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Article type: Research - Science

Title: THE SIZE OF PRE-BIG BANG

Author: Gonzalo A. Ordóñez

Address: 1775 Fortstone Lane


Columbus, Ohio 43228 – USA

Telefax: (614) 851 3143


E-mail: gaurodec@netscape.net

_____________________________________________________________________________ 
Abstract

Before big bang, something existed ("prebig"), whose magnitude and characteristics are
examined in the article. Using current data it is possible to estimate what amount of protons
would represent by equivalence the totality of mass and energy of nocer (the universe), and from
there one can arrive at alternative prebigs thought of as spheres, with sizes ranging from those of
a giant star to a small virus. The relative proportions of mass/energy and spacetime in prebig and
in a proton are estimated (much less than 99,999 % of proton's volume would be only
spacetime), as well as some possibilities of presence/absence of spacetime in elementary
particles. These could have different sizes in prebig and today, and this issue as well as some
characteristics of spacetime are also analized.
_____________________________________________________________________________

Key Words
Apex hypothesis -- Big bang -- Massen -- Nocer – Nozerinf hypothesis -- Prebig -- Proton --
Spacetime -- Universe

Terminology
D Accumulation apex for massen density
Cer Cerebration
Indivison Last indivisible unit of spacetime and/or massen
Massen Mass and energy
Nocer Noncerebration
Nozerinf Non existence of zero and infinity in nocer
Prebig What was prior to big bang

Vitae
The author is an Ecuadorian-American engineer.

The Size of Pre-Big Bang Gonzalo A. Ordóñez Page 1


THE SIZE OF PRE-BIG BANG
Gonzalo A. Ordóñez

1. Introduction

The basic view about the origin of the universe is the so called hot big bang, taken as implying a
sudden increase in the size of something, small and subject to extreme conditions, that existed
before such expansion 1 . We will call "pre-big bang" (prebig for brevity) to that something, and
the purpose of this philosophy-of-science article is to explore what the magnitude and meaning
of prebig could be, and to set out some questions.

A theoretical assumption we are doing, except if stated otherwise, is that the totality of the
present universe was originally in prebig, and the inverse is also assumed as true: it was prebig
that generated after big bang the totality of present universe. Throughout the article only protons
will be used, as representative not only of baryons in general but of all of prebig's massen. Note,
however, that we are not implying that prebig was as a matter of fact formed by, say, protons or
neutrons, but only that these provide an equivalence to work with. What we do assert is that
prebig was constituted by some kind of indivisible "particles".

For this paper's purpose we will consider a static universe because of the nature of magnitudes to
be examined.

Many of the ideas discussed here probably would need to be reconciled with general relativity,
quantum mechanics and cosmology.

As up-to-date data as possible has been used and a number of digits equal to or bigger than the
number of significant figures for experimental values have been employed in calculations. In the
text normally two decimal places appear. We will be managing a few numerical values, whose
compilation appears in the Summary (par. 8). The asterisk (*) denotes multiplication and the
slash (/) denotes division. When a magnitude carries signs < or > we will assume the sign = in
order to perform calculations.

This article will use the terminology and some results of [01]. Therefore,
1
Inflationary cosmology is the yet prevalent theory in the context of big bang, but many difficult, unsolved
problems plaguing that theory are nowadays raising the need of a deep rethinking.

The Size of Pre-Big Bang Gonzalo A. Ordóñez Page 2


Cer refers to the massless and energyless product (consciousness, mind, etc.) of a functioning
brain.
Nocer refers to everything that is not cer and is commonly called 'real world', universe, or
equivalent.
Nozerinf refers to the hypothesis which argues that mathematical zero and mathematical infinity
do not exist in nocer.
Density apex is the hypothesized limit for the density accumulation, which is conjectured to be
D >= 1,5*1028 kg/m3.
Indivison is a name I give to the smallest possible "particle" (thought of as a sphere) resulting
after a large number of subdivisions are performed in nocer (massen and/or spacetime), beyond
which no more divisions are possible. Mass indivisons might be, for instance, quarks, electrons
and neutrinos.

2. Pre-big bang situation

To our present knowledge the basic nocer components are spacetime (space-time) and massen
(mass-energy), two issues as yet poorly understood by science.

In general, prebig could have one of the following two incompatible conditions:

a) Infinite massen's density, infinite temperature and infinite spacetime curvature.


b) Finite massen's density, finite temperature and finite spacetime curvature.

