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Review Questions

3.1-1 Determine which levels should be chosen of different advertising media to obtain the most

effective advertising mix for the new cereal.

3.1-2 The expected number of exposures.

3.1-3 TV commercials are not being used and that is the primary method of reaching young

children.

3.1-4 They need to check the assumption that fractional solutions are allowed and the assumption

of proportionality.

3.2-1 Each functional constraint in the linear programming model is a resource constraint.

3.2-2 Amount of resource used ≤ Amount of resource available.

3.2-3 1) The amount available of each limited resource.

2) The amount of each resource needed by each activity. Specifically, for each

combination of resource and activity, the amount of resource used per unit of activity

must be estimated.

3) The contribution per unit of each activity to the overall measure of performance.

3.2-4 The four activities in the examples are determining the most profitable mix of production

rates for two new products, purchase quantities for airplanes, capital budgeting, and

choosing the mix of advertising media.

3.2-5 The resources in the examples are available production capacities of different plants,

investment capital available, a maximum on small airplane purchases, cumulative

investment capital available by certain times, financial allocations for advertising and for

planning purposes, and TV commercial spots available for purchase.

3.3-1 For resource-allocation problems, limits are set on the use of various resources, and then

the objective is to make the most effective use of these given resources. For cost-benefit-

tradeoff problems, management takes a more aggressive stance, prescribing what benefits

must be achieved by the activities under consideration, and then the objective is to achieve

all these benefits with minimum cost.

3.3-2 The identifying feature for a cost-benefit-tradeoff problem is that each functional constraint

is a benefit constraint.

3.3-3 Level achieved ≥ Minimum acceptable level.

3.3-4 1) The minimum acceptable level for each benefit (a managerial policy decision).

3-1

2) For each benefit, the contribution of each activity to that benefit (per unit of the

activity).

3) The cost per unit of each activity.

3.3-5 The activities for the two examples are choosing the mix of advertising media and

personnel scheduling.

3.3-6 The benefits for the two examples are increased market share and minimizing total

personnel costs while meeting service requirements.

3.4-1 Mixed problems may contain all three types of functional constraints: resource constraints,

benefit constraints, and fixed-requirement constraints.

3.4-2 Two new goals need to be incorporated into the model. The first is that the advertising

should be seen by at least 5 million young children. The second is that the advertising

should be seen by at least 5 million parents of young children.

3.4-3 Two benefit constraints and a fixed-requirement constraint are included in the new linear

programming model.

3.4-4 Management decided to adopt the new plan because it does a much better job of meeting all

of management’s goals for the campaign.

3.5-1 Transportation problems deal with transporting goods through a distribution network at

minimum cost.

3.5-2 An identifying feature for a transportation problem is that each functional constraint is a

fixed-requirement constraint.

3.5-3 In contrast to the ≤ form for resource constraints and the ≥ form for benefit constraints,

fixed-requirement constraints have an = form.

3.5-4 Factory 1 must ship 12 lathes, Factory 2 must ship 15 lathes, Customer 1 must receive 10

lathes, Customer 2 must receive 8 lathes, and Customer 3 must receive 9 lathes.

3.6-1 Assignment problems involve making assignments.

3.6-2 Pure assignment problems have all fixed-requirement constraints.

3.6-3 The changing cells for a pure asignment problem give a value of 1 when the corresponding

assignment is made, and a value of 0 otherwise.

3.7-1 A linear programming model must accurately reflect the managerial view of the problem.

3.7-2 Large linear programming models generally are formulated by management science teams.

3.7-3 The line of communication between the management science team and the manager is vital.

3.7-4 Model validation is a testing process used on an initial version of a model to identify the

errors and omissions that inevitably occur when constructing large models.

3.7-5 The process of model enrichment involves beginning with a relatively simple version of the

model and then using the experience gained with this model to evolve toward more

elaborate models that more nearly reflect the complexity of the real problem.

3-2

3.7-6 What-if analysis is an important part of a linear programming study because an optimal

solution can only be solved for with respect to one specific version of the model at a time.

Management may have “what-if” questions about how the solution will change given

changes in the model formulation.

Problems

3.1 a)

A B C D E F G H

1 TV Spots Magazine Ads Radio Ads SS Ads

2 Exposures per Ad 1300 600 900 500

3 (thousands)

4 Budget Budget

5 Cost per Ad ($thousands) Spent Available

6 Ad Budget 300 150 200 100 4000 <= 4000

7 Planning Budget 90 30 50 40 1000 <= 1000

8

9 Total Exposures

10 TV Spots Magazine Ads Radio Ads SS Ads (thousands)

11 Number of Ads 0 10 10 5 17,500

12 <= <=

13 Max TV Spots 5 10 Max Radio Spots

Changing cells: B11:E11

Target cell: H11

F

4 Budget H

5 Spent 9 Total Exposures

6 =SUMPRODUCT(B6:E6,$B$11:$E$11) 10 (thousands)

7 =SUMPRODUCT(B7:E7,$B$11:$E$11) 11 =SUMPRODUCT(B2:E2,B11:E11)

b) This is a linear programming model because the decisions are represented by changing

cells that can have any value that satisfy the constraints. Each constraint has an output

cell on the left, a mathematical sign in the middle, and a data cell on the right. The

overall level of performance is represented by the target cell and the objective is to

maximize that cell. Also, the Excel equation for each output cell is expressed as a

SUMPRODUCT function where each term in the sum is the product of a data cell and a

changing cell.

c) Let T = number of commercials on TV

M = number of advertisements in magazines

R = number of commercials on radio

S = number of advertisements in Sunday supplements.

