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Friction Stir Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steels

Article  in  Journal of Achievements of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering · November 2010

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Cemal Meran
Pamukkale University


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Mat.-wiss. u. Werkstofftech. 2007, 38, No. 10 DOI: 10.1002/mawe.200700214

Friction stir welding of AISI 304 austenitic

stainless steel
Das Rührreibschweißen AISI 304 des austenitischen rostfreien Stahls
C. Meran, V. Kovan, A. Alptekin

The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of Die Zielsetzung dieser Arbeit war es, die Möglichkeit des Rühr-
friction stir welding (FSW) AISI 304 austenitic stainless steels. reibschweißens (FSW) AISI 304 von austenitischem rostfreien
The tool used was formed of a tungsten-based alloy. The specimens Stahls zu demonstrieren. (Die Proben aus einer Wolframlegierung
were welded on an 11 kW vertical milling machine. Defect-free wurden in einer 11 Kilowatt Fräsmaschine verschweißt.) Die Werk-
welds were produced on 2.5 mm plates of hot-rolled AISI 304 aus- zeuge wurden aus einer Wolframlegierung geschmiedet. Die Pro-
tenitic stainless steels at travel speeds ranging from 40 to 100 mm/ ben wurden in einer vertikalen 11 Kw Fräsmaschine geschweißt.
min with a constant rotating speed of 1000 rpm. Tensile strengths Die fehlerfreien Schweißungen wurden aus 2,5 Millimeter Plätt-
and hardness values of the weld interface were determined and mi- chen aus warmgewalztem AISI 304 austenitischen rostfreien Stahl
crostructure features of these samples were investigated. mit einer Verfahrgeschwindigkeit von 40 bis 100 mm/min mit einer
Keywords: Friction stir welding, steel, AISI 304, mechanical konstanten Rotationsgeschwindigkeit von 1000 U/min hergestellt.
properties, hardness Zugbelastung und Härtewerte der Schweißschnittstelle wurden be-
stimmt und die mikrostrukturellen Eigenschaften untersucht.
Schlüsselworte: Rührreibschweißen, Stahl, AISI 304, mechani-
sche Eigenschaften, Härte

1 Introduction blems - encountered in traditional melting welding - will be

reduced [3].
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state joining tech- One of the important aspects of joining stainless steel with
nique, invented in 1991 by TWI (The Welding Institute), FSW is that the involved high temperatures can soften the me-
Cambridge. It involves the joining of metals without fusion tal. FSW ferrous and nonferrous alloys require a tool that can
or filler materials. The process is most suitable for compo- withstand temperatures of approximately 900 – 1000  C at
nents that are flat and long (plates and sheets) but it can be high Z and X axis loads.
adapted for pipes, hollow sections and positional welding. A critical issue is identifying the choice of suitable steel
The welds are created by the combined action of frictional tool materials for FSW. Another essential requirement for
heating and mechanical deformation produced by a rotating FSW is maintaining a suitable differential between the hard-
tool. The maximum temperature reached is on the order of ness and elevated-temperature properties of the tool and of the
0.8 of the melting temperature of the metal [1, 2]. The micro- workpiece material. Because steels have much higher hard-
structure of a friction stir weld mainly depends on the details ness and elevated temperature properties, it is important to
of the tool design, the rotation and traveling speeds of the tool, select tool materials with good wear resistance and toughness
the applied impression force, and the characteristics of the ma- at temperatures of 1000  C or higher [4]. The high hardness
terials being joined. values of PCBN (polycrystalline cubic boron nitride) limit
Stainless steels are indispensable materials in industry and tool abrasion during the FSW process. The other commonly
their use is growing. Their areas of application will expand used tool material for friction stir welding is tungsten carbide
because there are many types and kinds of stainless steel. Mor- (WC) because it has the required properties, Table 1.
ever, these steels can be shaped easily and can be successfully High temperature resulted when friction developed be-
welded with the improved welding methods. All stainless tween the tool and the welded metal. High temperature can
steels can be joined by any arc welding method, but the welder pass to the head of the machine by convection and cause over-
must be careful about decreasing corrosion resistance at the heating and corruption for the bearing that holds the tool. In
welding bead and the heat-effected zone, residual stress, crack order to solve this problem, water cooled tool holders were
formation at the bead, and distortion after welding. introduced. In addition, by increasing resistance against cor-
Three main problems encountered in the welding of auste- rosion in the welding area, a protective gas flow can be pro-
nitic stainless steel stand out. These are sensitive structure de- vided by using special tools [4].
veloping after the formation of chrome carbide on the surface Some FSW studies were recently conducted on austenitic
that is being heated, the formation of “hot fracture”, and the stainless steel 304L [5, 10 – 13] and 316L [13], superaustenitic
formation of “sigma phase” risks encountered at high working stainless steel Al 6XN [10,14]. These studies resulted in the
temperatures. Although the workpiece does heat up during following important observations. First, generally argon was
friction stir welding, the temperature does not reach the melt- used as the shielding gas to protect both the tool and the weld
ing point of the welded metal. For this reason, when joining area from oxidation in the FSW of steels [6, 9, 12 – 15]. Sec-
austenitic stainless steels with FSW, these three welding pro- ondly, it was reported that the temperature of the tool shoulder