Temperature and spacetime curvature are strongly related to massen's density, so in this article
we will focus on the latter.

In some way, postulating an infinite density for prebig is a bizarre idea because, regardless of
what exists in the universe, all of it is supposedly reduced to an almost "magical" singularity, a
mathematical zero-dimensional point of energy where the known laws of physics fail and all
kind of strange, mathematically very complex possibilities arise.

The nozerinf hypothesis [01] rejects the theoretical contention that prebig was a singularity with
zero dimensions and infinite density. Ergo, prebig has to be something with a finite dimension
and a non-infinite density. The finite density situation could derive from the existence of D, the
density apex [01, par.7.1], which would mark a limit to prebig's density. According to nozerinf, a
finite prebig has to be composed by discrete 3-D particles (indivisons) and not by a continuous
medium.

3. Some starting parameters

3.1 Planck's volume and mass.


The Planck length (size) is 1,616258*10-35 m [02, chapter2]. Supposed as a diameter, a Planck's
size sphere would have a Planck volume of 2,21*10-105 m3= volu0.

The Size of Pre-Big Bang Gonzalo A. Ordóñez Page 3


The Planck mass is 2,18*10-8 kg [02, ch.2] = mass0.

3.2 NASA's data.


According to NASA [03], average universe's mass density = 9,9*10-30 g/cm3= avdens,
equivalent to 5,9 protons/m3 = num1. These values (for a flat universe and corresponding to the
critical density within 1%) include atoms' mass (4,6%) 2 , or about one proton per 4 m3; cold dark
matter (23%), and dark energy (~72%).

3.3 Shus's data.


According to Shu [04], the universe may contain in all some 1080 protons = num2, and another
1080 electrons, and it is estimated that nucleons have a volume of about 6 fm3= 6*10-45 m3.

3.4 Universe's volume.


For the sake of making some idea let's think we could focus on space only. The universe is
assumed to be spherical. The present universe's diameter might be some 92*109 light years [05]
and its volume, 3,45*1080 m3= volu3. Then, from volu3 and num1, the whole universe would
have 2,04*1081 protons = num3. Henceforth we will work only with num3.

3.5 Apex.
The density apex in nocer is, according to [01, par.7.1], D >= 1,5*1028 kg/m3= dens3.

3.6 Zero-point fluctuations of quantum fields and the energy of the vacuum.
The vacuum energy density is an issue not yet well understood. According to [6], it leads to a
conceptual "vacuum catastrophe" because when measured it has a very small value (about
10-47 GeV4 [7]), but is infinite when calculated by adding the energies of all field modes in the
vacuum state. Or, it needs an explanation on a gap of 120 orders of magnitude. The vacuum
energy is connected to Einstein's cosmological constant, and is considered to be the same as dark
energy [02, ch.19].

3.7 Neutrinos.
By an estimation [08], universe's total number of neutrinos is ~ 2*1088 . Considering volu3, or
3,45230130*1086 cm3 , this gives 58 neutrinos/cm3 . Let's take a representative neutrino mass of 0,1
eV [02, ch. 21]. We understand c=1 here.

Now: 1 eV/c2 = 1,782 661 7584*10-36 kg [02, ch.1]; therefore, 0,1 eV/c2 = 1,782 661 7584*10-37 kg.
Then total neutrinos' mass would be 2*1088 * 1,782 661 7584*10-37 kg = 3,565323516*1051 kg .

3.8 Quanta of electromagnetic field.


The baryon-to-photon ratio is 6,2317*10-10 [02, ch.2]. Hence, the total number of photons
(thought of as particles) in the universe would be num3 / 6,2317*10-10 = 3,2685428*1090 =
num4. That is, num4 / volu3 = 9,4677217*109 photons/m3, on average, or about 10 000 photons
per each cm3 of spacetime. Consider now num4 / volu31 (see par.5.2) = 1,43450328*1064
photons/m3 on average. This is, some 1058 photons/cm3 of spacetime inside protons in volu31!

3.9 Other parameters.


2
In [02, ch.2] the baryon density of the universe is 4,44%.

The Size of Pre-Big Bang Gonzalo A. Ordóñez Page 4


See them in the Summary (par.8).