Maximize Exposures (thousands) = 140T + 60M + 90R + 50S

subject to 300T + 150M + 200R + 100S ≤ 4,000 ($thousands)

90T + 30M + 50R + 40S ≤ 1,000 ($thousands)

T ≤ 5 spots

R ≤ 10 spots

and T ≥ 0, M ≥ 0, R ≥ 0, S ≥ 0.

3-3

3.2 a & c)

A B C D E F

1 Activity 1 Activity 2

2 Contribution per unit $20 $30

3

4 Resource Usage Resource Resource

5 per Unit of Activity Used Available

6 Resource 1 2 1 10 <= 10

7 Resource 2 3 3 20 <= 20

8 Resource 3 2 4 20 <= 20

9

10 Activity 1 Activity 2 Total Contribution

11 Level of Activity 3.333 3.333 $166.67

b)

(x1, x2) Feasible? Total Contribution

(2,2) Yes $100

(3,3) Yes $150

(2,4) Yes $160 Best

(4,2) Yes $140

(3,4) No

(4,3) No

x2 = level of activity 2

Maximize Contribution = $20x1 + $30x2

subject to 2x1 + x2 ≤ 10

3x1 + 3x2 ≤ 20

2x1 + 4x2 ≤ 20

and x1 ≥ 0, x2 ≥ 0.

e) Optimal Solution: (x1, x2) = (3.333, 3.333) and Total Contribution = $166.67.

3-4

3.3 a)

A B C D E F G

1 Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3

2 Contribution per unit $50 $40 $70

3

4 Resource Usage Resource Resource

5 per Unit of Activity Used Available

6 Resource A 30 20 0 500 <= 500

7 Resource B 0 10 40 600 <= 600

8 Resource C 20 20 30 783.333 <= 1,000

9

10 Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Total Contribution

11 Level of Activity 16.667 0 15 $1,883.33

x2 = level of activity 2

x3 = level of activity 3

Maximize Contribution = $50x1 + $40x2 + $70x3

subject to 30x1 + 20x2 ≤ 500

10x2 + 40x3 ≤ 600

20x1 + 20x2 + 30x3 ≤ 1,000

and x1 ≥ 0, x2 ≥ 0, x3 ≥ 0.

3.4 a & c)

A B C D E F G H

1 Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4

2 Contribution per unit $11 $9 $8 $9

3

4 Resource Usage Resource Resource

5 per Unit of Activity Used Available

6 Resource P 3 5 -2 4 400 <= 400

7 Resource Q 4 -1 3 2 300 <= 300

8 Resource R 6 3 2 -1 400 <= 400

9 Resource S -2 2 5 3 300 <= 300

10

11 Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 Total Contribution

12 Level of Activity 39.421 41.953 37.071 36.528 $1,436.53

(x1, x2, x3, x4) Feasible? P

(30,30,30,30) Yes $1110

(40,40,40,40) No

(35,39,30,40) Yes $1336

(35,39,34,40) Yes $1368

(37,39,35,40) Yes $1398 Best

3.5 a) The activities are the production rates of products 1, 2, and 3. The limited resources are

hours available per week on the milling machine, lathe, and grinder.

b) The decisions to be made are how many of each product should be produced per week.

The constraints on these decisions are the number of hours available per week on the

milling machine, lathe, and grinder as well as the sales potential of product 3. The

overall measure of performance is total profit, which is to be maximized.

3-5

c) milling machine: 9(# units of 1) + 3(# units of 2) + 5(# units of 3) ≤ 500

lathe: 5(# units of 1) + 4(# units of 2) ≤ 350

grinder: 3(# units of 1) + 2(# units of 3) ≤ 150

sales: (# units of 3) ≤ 20

Nonnegativity: (# units of 1) ≥ 0, (# units of 2) ≥ 0, (# units of 3) ≥ 0

d)

A B C D E F G

1 Product 1 Product 2 Product 3

2 Unit Profit $50 $20 $25

3 Hours Hours

4 Machine Hours Used per Unit of Product Used Available

5 Milling machine 9 3 5 500 <= 500

6 Lathe 5 4 0 350 <= 350

7 Grinder 3 0 2 118.571429 <= 150

8

9 Product 1 Product 2 Product 3 Total Profit

10 Production Rate 26.190 54.762 20 $2,904.76

11 (per week) <=

12 Sales Potential 20

Changing cells: B10:D10

Target cell: G10

Output cells: E5:E7

E

3 Hours

4 Used

5 =SUMPRODUCT(B5:D5,$B$10:$D$10) G

6 =SUMPRODUCT(B6:D6,$B$10:$D$10) 9 Total Profit

7 =SUMPRODUCT(B7:D7,$B$10:$D$10) 10 =SUMPRODUCT(B2:D2,B10:D10)

x2 = units of product 2 produced per week

x3 = units of product 3 produced per week

Maximize Profit = $50x1 + $20x2 + $25x3

subject to 9x1 3x2 + 5x3 ≤ 500 hours

5x1 + 4x2 ≤ 350 hours

3x1 + 2x3 ≤ 150 hours

x3 ≤ 20

and x1 ≥ 0, x2 ≥ 0, x3 ≥ 0.