F 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim 829

Table 1. Properties of friction stir welding tools [4]
Tabelle 1. Eigenschaften der Rührreibschweißwerkzeuge [4]

Property Units PCBN WC 4340 Steel

Coefficient of friction - 0.10 – 0.15 0.20 0.78
Coefficient of thermal expansion 10 / C 4.6 – 4.9 4.9 – 5.1 11.2 – 14.3
Thermal conductivity W/mK 100 – 250 95 48
Compressive Strength MPa 2700 – 3500 6200 690
Tensile Strength MPa - 1100 620
Hardness HV 2600 – 3500 1300 – 1600 280

was over 1000  C and that of the ensuing weld track behind the the tool were suggested as the origin of the changes in tool
trailing edge of the rotation tool was 900 – 1000  C. Similarly, dimensions. Furthermore, Lienert and Gould [8] reported
a peak temperature of over 1000  C was observed by Lienert et that the tools were replaced once; they produced 1.5 – 2.0 m
al. just above the tool shoulder by using both thermocouples of weld. However, Sterling et al. [17] reported that a
and infrared cameras. Based on extrapolation of the measured PCBN FSW tool exhibited very little wear after 6 m of weld-
temperature and the microstructural evidence, Lienert et al. ing of quenched and tempered C–Mn steel. Clearly, more re-
suggested that the peak temperature of the stirred zone ex- search efforts should be directed at tool wear and identifica-
ceeded 1100  C and likely surpassed 1200  C [7, 9]. tion/development of suitable tool materials/geometries.
Furthermore, the thermal modelling done by Lienert and Furthermore, Thomas et al. [7] have determined that preheat-
Gould [8] also predicted that temperature throughout the ing of workpieces before welding should be beneficial for im-
weld zone exceeded 1000  C. Thirdly; most of 6.4 mm thick proving travel speed and minimizing tool wear. It may be sim-
304L steel plate can be successfully welded in a single pass. pler and more practical to preheat the initial plunge region of
Welds of steel plates thicker than 6.4 mm were usually made the workpieces before plunging the pin into the workpieces
with two passes from two sides because the range of influence because tool wear mainly occurs during the initial plunge per-
of the tool is relatively small in steels compared to aluminum iod at the start of each weld [8, 9].
alloys [6, 7 – 13]. Fourthly, generally, the TMAZ (Thermome- Some experimental studies and their details on FSW of
chanically effected zone) typically observed in FSW alumi- stainless steels are given below. Six mm thick AISI 304L
num alloys is not evident in FSW steels due to transformations stainless steel was successfully joined by FSW with 550
during the FSW thermal cycle [9, 15, 17]. However, Park et al. rpm and 1.3 mm/s travel speed, and 3.5  tool angle. A
[12] and Johnson and Threadgill [13] identified an existence PBCN tool was successfully used in this study [18]. Reynold
of the TMAZ in FSW 304 and 316L. Park et al. [12] reported [19] investigated the friction stir weldability of 3.2 mm thick
that the TMAZ in FSW 304 was characterized by recovered AISI 304 stainless steel with a 19 mm diameter tungsten alloy