4. Mass and energy in prebig (and in the universe)

4.1 Prebig considering only protons.


According to [01, par.7.1], average quark's mass = 7,84*10-30 kg = massQ, and assuming three
quarks per proton the proton's mass would be 2,35311348*10-29 kg. However, from [02, ch.1] the
proton's mass = 1,67*10-27 kg = massPr, and this is the value to be used. (It is 71,081214 times
larger than the previous one because it includes gluons energy). So, via protons the total massen
of the universe would be massPr * num3 = 3,41*1054 kg = massen0.

4.2 Prebig considering NASA's average mass density [03].


The result of multiplying avdens (scaled up to kg/m3) by volu3 is 3,42*1054 kg = massen1. Note
that massen0 and massen1 (both cover atoms, dark matter and dark energy) are essentially
equal.

As seen above, universe neutrinos' mass amounts to 3,565323516*1051 kg, or only about 0,001 of
massen1. So, we will not modify this massen. Neutrinos are one of the candidates to form part of
dark matter.

5. Prebig's volume and diameter

As said before, because of nozerinf we are ruling out the singularity idea for prebig, i.e. a zero
dimension, zero volume mathematical point. We put forward that prebig had a finite size and
volume, obeying physical laws not yet fully understood. We posit also that some kind of
elementary particles (indivisons) existed in prebig. The following four possibilities can be
proposed:

5.1 Prebig when mass indivisons are protons, and their size was the same as today's.
Let's say there were 2,04*1081 protons = num3, packed in a spherical shape.

Volume adopted for proton: according to [02, N baryons], proton's charge radius = 0,877±0,007
fm; let's adopt 0,8805 fm. Hence, diameter = 1,761 fm = 1,761*10-15 m, and volume = 2,86 fm3=
2,86*10-45 m3= voluPr.

When voluPr is multiplied by num3 the result is 5,82*1036 m3= volu1. From here, its diameter =
2,23*1012 m = diam1.

5.2 Prebig when mass indivisons are as in par.5.1 but dens3, the apex density, is applied to
massen1.
This way prebig's density would be limited to be the apex at most. The result of massen1 / dens3
is volu31 = 2,28*1026 m3, i.e. a diameter diam31 of 7,58*108 m.

5.3 Prebig when mass indivisons are quarks, with the same size as today's.

The Size of Pre-Big Bang Gonzalo A. Ordóñez Page 5


Number of quarks (on account of protons): num3 * 3 = 6,1105734*1081.
Then, volu1Q = 6,1105734*1081 * 5,24*10-58 m3 (= voluQ [01, par.7.1]) = 3,20*1024 m3.
Diameter = diam1Q = 1,83*108 m = 183 000 km.

Density dens11Q = prebig when massen1 is applied to volu1Q = 1,07*1030 kg/m3. This is
about 71,30834 times bigger than D and not allowed, according to the apex hypothesis, because
prebig's density would be limited to be the apex at most. So, acceptable dens11Q = 1,07*1030
kg/m3 / 71,30834 = 1,5*1028 kg/m3 = D.

Given that massen1 is data, we will have to recalculate:


volu1Q recalculated = massen1 / D = 2,28*1026 m3, same as volu31.
diam1Q recalculated = 7,58*108 m, same as diam31.

5.4 Prebig when mass indivisons are Planck's volume.


Planck's volume (volu0) is incredibly small. Consider, for instance, that the proton (size as
above) would be 1,29*1060 times bigger in volume. 3 (String theory posits one-dimensional
Planck-size vibrating strings as the basic subatomic particle, but 1-D objects couldn't exist in
nocer, according to nozerinf.)

Suppose now (although quantum mechanics does not allow it) that in prebig each of the num3
protons is the size of a Planck's size indivison. Then, the volume volu2 of prebig would be
4,50*10-24 m3 and its diameter diam2 results of 2,05*10-8 m.

6. Space's space vs. massen's space

Universe's average massen density, according to NASA [03], is equivalent to 5,9 protons/m3.
Assuming an average of 2,86 fm3/proton, massen in 1,00 m3 would occupy 16,87052921 fm3 =
1,687052921*10-44 m3. The remainder to 1,00 m3 is virtually 1,00 m3 anyway, which means that
in the universe practically all of it is space(time), and only an insignificant fraction is massen. It
follows that 5,92749633*1043 is the number of times in volume that space is bigger than massen.

Equivalently, we could compare volu3 and volu1: 3,45*1080 m3/ 5,82*1036 m3 =


5,927496223*1043.

