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Mobile transaction models

• Kangaroo transaction model (paper 4)


– Margaret H. Dunham, Abdelsalam Helal, Santosh
Balakrishnan: A Mobile Transaction Model That
Captures Both the Data and Movement Behavior,
MONET 2(2), 1997, pp 149-162
• Moflex transaction model (paper 5)
– Kyong-I Ku, Yoo-Sung Kim: Moflex Transaction
Model for Mobile Heterogeneous Multidatabase
Systems, RIDE, 2000, pp 39-46
• Paper 2 & 3
– Analyzing mobile transaction models
Discussion navigation

Mobile transaction models

Why? How? Evaluation?


•Motivation •Assumptions •ACID
•Goals •Structure •Mobility
•Challenges •Protocols •Disconnection
•Requirements •Algorithm
Kangaroo transaction model

• A transaction model to
– Capture the movement behavior of transactions
– In a multidatabase environment
– Where mobile transactions do not originate and end at the
same site
• Requirements
– Build on existing multidatabase systems and do not
duplicate support provided by source systems
– Capture movement of mobile transaction and data access
– Move transaction control as mobile units move
– Flexibiilty in terms of atomicity
– Support long-lived transactions
– Correctness criteria from ACID to unrestricted
Kangaroo transaction model - architecture

Compare to [Mad+02],[Hir+01],[SRA04]
Reference model

• Data access agent


– Support data access from mobile transaction to source
systems
• Forwarding transaction requests
– Mobile transaction manager
• Execution status, logging, checkpointing
– Uses, but does not maintain location information of the
mobile hosts
Kangaroo transaction model

• Assumptions
– A mobile environment as anextension of a distributed
system
• Links between nodes change dynamically
– Target
• Mobile heterogeneous and multidatabase system
• Complete autonomy of the component DBMS and the various
multidatabase systems
– Concepts
• Open nested and split transactions
– Transaction management function moves with the mobile
units (through the DAAs)
• Avoiding message overhead
Kangaroo transaction model

• Structure

• Concepts
– Kangaroo transaction (KT)
• Pouch, Equivalent KT
– Joey transaction (JT)
• Unit of execution at one base station
Kangaroo transaction model

• Design structure vs. execution structure


Kangaroo transaction model

• Slow movement vs. fast movement structure

• Empty Joey transaction?


– Why?
Kangaroo transaction model

• Processing modes
– Compensating and Split (default)
• Compensating
– Joey transaction vs. Component (local) DBMS
• Abort of KT
– When a JT fails
• Commit of KT
– Number of active Joey is 0
• Serializability
– KT: no gurantee
– JT sub-transactions: serializable in compensating mode
Kangaroo transaction model

• Summary
– Consistency & Concurrency
• Relies on underlying database
– Database system model
• Heterogeneous multidatabase
– Mobility
• Hand-off processes between MSS (via DAA)
Analysing Kangaroo transaction model

Mobility Disconnection Replication


Relating physical
support support support
aspects OK X X

Place of Compensable Cond. of Concurrency


Relating transaction transactions execution
execution handling
execution
MSS? OK X OK

Geographical Final state


Relating the model’s
localization X X
adaptability

Mobile Physical Particular


Relating implementation
techniques limitations characteristics
issues
Connection X Start & end points
Analysing Kangaroo transaction model

• Transaction definition
– Mobile transactions (KT) are initiated by mobile hosts
• Transaction type
– Open nested and Split
• Execution model
– Completed executed in wired network
• Execution at mobile host
– Transaction request
• Execution at wired network
– Coordination and transaction execution
• Operation mode
– Movement in connected mode
Analysing Kangaroo transaction model

• ACID?
– None
– Local DBMS
• Mobility
– Hand-off between MSS (through DAAs)
• Disconnection
– None
Moflex transaction model

• A transaction model to
– Support the management of mobility, heterogeneity and
flexibility
– In the definition and execution of mobile transaction
• Location dependent sub-transactions
• Effective support hand-over (~ hand-off)
• Heterogeneous multidatabase system
– Logical integration of local database systems
– Autonomous
Moflex transaction model - architecture

Compare to [Mad+02],[Hir+01],[SRA04,[DHB]
Moflex transaction model

• Moflex transaction T is a 7-tuple


– M: set of sub-transactions
• Compensable or non-compensable
– S: success-dependencies in M
– F: failure-dependencies in M
• compensable or contingency?
– П: external-dependencies on M
• P: time
• Q: cost
• L: location
– H: hand-over control rules on M
– J: acceptable join rules on M
– G: acceptable goal states of T
Moflex transaction model
• Execution states
– Tuple of states of each sub-transactions

T(t1, t2, t3, … tn) Xi:


•N: not submitted for execution
•E: being executed
X(x1, x2, x3, … xn) •S: successfully completed
•F: failed
• Successful execution

X ~ X’ G

• Abort conditions
– No subtransaction is executing
– No more subtransaction can be scheduled
– Current execution state is not equivalent to one of G
Moflex transaction model

• Hand-over control rules

• Acceptable join rule


– Join(): Automatic
– User(): Manual
Moflex transaction model

• Architecture
Analysing Moflex transaction model

Mobility Disconnection Replication


Relating physical
support support support
aspects OK X X

Place of Compensable Cond. of Concurrency


Relating transaction transactions execution
execution handling
execution
MSS? OK OK OK

Geographical Final state


Relating the model’s
localization OK
adaptability OK

Mobile Physical Particular


Relating implementation
techniques limitations characteristics
issues
Connection X Location
dependent
Analysing Moflex transaction model

• Transaction definition
– Mobile hosts initiate the 7-tuple
• Transaction type
– Multi-transactions and location dependent transactions
• Execution model
– Completed executed in wired network
• Execution at mobile host
– Definition of mobile transaction
• Execution at wired network
– Coordination and transaction execution
• Operation mode
– Movement in connected mode
Analysing Moflex transaction model

• ACID?
– None
– Local DBMS
• Mobility
– Hand-off control rules
• Location dependent sub-transactions
• Split operations
• Disconnection
– None
Mobile transaction models
•Transaction type
•Execution model
•Execution at mobile host
•Execution at wired network
•Operation mode
Kangaroo
Transaction properties
•ACID

Analyzing framework

Moflex Other issues


•Structure
• mobility
• design vs. execution states
•Location dependent transactions
•System architecture
•Protocols, e.g., commit, abort