuri diferenciacia – zedapiruli antigenebi, homologiuri cilebi,
10. dmn-is fuZeebis Semcveloba %-Si,
11. antibiotikebis mimarT mgrZnobeloba
arsebobs bunebrivi (filogenezuri) da xelovnuri klasifikaciebi. filogenezuri adgens warmoSobiT
monaTesave baqteriebis jgufebs, rom Seqmnas baqteriebis filogenezuri suraTi, xolo xelovnuri
klasifikacia organizmebs aerTianebs garkveul jgufebSi maTi msgavsebis mixedviT da gamoiyeneba
mikrobTa identifikaciisaTvis. umravles SemTxvevebSi gamoiyeneba swored xelovnuri klasifikacia.
dResdReobiT yvelaze popularuli da gavrcelebuli klasifikacia eyrdnoba baqteriebis sistematizacias
mikroskopulad yvelaze garCevad formebad, gramis wesiT SeRebvisa da JangbadTan damokidebulebis
gaTvaliswinebiT.
ase, rom yvelaze martivi klasifikacia moicavs:

1.

kokebi-
sferuli baqteriebi

gram (_)
gram (+)
kokebi
kokebi

aerobuli anaerobuli aerobuli


anaerobuli
Micrococcus, Peptococcus, Neisseria,
Veillonella,
Staphylococcus, Ruminococcus, Moraxella,
Megasphaera
Streptococcus Sarcina Acinetobacter
2.

moxrili Cxirebi

gram (_) spiraluri da moxrili gram (_) moxrili


aerobuli baqteriebi
anaerobuli da aerobuli
anaerobuli baqteriebi
Spirillum, spiroqetebi
Desulfovibrio,
Campilobacter, Selemonas, Spirochaeta, Treponema,
Microcyclis Succinivibrio Borrelia, Leptospira

3.

Cxirebi

gram (+) baqteriebi gram (_) baqteriebi

aerobuli, aerobuli korinemorfuli da aerobuli Cxirebi da


aerobuli qemolitotrofebi
sporaarwarmomqmneli actinomicetebi kokebi

anaerobuli,
aerobuli sporawarmomqmneli aerobuli
sporawarmomqmneli fakulatturi aerobebi
Cxirebi da kokebi qlamidobaqteriebi
Cxirebi da kokebi

meTanwarmomqmneli
anaerobebi baqteribi

mkacri anaerobebi aerobeb

anaerobebi
4.

calkeuli
jgufebi

anaerobuli aerobu
“mosria riketsiebi, li fototrofuli
dakvirtvadi mikoplazm fototrofuli
le baqterie da baqterie
bi” baqteriebi ebi baqterie
qlamidiebi bi bi

kokebi
rogorc vxedavT kokebic TavisTavad iyofa gram (+) da gram (_) kokebad da am ori jgufis “SigniT”
kidev aerobul da anaerobul baqteriebad.

 gram (+) aerobuli kokebi

gvar Micrococcus ganekuTvnebian pigmentirebuli baqteriebi, romelTa yviTeli an narinjisferi


koloniebi xSirad gvxvdeba petris Tasebze haeris daTesvisas. es kokebi qmnian tetradebs, anu
warmodgenili arian oTx-oTxi kokis “paketis” saxiT, Zalze mgrZnobiareni arian ferment lizocimis
mimarT, arian obligaturi aerobebi da gamoirCevian GC maRali SemcvelobiT (66-72%).
am jgufidan samedicino TvalsazrisiT yvelaze mniSvnelovani arian Strepto da Staphylococcus ebi.
Staphylococcus – aerobuli, gram (+), kokebi, romlebic umetesad ganlagebuli arian yerZnis
mtevnisebur klasterebad, Tumca SeiZleba Segvxvdes calkeuli kokebis, wyvilebis anu diplokokebis an
tetradebis (oTx-oTxad ganlagebuli kokebis) saxiTac. stafilokokebi ar warmoqmnian sporebs, mdgradi
arian gamoSrobis mimarT, uZleben maRal, 500C temperaturas 30 wT-is manZilze, warmoqmnian
citoqromebs, e.i.sunTqaven, aqvT sxvadasxva pigmentebi: TeTri, yviTeli, narinjisferi da asinTezireben
rig fermentebsa da toqsinebs. xSirad arian rezistentulebi penicilinebis, ampicilinis da nafcilinis mimarT
da es rezistentoba ganpirobebulia plazmidebi mier.stafilokokebi arian adamianis normaluri mikrofloris
warmomadgenlebi, magram zogierTi Stami aris paTogenuri da iwvevs sakvebismier mowamvlas,
sxvadasxva Cirqovan proceebs, SeuZ.liaT sisxlis hemolizi da a.S. stafilokokebis 30-mde
warmomadgenelia cnobili, magram aqedan klinikurad mniSvnelovania 3 – Staph. epidermidis, Staph.
saprophyticus, Staph. aureus.
stafilokokebi kargad izrdebian aerirebul pirobebSi, 370C da qmnian pigmentirebul koloniebs - Staph.
epidermidis moTeTro-monacrisfro, priala, gluv koloniebs, Staph. aureus –aseve priala, gluv, magram
moyviTalo-monarinjisfro koloniebs, saidanac warmosdga misi saxeli aureus anu, oqrosferi stafilokoki.
Staph. epidermidis - aris adamianis kanis, respiratoruli da gastointerstinaluri traqtis normaluri
mikrofloris warmomadgeneli,
Staph. aureus – aris stafilokokebis yvelaze paTogenuri warmomadgeneli. albaT yvela adamians Tavisi
sicocxlis manZilze erTxel mainc hqonia “kontaqti” am baqteriasTan – an kvebismieri mowamvlis an
kanis umniSvnelo gamonayaris an septiuri momentebis saxiT.
stafilokokebi asinTezireben fermentebs:
katalazas – romelic wyalbadis zeJangs Slis wylad da Jangbadad,
koagulazas – romelic iwvevs sisxlis koagulacias,
hialuronidazas – romelic Slis ujredSoris siTxeebs,
fibrinolizins – romelic Slis fibrins.
da toqsinebs:
leikocidins – romelic iwvevs leikocitebis daRupvas,
enterotoqsinebs – ramdenime tipis sxvadasxva toqsins, romlebis rezistentulebi arian nawlavuri
fermentebis mimarT da iwveven diareas da Rebinebas,
toqsiuri Sokis sindromis toqsinebs – romlebic iwveven cxelebas, multisistemur dazianebebs, Soks,
kanis siwiTles.