7. Discussion and conclusions

The subject of this paper leads to enormously big or small numbers, rather difficult to
comprehend. For instance, the range from a Planck's size sphere to a universe's size sphere
encompasses maybe 185 orders of magnitude.

As told before, we are assuming the nozerinf hypothesis is true. In this case the contention of
prebig as a point singularity of infinite density is rejected.

3
This is about the same increase (60 orders) attributed to the classical inflation epoch. Coincidence?

The Size of Pre-Big Bang Gonzalo A. Ordóñez Page 6


7.1 Prebig's volume and density.
We have to turn to some of the finite size possibilities: volu1, volu2 or volu31.

volu1: this alternative is very logical because it involves the total universe's massen. It was
calculated with the amount (equivalent) of protons/m3 applied to the whole universe's volume
(see pars.3.2 and 3.4) and packed in a spherical shape. From volu1 is derived diam1 = 2,23*1012
m, i.e. the diameter of prebig when its volume is volu1. This diameter of 2,23*109 km is bigger
than Jupiter's orbit diameter.

volu2: this alternative means going to the tiniest imaginable extreme, at least from today's
physics perspective. It assumes that all of num3 protons have a Planck's volume. From volu2 is
derived diam2 = 2,05*10-8 m. An atom could be considered to be about 3*10-10 m in diameter,
so this prebig only 68 times larger is indeed very small.

volu31: it emerges when applying the apex density dens3 = D to massen1 (total universe's
massen). From volu31 is derived diam31 = 7,58*108 m, hence some 758 000 km, or a little over
half the sun's diameter.

Note that volu1 could be regarded as a "natural" volume in that it is imagined to be formed by a
tight assemblage of protons. In contrast, volu31 arises when volu1 is compressed as much as
possible, with D as the cutoff density point. In fact, volu1 is 2,5561408*1010 times as large as
volu31.

Alternatives volu1 and, especially, volu31, make sense because such a compact spheres
presumably could contain all of present massen (planets, stars, galaxies, interstellar gas and dust,
radiation, dark matter, dark energy, etc.) and all of present spacetime (inside protons; see
par.7.3). The big bang theory usually argues that the "explosion" occurred not in a given place
but simultaneously everywhere. This is hard to understand if prebig is a point-like, zero
dimension singularity, but could be more plausible when prebig is a finite size sphere where a
substantially homogeneous expansion can be said to happen everywhere in there. Likewise,
quantum fluctuations which are thought to have given rise to the large structure in the universe,
once amplified by the expansion, could develop throughout the sphere.

Consider now the densities corresponding to the three above volumes volu1, volu2 and volu31.
They are dens01 = 5,85*1017 kg/m3, when massen0 is applied to volu1; dens11 = 5,87*1017
kg/m3, when massen1 is applied to volu1; dens12 = 7,59*1077 kg/m3, when massen1 is applied
to volu2; and dens3 (the apex = 1,5*1028 kg/m3).

Let's refer only to dens11 (which is almost the same as dens01), dens12 and dens3. By
comparison with the apex, dens11 is very low, i.e. volu1 is too big, but dens12 is extremely
high, i.e. volu2 is absolutely too small.

Of course, volu1 could be recalculated assuming quark is the massen indivison instead of the
proton, and using num3 and massen1. Resulting density, adjusted to not surpass D, gives
essentially volu31 and diam31.

The Size of Pre-Big Bang Gonzalo A. Ordóñez Page 7


So, prebig was either the size of a giant star, or half the sun, or like a small virus (but not a point
singularity). The usual big bang tenet says that after inflation came a reheating period which
generated the known subatomic particles, presumably out of some continuous or discontinuous
medium. Now, continuity is disallowed by nozerinf, so if the medium had discrete particles, or
indivisons, they were born at reheating the same size as today, or smaller. In the latter case the
indivisons had to grow up to today's size, and maybe they are still growing.

If something like a big crunch originated prebig, a possibility to consider is that prebig's density
was growing until it reached D, at this point generating a big bang.

7.2 Nature of spacetime


If the electromagnetic field appeared after the inflation era (which theoretically lasted some 10-35
seconds), then photons were not in prebig. Photons seem to have such an overwhelming presence
in spacetime (about 10 000 photons/cm3 of spacetime) that perhaps they are not only energy
inside it but a fundamental constituent of it.

Now I will examine some cases for the interplay between spacetime and massen.