microstructure, whereas Johnson and Threadgill [13] ob- tool. He welded with 1.7 mm/s travel speed and 300 – 500 rpm
served the evidence of partial recrystallization in the rotation speed in his study. At the welding center made with
TMAZ of FSW 304L and 316L. Fifthly, the microstructural low rotation speed, he obtained fine grain and high resisting
evolution of steels during FSW is more complicated than structure. Uzun et. al. [20] studied joining aluminum alloy
that of aluminum alloys due to the occurrence of transforma- (AA 6013-T4) and stainless steel (X5CrNi18 – 10) dissimilar
tion, recrystallization, and grain growth at the high tempera- plates by friction stir welding. They successfully joined 4 mm
ture of 1000  C or above. These changes are significantly in- thick materials at 800 rpm rotation and 80 mm/min travel
fluenced by alloy chemistry. For austenitic stainless steels speed. The progression of fatigue characteristics of welding
[10], it was reported that equiaxed grain structure developed joints was studied, and with AA 6013-T4 joining it was de-
within the weld nugget with significant grain refinement of up termined that welding bead fatigue strength was 30 % lower.
to one order of magnitude relative to the base metal. Sixthly, in Kimapogon et. al. [21] studied stirrer pin diameter and length
general, the friction stir welds exhibited satisfactory hardness, in relation to the properties of FSW welding. In their work,
transverse tensile properties, bend properties, and Charpy V- they obtained the best bead strength at 0.2 mm distance
notch toughness [7 – 9, 11, 14 – 16]. from the pin’s base to the pin length. In their studies they spe-
An essential requirement for FSW is maintaining a suitable cified that the diameter of the stirrer pin must be kept to a
differential between the hardness and elevated temperature minimum. The best results were obtained when the diameter
properties of the tool and the work piece material. Because of the pin is 2 – 4 mm. Orhan [22] showed in his experiments
steels have much higher hardness and increased temperature that AISI 430 stainless steel sheet metal at 50 mm/min weld-
properties, it is important to selected tool materials with good ing and 540 rpm rotation speed can confidently be joined with
wear resistance and toughness at temperatures of 1000  C or FSW. When he applied tensile testing to the welded bead, he
higher. Tungsten alloy, molybdenum alloy, and polycrystal- saw that breaking materialized outside the welding area. The
line cubic boron nitride (PCBN) were used as tool materials explanation of this result is that the strength of the bead was
by some investigators [6, 9 – 12, 14 – 16]. Lienert and Gould higher than that of the base metal. Feng et. al. [23] applied
[8] and Lienert et al. [9] reported that most of the tool wear FSW to stainless steel pipes using 25 mm diameter, 5.5 mm
appeared to occur during the initial plunge period at the start length PCBN tools. In their work, they welded at 500 – 600
of each weld, and that both rubbing wear and deformation of rpm rotating and 100 – 150 mm/min travel speed. Unlike other

