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# SJ-5112

## Ir. Sri Hendarto, MSc.

Ir. Sony S Wibowo. MT, PhD

## Geometric Design of Urban Roads

Intersection and Interchange

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Bibliography
Leisch, J.P. and Mason, J.M., (2005), Freeways and
Interchange - Geometric Design Handbook, ITE
AASHTO, (2001), A Policy on Geometric Design of
Highways and Streets
Bina Marga (1992), Standard Specifications for
Bina Marga (1992), Tata Cara Perencanaan
Persimpangan Sebidang Jalan Perkotaan

Table of Content
Introduction
Simple Intersection Design
Channelization
Intersection and Traffic Control
Sight Distance at Intersections

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Intersections (US English)
Junctions (UK English)
INTRODUCTION

Types of maneuvers
At the at-grade intersection, there are four types
of possible conflict:
o Diverging
o Merging
o Weaving
o Crossing

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Types of maneuvers
Case of Indonesia (right-hand vehicle):
o Diverging, crossing, and merging for right turn
o Diverging and merging for left turn

## The objective of intersection design will be to

managing these conflict properly and safely

Types of maneuvers

Diverging*

## * case of right-hand vehicle, e.g. Indonesia

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Types of manoeuvres

Merging*

## * case of right-hand vehicle, i.e. Indonesia

Types of maneuvers

Weaving

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Types of maneuvers

Crossing*

## Basic Intersection Forms

T Multileg
T-Skewed Single Ramp
Y Channelization
Offset Right Fully Channelized
Offset Left Rotary
Cross
Cross Skewed

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Basic Intersection Forms

## Basic Intersection Forms

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Notes of Basic Intersection Forms
The angle of intersection should be designed to
have 90⁰ or near 90⁰ (70⁰ ~ 110⁰)
Multileg should be reduced if possible  not more
than four legs
Avoid offset intersection unless there is adequate
distance for weaving
o offset left is better than offset right
o vehicle having entered and travelled along the highways
can make a non stop left turn to exit

## Notes of Basic Intersection Forms

The benefit of 90⁰ or near 90⁰ angle of
intersection:
o Can reduce the size of conflict area
o More favorable for drivers in the term of relative
position and speed to approach
o Can reduce length of time to maneuver

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Conflict Areas at Intersections
Every at-grade intersection has conflict areas
One of the main objectives in intersection design is
to minimize conflicts from all maneuvers
The accident potential can be decreased by
reducing the size of conflict areas

## Conflict Areas at Intersections

Major conflict:
Minor conflict:
o merging type collisions
The 90⁰ T and Cross Intersection have the smallest
conflict areas (in comparison to cross skewed and
multileg)

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Conflict Areas at Intersections

## Conflict Areas at Intersections

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Conflict Areas at Intersections

## To Reduce the Conflict Areas

Channelized intersections
o marking
o islands
Auxiliary lanes
Separated intersection (interchange)

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Intersection with Reduced Conflict Areas

## Intersection with Reduced Conflict Areas

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SIMPLE INTERSECTION DESIGN

## Simple Open Throat

Carried out within the following conditions:
o At the area of extensive road side development
o Low turning volume
o Low turning speed (25 km/h or less)
o An intersection of minor road with a through highway
o Where environmental sensitivities exist

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Simple Open Throat

T-Intersections

## Simple Open Throat

CROSS-Intersections

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Simple Open Throat with Auxiliary Lanes
To be applied where speed are higher and
turning movements are sufficient numbers to
increase accident potential
To provide additional lanes and/or tapers for
through and turning movement
To be used for vehicles either entering or leaving
the through traffic
To have function as acceleration or deceleration
lanes and tapes

## Simple Open Throat with Auxiliary Lanes

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Simple Open Throat with Auxiliary Lanes

## Simple Open Throat with Auxiliary Lanes

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CHANNELIZATION

Channelization
Factors considered in the channelization design:
o Traffic volume
o Speed
At rural locations where high speeds are
prevalent and accidents are usually of a more
severe nature
In urban areas where speeds are lower but traffic
volumes are higher  to increase the intersection capacity