Case 1: prebig is constituted by massen and spacetime.


Upon big bang, spacetime (more clearly, space) will expand or stretch. This expanding process
appears to continue, even at an accelerating pace.

For the "stretching" of spacetime (to simplify, a lineal amplification) let us consider how many
times prebig would have to expand in order to arrive at today's volume = volu3.

If prebig's volume is volu31 = 2,28*1026 m3, spacetime would have expanded up to now by a
factor of 1,52*1054 = stretching1.

If prebig's volume is volu2 = 4,50*10-24 m3, spacetime would have expanded up to now by a
factor of 7,67*10103 = stretching2.

These colossal figures mean that spacetime is something inconceivable "elastic". So, does the
stretching have a limit? What kind of a "substance" is spacetime? How can spacetime be
"compressed" to go into prebig? Can gravitational spacetime curvature explain away much of
this?

Dimensionality is considered as a typically spatio-temporal characteristic. If indivisons have


dimensions, i.e., spatial extension (as nozerinf claims), it seems clear that spacetime has to be an
essential part of massen. So, is spacetime just compressed inside massen indivisons, or else
spacetime and massen are intimately fused and constitute just one and only type of indivison?

The following naïve supposition arises: if spacetime expanded with the big bang, the
"expansion" event would correspond to the increase in the age of universe; the movement of
expansion would be the passing of time, and the irreversibility of time and increase of entropy
follow. It is thinkable that one of the time indivisons today would be much bigger in duration
than one of the time indivisons in prebig.

The Size of Pre-Big Bang Gonzalo A. Ordóñez Page 8


In a spacetime without massen, time shouldn't exist because the essence of time is movement, and
movement is not possible without massen.

Case 2: prebig is constituted only by massen.


This possibility would be ruled out by Case 1. Anyhow, here we would be on kind of a variation
of the "steady state" theory because spacetime would have always been there, out of prebig, and
did not take part in any big bang or big crunch. Big bang would then be exclusively a massen
event.

Case 3: prebig's massen indivisons have spacetime inside them, or not.


--If spacetime is within massen indivisons: upon big bang, spacetime expanded in parallel inside
and outside of them and, at present time, they would be hugely bigger; therefore, massen
indivisons in prebig would have to be enormously smaller than today's.

Assume that the quark has spacetime inside it. Quark's volume = voluQ = 5,24*10-58 m3[01,
par.7.1]. Now, let's arbitrarily choose stretching1 = 1,52*1054 times. Then, voluQ / stretching1
= 3,455753412*10-112 m3. This would have to be prebig's size of the quark in order to be
"stretched" to today's size after the big bang. It is close to 7 orders of magnitude smaller than
Planck's size, hence probably not allowed by quantum mechanics. Therefore, is the quark strictly
a mass indivison without spacetime inside it? Was its size in prebig the same as today's?

--If spacetime is not within massen indivisons: big bang occurred for spacetime, independently
of indivisons, and would have no effect on massen indivisons' size but only on their
characteristics and mutual proximity. So, spacetime for them would be only kind of a dynamic
frame to exist within.

7.3 Proton's spacetime


Let's say the proton is a ball of massen and spacetime. What we want to do now is to estimate the
proportion of spacetime inside a proton, in contrast to the volume occupied by mass (quarks) and
energy.

Basic data is as follows:

Proton's diameter = 1,76*10-15 m [02] = diamPr


Proton's volume = 2,86*10-45 m3(after [02]) = voluPr
Proton's mass = 1,67*10-27 kg [02] = massPr
Quark's diameter < 10-19 m [01, par.7.1] = diamQ
Quark's volume < 5,24*10-58 m3[01, par.7.1] = voluQ
Quark's mass = 7,84*10-30 kg [01, par.7.1] = massQ

Comparing volumes, proton would be 5,46*1012 times bigger than quark.


Comparing diameters, proton would be > 17 610 times larger than quark.

Suppose proton is like a 30 cm diameter sphere, or about the size of a basketball. Then each quark
would be like the size of a speck of dust.

The Size of Pre-Big Bang Gonzalo A. Ordóñez Page 9


Take now proton's mass. For the sake of having a full comparison of volumes, let's imagine all
this mass is converted to quark mass:
massPr / massQ = 213,24 "quarks equivalent".
213,24 * voluQ = 1,1165416*10-55 m3 for all the "quarks equivalent". Therefore:

Percent volume occupied by the three quarks, i.e., only mass, inside the proton:
3 * voluQ = 1,570797*10-57 m3; (1,570797*10-57 m3/ voluPr) * 100 = 5,4934271*10-11 %.
So, percPr1 = 99,999999999945065729 % of proton's volume is spacetime + energy.