Strepcococcus

aerobuli, gram(+) kokebi, ganlagebuli diplokokebad (or-orad) an Zewkviseburad, farTod arian


gavrcelebuli bunebaSi. zogierTi warmomadgeneli adamianis normalur mikroflorasc warmoadgens,
magram arian paTogenuri streptokopkebic. umetesoba streptokokebisa aproducirebs kafsulas, aqvT
pilebi, kargad izrdebian 370C da 10% CO2 Tanaarsebobisas, qmnian moTeTro-rZisfer gaumWvirvale
koloniebs.
streptokokebidan normlur mikrofloras warmoadgenen:
Str. agalactiae – warmodgenilia qalebis genitalur traqtSi, aris normaluri mikrofloris warmomadgeneli,
magram SeuZlia gamoiwvios neonataluri sefsisi, da meningiti.
Str. faecalis aseve normaluri nawlavuri mikrofloris warmomadgenelia,
Str. mitis, Str.mutans, Str. salivarus – piris Rrus floris warmomadgenlebia, magram xSir SemTxvevaSi
maTTvis xelsayrel pirobebSi iwveven kariess, paradontozs.
Str. bovis – nawlavuri floris warmomadgeneli, xandaxan iwvevs baqteremias, endokardits.
Str. pyogenes – yvelaze paTogenuri Cirqmbadi streptokoki, iwvevs maraval daavadebas – anginebs,
sinusitebs, frontitebs, abscesebs da a. S.
streptokokebi asinTezireben fermenteebs:
streptokinazas (fibrinolizins) – romelic iwvevs plazminogens transformacias plazminad,
streptodornazas - iwvevs dnm-is depolimerizacias,
hialuronidazas – Slis hialuronis mJavas, romelic warmoadgens SemaerTebeli qsovilis ujredSoriss
nivTierebas,
da toqsinebs:
pirogenul (eriTrogenul) toqsins – iwvevs siwiTles da cxelebas,
hemolizinebs – eriTrocitebis lizisis faqtorebs,
streptolizinebs – romlebic aseva warmoadgenen hemolizis unaris mqone toqsinebs.
streptokokebi iwveven mravalferovani saxis daavadebebs Cirqovani gamonayaridan endokarditebamde,
glomerulonefritebs, toqsiur Soks, revmatiul daavadebebs.

gram (+) anaerobuli da gram (_) anaerobuli kokebidan samedicino TvalsazrisiT did yuradRebas arcerTi
warmomadgeneli ar imsaxurebs, magram gram(_) aerobuli kokebidan ki Neisseria s rigi sakmaod
mniSvnelovania klinikurad.

Neisseria – aerobuli, gram (_) diplokokebi, kargad izrdebian organuli nivTierebebis Semcvel areebze da
qmnian ufero, Ria yviTel an Ria vardisfer koloniebs. aqvT citoqromi, unTqaven, Tumca mati zrdisaTvis
sasurvelia 5% CO2 Tanaarseboba. iolad iRupebian gamosxivebis, gamoSrobis an temperaturis
zemoqmedebiT. mgrZnobiarea penicilinas mimarT.
samedicino TvalsazrisiT yvelaze popularuli warmomadgenlebi arian Neisseria gonorrhoeae da Neisseria
meningitidis, Sesabamisad gonoreis da meningitis gamomwvevebi.
meningokokebi qmnian kapsulas, maT iSviaTad aqvT plazmidebi da “binadroben” respiratorul traqtSi,
xolo
gonokokebi ar qmnian kapsulas, aqvT pili, plazmidebi da iwveven genitalur infeqciebs.