830 C. Meran, V. Kovan and A. Alptekin Mat.-wiss. u. Werkstofftech. 2007, 38, No. 10
studies, they performed joining by keeping the impression
force at 10 KN, which is a very effective parameter for
FSW. They used a special apparatus to fasten and join pipes.
To prevent the welding area from oxidizing, they also applied
argon gas to the welding bead. In tensile experiments on the
joined specimens, breaking occurred in the base metal area. In
a study at Brigham Young University, the feasibility of using
FSW on AISI 304 stainless steel of 6 mm thickness was inves-
tigated. The experimenters used a PBCN tool having a 15 mm
shoulder diameter, a 2 mm pin length, 800 – 900 – 1000 – 1100
rpm rotating speeds, and 50 – 75 – 100 – 130 mm/min travel Fig. 1. Geometry and dimensions of tool
speeds in their studies. In the work, in which successful beads Abb. 1. Geometrie und Abmessungen des Werkzeugs
were obtained, it was determined that PCBN is the best tool
material for this method due to its very low wear [24].
This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on AISI ering it with titanium nitride. Also, for all tools an M5 right
304 austenitic stainless steel. The main objective of this work screw was threaded to the stirrer tip as specified in the litera-
was to demonstrate the feasibility of FSW for joining auste- ture [25]. However, these screws started to lose their hardness
nitic stainless steel by characterizing the process, microstruc- due to friction and progress movement on frictioned shoulder
tures, and mechanical properties of friction stir welds on aus- part inflation. One can observe breakage of the stirrer screw,
tenitic stainless steel. The goal of the study was to explore the Figure 2b. The broken stirrer was plastered into the metal at
following: (1) the feasibility of applying FSW to austenitic the screw part welding threshold.
stainless steel; (2) the possibility of using tungsten carbide Then the FSW tool was made of tungsten carbide with 1650
tool materials for the FSW of austenitic stainless steel, and HV hardness. The tungsten-based tool material has excellent
(3) the tensile properties and optical microstructure of two toughness and hardness over a temperature range from ambi-
friction stir welds in 304 stainless steel. ent to a minimum of 1200  C. The tool material was very for-
giving of unexpected sudden temperature and load changes
during the welding trials. These changes would have led to
premature failure of other tool materials under similar condi-
2 Experimental Procedure tions.
Before the start of welding, in order to get the welding
2.5 mm-thick AISI 304 (X5CrNi18 – 10) austenitic stainless plates face-to-face, a hole of 5.5 mm diameter was drilled.
steel plates were used in this work. The chemical composition FSW was started by preheating; centering the tool pin, which
(% wt) of the plates was 18.20 Cr, 8.42 Ni, 0.80 Si, 1.15 Mn, was rotating at 1000 rpm in the hole; and dipping the tool
0.080 C, 0.045 P, and 0.03 S. shoulder into the material at a definite value. The rotating
All of the welding trials were carried out on a manual ver- speed was kept at 1000 rpm during all experiments. The travel
tical heavy duty-milling machine with 11 KW spindle drive speeds used in this study were 40, 50, 63, 80, and 100 mm/
motor power as per the TWI procedure described in the patent min. No elaborate attempt was made to optimize the process
[2]. The machine frame was robust. Thus, it did not deflect conditions in this phase of the study. The specimens’ sizes
significantly during the FSW trials. The steel workpiece plates were 2.5x60x120 mm. The oxide layer was removed prior
were secured with work holding fixtures on the machine tra- to processing and the plates were secured to a flat anvil.
verse table. A pilot hole with a diameter smaller than the probe Due to a lack of equipment that measures impression force
was drilled between the abutting plates at the start of the weld applied to the welded part’s surface by the tool’s shoulder be-
seam. Traversing was initiated after a period of time sufficient tween experiment set-ups, the aim was to keep impression
to plasticize the workpiece material which was in contact with force constant during experiments by providing the dipping
the shoulder and the probe The friction stir welding operation tool’s shoulder to the specimen at the same proportion at
was carried out at ambient temperature with no auxiliary pre- all times.
heating or interpass heating of the workpiece.
The shoulder diameter of the tool was 20 mm, and the
threaded pin was changed conically 3.5 and 6 mm in diameter.
The length of the pin is a very critical dimension for FSW. In
order to form the FSW bead in the proper shape, the tool
should pass very close to workbench plate. For this reason,
the length of the pin was selected to be 2.3 mm, slightly short-
er than the thickness of the plates. In cases where the pin is
longer than needed, it was canalised on the workbench plate
and softened metal was translated to this canal. In this case,
insufficient penetration of the welding bead occurred. In order
to decrease the fragility resulting from using tungsten carbide
tools, the sharp corner of the pin and the shoulder part were
rounded off and the pin was shaped to be conical towards the Fig. 2. The view of tool used at the beginning of experimental
tip as shown Figure 1. works
At the beginning of the experiment, the tool was made by a) Before welding b) after welding
special cold working of steel X155CrVMo12 – 1 (EN ISO Abb. 2. Ansicht des am Anfang der experimentellen Arbeiten ver-
4957, material number 1.2379) as shown in Figure 2a. wendeten Werkzeugs
Then, a hard nitride layer was obtained on the surface by cov- a) vor dem Schweißen b) nach dem Schweißen