Percent volume occupied by "quarks equivalent", i.e., massen, inside proton:


(1,1165416*10-55 m3/ voluPr) * 100 = 3,9047948*10-9 %.
So, percPr2 = 99,9999960952053 % of proton's volume is only spacetime.

From this is easy to infer that prebig, assumed to be the volu1 ensemble of protons, also has the
same proportion of massen and spacetime: 3,9047948*10-9 % massen only.

Consider again a 30 cm basketball-size proton: the volume equivalent of all massen inside this
proton would be like that of a very small grain of sand. It is really hard to understand how the
proton, with such an extremely tiny portion of massen, is however able to function as a particle
by itself.

In par.7.1 we saw that, assuming quarks are the essential mass indivisons and applying the
density apex D, result was volu31. But this volume is based in protons, hence a volu31 sphere
formed by quarks has percPr2 constituted specifically by spacetime, and the rest to 100% is
massen (quarks + energy). The detailed quantum-relativistic behavior of such a sphere would
indeed be a fascinating subject of study.

Following calculations in par.6, if today's universe was the size of the sun, the totality of massen
in it could be concentrated in a volume smaller than a human red blood cell. Indeed, the universe
is very flat.

The big bang could be regarded as virtually a spacetime event only.

7.4 Growth of particles


Imagining that in prebig the elementary particles (indivisons) were Planck's size (volu2), let's
estimate the amount of growth these particles underwent to reach their present size. In each case
their shape is supposed to be spherical.

Electron's volume would at present time be < 5,24*10-55 m3 = voluE. Then:


For electron, voluE / volu0 = 2,36960474*1050 times.
For quark, voluQ / volu0 = 2,36960474*1047 times.

Just for the sake of making some idea for the quark, let's think this growth as linearly distributed
along the time elapsed for the universe up to now. Subtract the initial volume (Planck's) from
final volume (quark's), and obtain the quark's increase in volume. Then, divide this by the

The Size of Pre-Big Bang Gonzalo A. Ordóñez Page 10


universe's age (13,69±0,13*109 years [02, ch.2]; let's adopt 13,69*109) and get the yearly rate of
growth in quark's volume. That is, 5,24*10-58 m3 minus 2,21*10-105 m3 = 5,24*10-58 m3.
(Because quark's volume has only 6 significant digits it does not change here when subtracting
Planck's volume, which in this case works as if it was essentially zero).

Finally, voluQ / 13,69*109 years = 3,82468225*10-68 m3/year. This enormously tiny lineal rate of
yearly increment is all that would be needed for the Planck particle to reach the quark size today.

7.5 Planck's particle


Density of a sphere with a Planck's length diameter and Planck's mass ("PP particle"):
mass0 / volu0 = 9,85*1096 kg/m3= dens4 . This is larger even than dens12 or dens12'!
Possible meaning: in nocer a PP particle cannot exist.

(Mass of the universe imagining that all of it is full with PP particles: (volu3 / volu0) * mass0 =
3,4*10177 kg. This is, no doubt and by far, the most inconceivably huge mass that could ever
exist. But, of course, it doesn't.)

8. Summary of numerical values

The figures below are explained or used in the article.

VOLUMES
volu1 5,8242151*1036 m3= prebig when each proton has a volume voluPr as measured
today, and using num3 protons.
volu1Q 3,1994901*1024 m3= prebig if indivisons are today's voluQ quarks.
volu1' 6*1035 m3= prebig when each nucleon has an estimated volume of 6 fm3, as
measured today, and using num2 protons.
volu2 4,5028905915*10-24 m3= prebig with Planck's size protons and num3.
volu2' 2,209647*10-25 m3= prebig with Planck's size protons and num2.
volu3 3,45230130*1080 m3= universe when radius = 46*109 light-years [05].
volu31 2,27851887*1026 m3= prebig when dens3 (i.e. D, the apex density),
is applied to massen1.
volu0 2,2107044446*10-105 m3= sphere with a diameter equal to Planck size.
voluPr 2,85941173*10-45 m3= proton's vol., after charge radius = 0,877±0,007 fm [02].
voluQ < 5,23599*10-58 m3= quark's volume [01, par.7.1].
voluE < 5,23599*10-55 m3= electron's volume [01, par.7.1].