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Channelization, design concept

Separation of Conflicts
To separate conflicts caused by the overlapping of maneuver areas

Speed Control
To control speed by bending and directing movement
Yield sign control or reduce speed differential prior merging and weaving

## Merging at a Flat Angle

To control the angle of conflict and to reduce relative speed differentials in
merging, diverging, weaving and crossing

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Channelization, design concept

## Control of Paved Areas by Use of Islands

To reduce the excessive pavement areas caused by skewed and flared intersection
The large areas of open pavement may confuse drivers

## Refuge for Turning Vehicles and Pedestrians

To protect and store turning and crossing vehicles by enabling them to slow down
To protect pedestrians by providing a safe refuge between traffic streams

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Channelization, design concept

## Control of Prohibited Turns

To block prohibited movements by making it is impossible to do

## Segregation of Traffic Movements

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Channelization, design concept

## Islands for Location of Traffic Poles

To locate and protect traffic control device such as signs, signals, etc

## Speed Change Lanes

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Islands
Area between traffic lanes for control of vehicle
movements of for pedestrian refuge
They may be raised areas
o Raised island with mountable curbs
o In some cases with barrier curbs to protect pedestrians
and poles
or may be marked out on the pavement
o Simply painted on the pavement surface

Islands
Raised islands outlined by curbs
o Can be applied universally
Islands delineated by pavement markings
o Generally designed in urban or semi-urban areas
o Speeds are low and space is limited
Non-paved areas formed by pavement edges
o Used mostly at rural intersections
Temporary islands
o bumper curbing or sand bags

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Islands, functional classes
Directional Islands
o Used in conjunction with a separate left turn lane design
Divisional Islands
o Raised median islands
o To separate traffic lanes by direction and or by speed
o To protect vehicles entering the right turn lane
Refuge Islands
o Barrier type curbs
o Installed at or near cross-walk

Divisional Islands

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Refuge Islands

## INTERSECTION AND TRAFFIC

CONTROL

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A Hierarchy of Junction
Making connection between roads in the same
service-function category
Particular type of junction layout depend on:
o Volume
• are there small enough to require control?
• Are they too larger offer sufficient gaps for priority
control?
• Are they too large be interrupted by traffic signal
control?
o Speeds
• Are they low enough to accept minimum control?
• Are they high enough to make interruption of flow
dangerous?
• Are they high enough to require strict of access?

Arterials (Type A – Primary)
o Should offer free flow (no interruption flow)
o Strict control access
o Requiring grade separation for through traffic lanes
o Relatively high-speed entry to, exit from, through lanes,
and on turning ramps
o Safety at speed is the most important requirement

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Arterials (Type B – Secondary)
o Should be capable to carry large volume at moderately
high speed
o Flow should not be interrupted
o Interruption is allowable at moderate volumes under
traffic signal controls

Collectors
o Moderate to low volume and speed
o Could be regarded as major flow at priority junction
o Very low volume and speed
o Must be treated as minor road at junction

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Arterials – Arterials –
Primary Secondary
Free flow Partial
Arterials – Primary - -
interchange interchange
Fully Partial
Arterials –
directional interchange/ Traffic lights -
Secondary
interchange Traffic lights
Priority
Collectors - Priority control 3 or 4 way
control
STOP
Priority 3 or 4 way
Locals - -
control STOP

Junction layouts can be described geometrically
as of T, Y, and X form
Junctions with more than 4-legs should be
avoided
Control measures will be UNCONTROLLED,
PRIORITY, or SIGNAL applied to some or all legs
of the junctions
Priority can be major-minor road or equal
priority

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Some Notes in Design
All junctions should have some control measure to
aid drivers and increase safety and capacity
o Either partially controlled by Priority or fully controlled
by Signal (Traffic Signals)
The angle of intersection between traffic should
be near right-angles
T-junctions are preferred to X-junction, where
there is little or no traffic control