Mat.-wiss. u. Werkstofftech. 2007, 38, No. 10 Friction stir welding of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel 831
Fig. 3. The changes on welding bead at different tool dipping angles
a) dipping angle 0 
b) dipping angle 1 
c) dipping angle 1.45 
Abb. 3. Auswirkungen auf die Schweißnaht bei verschiedenen Eintauchwinkeln des Werkzeugs
a) Eintauchen des Winkels 0 
b) Eintauchen des Winkels 1 
c) Eintauchen des Winkels 1.45 

ments were made at the middle of the welding area of approxi-

mately 25 mm length with 0.5 mm spaces by using a 200 g

3 Results and Discussion

Unlike aluminum and most non-ferrous materials, which
show little or no visible change during FSW due to increases
in temperature, a color change occurred when stainless steel
was welded. The tool shoulder reached a bright orange color
within a few seconds of making contact with the plate. This
indicated an approximate temperature of over 1000  C. The
tool shoulder maintained its bright orange color throughout
the weld. The temperature was dependent on rotational speed:
temperature increased with increasing speed.
During the studies, it was observed that the tool dipping
Fig. 4. The dipping amount of tool depends on tool dipping angle angle has an important effect on the welding bead. To this
for 20 mm diameter tool end, many experiments were performed to find the best
Abb. 4. Die Eindringtiefe des Werkzeugs hängt vom Eintauchwin- tool dipping angle for a welding bead. When welding was per-
kel des Werkzeugs für einen Durchmesser von 20 mm ab formed by keeping the part perpendicular to the surface,
cracks were observed at bead length Figure 3a. By increasing
the angle, the cracks formed on the bead decreased Figure 3b.
At a 1.45  angle there were no cracks, Figure 3c. The best
Preheating continued until adequate heating was reached. welds were obtained when the tool dipping angle was 1.45  .
At 1000 rpm, preheating was performed after waiting 45 sec- After this stage, it was not necessary to increase the tool
onds. During this time fumes were observed from the touching dipping angle. At this point, with the tool dipping angle at
area and from the tool shoulder. Also, progress wear was ob- 1.45  , the dipping amount was 0.35 mm, as in Figure 4.
served between red and orange colors (approximately 900 – The closest distance of the tip part to the workbench was
1000  C). found to be 0.05 mm. Because the welding bead improved
Plates were sectioned and polished for optical metallogra- by changing the dipping angle while the dipping tool pro-
phy. The sections were fine polished with 3 lm diamond paste gressed through the angled tool, it seems that it was leaving
and etched for 45 seconds with a solution of 10 grams of oxa- a clean and smooth surface by applying an impression to the
lic acid in 100 ml of distilled water. Micro hardness measure- area left behind.