MASS / ENERGY
massen0 3,40689243*1054 = prebig considering only protons after [02].
massen1 3,4177783*1054 kg = prebig considering NASA's average mass density [03].
massPr 1,672621637*10-27 kg = proton's mass [02].
massQ 7,8437116*10-30 kg = quark's mass [01, par.7.1].
mass0 2,1764411*10-8 kg = Planck's mass [02].

The Size of Pre-Big Bang Gonzalo A. Ordóñez Page 11


DENSITIES
dens01 5,8495306*1017 kg/m3= prebig when massen0 is applied to volu1.
dens11 5,86822128*1017 kg/m3= prebig when massen1 is applied to volu1.
dens11Q 1,06822593*1030 kg/m3= prebig when massen1 is applied to volu1Q.
dens11' 5,696297167*1018 kg/m3= prebig when massen1 is applied to volu1'.
dens12 7,593819651*1077 kg/m3= prebig when massen1 is applied to volu2.
dens12' 1,546753079*1079 kg/m3= prebig when massen1 is applied to volu2'.
dens3 D >= 1,5*1028 kg/m3= density apex.
dens4 9,84501164467*1096 kg/m3= sphere Planck's size diameter and Planck's mass.

DIAMETERS
diam1 2,23226763*1012 m = prebig after volu1.
diam1Q 1,82821548*108 m = prebig after volu1Q.
diam1' 1,046448*1012 m = prebig after volu1'.
diam2 2,048790686*10-8 m = prebig after volu2.
diam2' 7,500809*10-9 m = prebig after volu2'.
diam31 7,57794194*108 m = prebig after volu31.
diamPr 1,761*10-15 m = proton's diameter [02].
diamQ < 10-19 m = quark's diameter [01, par.7.1].

OTHER
avdens 9,9*10-30 g/cm3= average universe's massen density, after NASA [03].
num1 5,9 protons/m3= average universe's density of protons, after NASA [03]. (This is
equivalent to avdens).
num2 1080 = universe's total number of nucleons, after Shu [04].
num3 2,0368578*1081 = universe's total number of protons, after volu3 * num1.
num4 3,2685428*1090 = universe's total number of photons.
stretching1 1,51515151*1054 = spacetime stretching1 = volu3 / volu31.
stretching2 7,67052487*10103 = spacetime stretching2 = volu3 / volu2.
percPr1 99,999999999945065729 % of proton's volume which is spacetime + energy.
percPr2 99,9999960952053 % of proton's volume which is only spacetime.

10. References

01. Gonzalo A. Ordóñez (Aug-2010). Zero, infinity and nocer ("Nature abhors a vacuum"
revisited). Scribd (Research / Science).

02. Review of Particle Physics (2010). Particle Data Group. U.S.DOE, U.S.NSF, CERN, MEXT,
INFN. http://pdg.lbl.gov/2010/download/rpp-2010-JPhys-G-37-075021.pdf (retrieved December
2010).

03. Gary F. Hinshaw (2006). What is the Universe made of? NASA WMAP – Content of the
Universe. http://map/gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/uni_matter.html (retrieved August 2009).

The Size of Pre-Big Bang Gonzalo A. Ordóñez Page 12


04. Frank H. Shu (2009). Cosmos ("Superunification and the Planck era"). Encyclopædia
Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Multimedia. Chicago. (Retrieved December
2010).

05. Tamara M. Davis, Charles H. Lineweaver (2003). Expanding Confusion:common


misconceptions of cosmological horizons and the superluminal expansion of the universe.
University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 2052.
arXiv:astro-ph/0310808v2 13 Nov 2003

06. Serge Reynaud, Astrid Lambrecht et al. (2001). Quantum vacuum fluctuations.
arXiv:quant-ph/0105053v2 19 Jun 2001

07. Stefan Nobbenhuis (2006). Categorizing Different Approaches to the Cosmological Constant
Problem. Foundations of Physics, Vol. 36, No. 5, May 2006.

08. C. Sivaram (2007). What is special about the Planck mass? Indian Institute of Astrophysics,
Bangalore 560034. arXiv:0707.0058v1 [gr-qc]

The Size of Pre-Big Bang Gonzalo A. Ordóñez Page 13