## Some Notes in Design… continue

X-junctions are preferred to T-junction for Signal
control
Channelization can materially increase traffic
capacity
o Increasing both vehicular and pedestrian safety
o An Islands can lead vehicles into ‘correct’ positions to
undertake turning maneuvers, protect vehicles waiting to
turn and provide protected area to assist pedestrian
crossing

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Some Notes in Design… continue
Islands must be properly designed to suit the
requirements of the ‘design vehicle’
o These vehicles can negotiate any movement without
encroaching on any other traffic lane
Suitable sight distances must be provided and
kept free from obstructions

## Some Notes in Design… continue

Must be a division into ‘major’ and ‘minor’ flow
and clear indication to road users of the priority
between traffic streams
Must be good inter-visibility between conflict
traffic flow
The geometrics should permit speed
harmonization between merging and diverging
Channelization should provide separate lanes for
each maneuver in junction area

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Design of Priority Junctions
It is most important that traffic approaching a
o Whether that approach is ‘give’ or ‘take’ priority
Various techniques are available
o Must give a clear and unambiguous message to drivers
On the major-road approaches, it must be
o Case of the straight-though line or carry the largest flow

## Design of Priority Junctions…continue

Proper treatment of the minor-road approach is
more important
o Advantaged-warning sign GIVE WAY (British) or ‘yield
sign’ (USA) or STOP lines to indicate the boundary
o Including a ‘splitter island’ and the GIVE WAY/STOP
line to prevent ‘cutting by right turning traffic and to
assist pedestrians crossing the mount of minor road
o The island should be marked and visible at night

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SIGHT DISTANCE AT
INTERSECTIONS

## Minimum Sight Triangle

The required sight distances depend upon the
approaches speed
o Speed on the main highway
o Speed on the side road
Four possible actions of driver:
o To accelerate
o Continue at the present speed
o Slow down
o Stop

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Minimum Sight Distance, at right angles

## Minimum Sight Distance, on skew

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Sight Distance for Departures, crossing

## Sight Distance for Departures, right turn

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Sight Distance for Departures, left turn

Sight Distance
Required sight distances along intersection
approaches are determined by the type of traffic
control
o No control
o Yield control
o Stop control
o Signal control

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Sight Distance, Indonesia Rule
Tata Cara Perencanaan Persimpangan Sebidang Jalan Perkotaan (No. 01/T/BNKT/1992)

## Jarak Pandang Pendekat

o Dihitung perdasarkan tinggi mata pengendara ke
permukaan jalan  1.5 meter

40 30
50 40
60 55
70 70
80 95

## Sight Distance, Indonesia Rule

Tata Cara Perencanaan Persimpangan Sebidang Jalan Perkotaan (No. 01/T/BNKT/1992)

## Jarak Pandang Pendekat (JPP)

o Tinggi mata pengendara 1.5 meter

## Kec. JPP Koreksi Tanjakan (m) Koreksi Turunan (m)

(kpj) (m) 4% 8% 12% 4% 8% 12%
40 30 - - - - - 5
50 40 - - 5 - 5 5
60 55 - 5 5 - 5 10
70 70 - 10 10 5 10 15
80 95 5 10 15 5 10 25

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Sight Distance, Indonesia Rule… continue
Tata Cara Perencanaan Persimpangan Sebidang Jalan Perkotaan (No. 01/T/BNKT/1992)

## Jarak Pandang Masuk (JPS)

o Untuk membelok masuk pada jalan major
Jarak Pandang Aman di Persimpangan (JPAP)
o Untuk kendaraan di jalan major’menyebrang’
Kecepatan Jarak Pandang Masuk Jarak Pandang Aman di
(km/jam) (m) Persipangan (m)
40 100 60
50 125 80
60 160 105
70 220 130
80 305 165

## Sight Distance, Indonesia Rule… continue

Tata Cara Perencanaan Persimpangan Sebidang Jalan Perkotaan (No. 01/T/BNKT/1992)

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SELESAI

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