Table 2. Friction stir welding parameters for the square groove butt welding for AISI 304
Tabelle 2. Rührreibschweiß-Parameter für das quadratische Nutkolbenschweißen für AISI 304

Specimens Rotation speed Travel speed Angle of tool Quantity of tool

Number (rpm) (mm/min) submersion ( ) submersion (mm)

1,2, 3 1000 40 1.45 0.35

4,5, 6 1000 50 1.45 0.35
7,8,9 1000 63 1.45 0.35
10,11,12 1000 80 1.45 0.35
13,14,15 1000 100 1.45 0.35

832 C. Meran, V. Kovan and A. Alptekin Mat.-wiss. u. Werkstofftech. 2007, 38, No. 10
Fig. 5. The appearance of upper surface and root side
of welding beads produced with various travel speeds
(1000rpm constant rotation speed)
a) 40 mm/min, 1000 rpm b) 50 mm/min, 1000 rpm
c) 63 mm/min, 1000 rpm (upper surface) d) 63 mm/
min, 1000 rpm (root part)
e) 80 mm/min, 1000 rpm f) 100 mm/min, 1000 rpm
Abb. 5. Darstellung der Oberfläche, sowie der Unter-
seite der Schweißnaht, hergestellt mit unterschiedli-
chen Fahrgeschwindigkeiten (1000U/min konstante

Fig. 6. Dimensions and view of tensile test samples

a) Technical dimensions of test samples
b) Prepared tensile test samples
Abb. 6. Abmessungen und Aussehen der Zugproben
a) Probengeometrien
b) Vorbereitete Zugproben

The welds were made on one side using two combinations bath and, as a result, insufficient penetration occurred. Mean-
of tool rotation speed and travel speed as shown in Table 2. By while, during welding additional metal and shielding gas were
keeping the parameters of rotation speed, tool dipping angle, not used. If shielding gas had been used, it is obvious that the
and tool dipping amount (which affects welding quality), the macroscopic view of welding bead would have improved.
relation to travel speed, the last variable, was investigated. Tensile and hardness measurements were made with me-
The macroscopic view of welding beads obtained by the chanical tests. To determine the strength of the welded joint,
welding parameters given in Table 2 is seen in Figure 5. A tensile testing samples were prepared from the welded speci-
good welding penetration was not produced at 40 mm/min tra- mens as shown in Figure 6. The test results in Table 3 were
vel speed due to overheating and at 100 mm/min travel speed obtained from the average of three tensile tests. Average ten-
due to insufficient heating. sile strength, yield strength, and elongation are given in Table
Welding done at 40 mm/min travel speed formed cracks on 3 where they are matched with properties of the base metal.
the whole length of the welding bead. It is thought that the Tensile experiments done showed that welding done at 40
reason for this crack formation is high heat input due to a tra- and 100 mm/min travel speeds did not have enough strength.
vel speed that is lower than the rotation speed. The appearance Likewise, even if their macroscopic views were not bad, weld-
of welding beads made at 50 and 80 mm/min travel speed is ing beads obtained at 50 and 80 mm/min travel speeds, did not
not bad, but some cracks and insufficient penetration were ob- have strength that reached the intended level.
served. As shown in Figure 5, welding beads with the best The elevated strength of the welded metals relative to the
appearance and penetration were obtained at 63 mm/min tra- base metal (particularly for the 1000 rpm and 63 mm/min
vel speed. At 100 mm/min travel speed, because of high welds) is consistent with the observation of refined grains
speed, the intended heat input was not obtained in the welding in the weld nuggets. Based on the specimen size, and consis-

Mat.-wiss. u. Werkstofftech. 2007, 38, No. 10 Friction stir welding of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel 833
Table 3. Tensile test results of friction stir welded plates
Tabelle 3. Zugbelastungsergebnisse der rühreibgeschweißten Platten

Sample Number Rotation speed Travelling Ultimate Tensile ‰.2 Yield Strength, Percent Elongation
(rpm) Speed Strength, Rp0.2 (MPa) A (%)
(mm/min) Rm (MPa)

Base Metal 505 215 20

1,2,3 1000 40 210 110 2
4,5,6 1000 50 325 175 10
7,8,9 1000 63 485 350 16
10,11,12 1000 80 320 195 12
13,14,15 1000 100 290 140 4

Fig. 7. The appearance of inner structure of various welding zone (x200) at 1000 rpm and 63 mm/min
a) Base Metal
b) Thermomechanically affected zone
c) Nugget or stir zone
Abb. 7. Innere Struktur der verschiedenen Schweißzonen (x200) bei 1000 U/min und 63 mm/min
a) metallischer Grundwerkstoff
b) Thermomechanisch betroffene Zone
c) Nugget- oder Rührzone

tent with the observed yield strengths of the welded metal spe- and a thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ). The SZ and
cimens, it is assumed that the residual stress in the tensile spe- TMAZ had finer grain sizes than the base metal zone, Figure 7.
cimens was relieved when the specimens were cut from the The SZ displayed somewhat lower hardness than the
welded plate. TMAZ, but generally higher than that of the base material
Breakage occurred for all welded beads, except those made as shown in Figure 8. From perspective of micro-hardness,
at 63 mm/min travel speed. However, at the welding done at it can be seen that the measurement of welding bead hardness
63 mm/min travel speed, breaking occurred on the thermome- is close to that of base material hardness, except at transition
chanically affected zone between the base material and the areas from the welding bead to the base material, where hard-
welding bead. The strength of welding done at the 63 mm / ness increased a bit. It is thought that of the increase in hard-
min travel speed was obtained compared to base material. ness results from thermo-mechanical deformation at the area
Optical investigation showed three different microstructure touching the tool shoulder.
zones, which are base material (BM), stir zone (SZ) or nugget,

4 Conclusion
l The mechanical and microstructural evolution of a 304
stainless steel weld during FSW was examined. Three dif-
ferent welding microstructure zones were found: base ma-
terials (BM), stirrer zone (SZ), and a thermomechanically
affected zone (TMAZ). The heat affected zone was not in
friction stir welding of aluminium and its alloys.
l Cold working steel is not suitable for the FSW of stainless
steels. Using tungsten carbide tools for the FSW of stainless
steels gave good results. Also, the best welding appearance
was obtained when the tool dipping angle was 1.45  .
l The least waiting time for pre-heating was determined to be
45 second for the welding conditions of 1000 rpm rotating
Fig. 8. The results of micro hardness (63 mm/min, 1000 rpm) speed, 63 mm/min travelling speed, and 1.45  tool dipping
Abb. 8. Mikrohärteuntersuchung (63 mm/min, 1000 U/min) angle.

834 C. Meran, V. Kovan and A. Alptekin Mat.-wiss. u. Werkstofftech. 2007, 38, No. 10
l The strength of welding done at the 63 mm/min travel speed 13. R. Johnson, P.L. Threadgill, in: S.A. David, T. DebRoy, J.C.
and 1000 rpm rotating speed was found equally compared Lippold, H.B. Smartt, J.M. Vitek (Eds.), Proceedings of the
to base material. Sixth International Conference onTrends inWelding Research,
l Welding bead hardness was obtained close to base material Pine Mountain, GA, ASM International, 2003, pp.88 – 92.
14. M. Posada, J. Deloach, A.P. Reynolds, J.P. Halpin, in: S.A. Da-
hardness. Also, at the transition area from the welding bead vid, T. DebRoy, J.C. Lippold, H.B. Smartt, J.M. Vitek (Eds.),
to the base material, hardness increased a bit. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Trends in
l These studies showed that welding is safe if suitable con- Welding Research, Pine Mountain, GA, ASM International,
ditions for austenitic stainless steels are provided. 2003, pp. 307 – 312.
15. P.J. Konkol, J.A. Mathers, R. Johnson, J.R. Pickens, in: Pro-
ceedings of the Third International Symposium on Friction
Stir Welding, Kobe, Japan, September 2001.
16. A.P. Reynolds, W. Tang, M. Posada, J. Deloach, Sci. Technol.
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Mat.-wiss. u. Werkstofftech. 2007, 38, No. 10 Friction stir welding of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel 835

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