3.6 a) The activities are the production quantities of parts A, B, and C. The limited resources

are the hours available on machine 1 and machine 2.

3-6

b & d)

A B C D E F G

1 Part A Part B Part C

2 Unit Profit $50 $40 $30

3 Hours Hours

4 Processing Time (hours per unit) Used Available

5 Machine 1 0.02 0.03 0.05 40 <= 40

6 Machine 2 0.05 0.02 0.04 40 <= 40

7

8 Part A Part B Part C Total Profit

9 Production 363.636 1090.909 0 $61,818.18

(x1, x2, x3) Feasible? P

(500,500,300) No

(350,1000,0) Yes $57,500

(400,1000,0) Yes $60,000 Best

e) Let A = number of part A produced

B = number of part B produced

C = number of part C produced

Maximize Profit = $50A + $40B + $30C

subject to 0.02A + 0.03B + 0.05C ≤ 40 hours

0.05A + 0.02B + 0.04C ≤ 40 hours

and A ≥ 0, B ≥ 0, C ≥ 0.

3.7

A B C D E F G

1 Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3

2 Unit Profit 20 40 30

3

4 Resource Usage Resource Resource

5 per Unit of Activity Used Available

6 Resource 1 3 5 4 400 <= 400

7 Resource 2 1 1 1 100 <= 100

8 Resource 3 1 3 2 200 <= 200

9

10 Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Total Profit

11 Level of Activity 50 50 0 3,000

3-7

3.8 a & c)

A B C D E F

1 Activity 1 Activity 2

2 Unit Cost $60 $50

3 Minimum

4 Benefit Contribution per Level Acceptable

5 Unit of Each Activity Achieved Level

6 Benefit 1 5 3 60 >= 60

7 Benefit 2 2 2 31 >= 30

8 Benefit 3 7 9 126 >= 126

9

10 Activity 1 Activity 2 Total Cost

11 Level of Activity 6.75 8.75 $842.50

b)

(x1, x2) Feasible? C

(7,7) No

(7,8) No

(8,7) No

(8,8) Yes $880 Best

(8,9) Yes $930

(9,8) Yes $940

d) Let x1 = level of activity 1

x2 = level of activity 2

Minimize Cost = $60x1 + $50x2

subject to 5x1 + 3x2 ≥ 60

2x1 + 2x2 ≥ 30

7x1 + 9x2 ≥ 126

and x1 ≥ 0, x2 ≥ 0.

e) Optimal Solution: (x1, x2) = (6.75, 8.75) and Total Cost = $842.50.

3-8

3.9 a & c)

A B C D E F G H

1 Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4

2 Unit Cost $400 $600 $500 $300

3 Minimum

4 Benefit Contribution per Level Acceptable

5 Unit of Each Activity Achieved Level

6 Benefit P 2 -1 4 3 80 >= 80

7 Benefit Q 1 4 -1 2 60 >= 60

8 Benefit R 3 5 4 -1 110 >= 110

9

10 Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 Total Cost

11 Level of Activity 32.5 3.75 0 6.25 $17,125

(x1, x2, x3, x4) Feasible? C

(32,4,0,6) No

(33,4,0,6) Yes $17,400 Best

(33,5,0,6) No

(33,4,1,6) Yes $17,900

(33,4,1,7) Yes $18,200

3.10 a & d)

A B C D E F G

1 Corn Tankage Alfalfa

2 Unit Cost $0.84 $0.72 $0.60

3 (per kg) Minimum

4 Level Daily

5 Nutritional Contents (per kg) Achieved Requirement

6 Carbohydrates 90 20 40 200 >= 200

7 Protein 30 80 60 180 >= 180

8 Vitamins 10 20 60 157.142857 >= 150

9

10 Corn Tankage Alfalfa Total Cost

11 Diet (kg) 1.143 0 2.429 $2.42

b) (x1, x2, x3) = (1,2,2) is a feasible solution with a daily cost of $3.48. This diet will

provide 210 kg of carbohydrates, 310 kg of protein, and 170 kg of vitamins daily.

c) Answers will vary.

e) Let C = kg of corn to feed each pig

T = kg of tankage to feed each pig

A = kg of alfalfa to feed each pig

Minimize Cost = $0.84C + $0.72T + $0.60A

subject to 90C + 20T + 40A ≥ 200

30C + 80T + 40A ≥ 180

10C + 20T + 60A ≥ 150

and C ≥ 0, T ≥ 0, A ≥ 0.

3-9

3.12 a) The activities are leasing space in each month for a number of months. The benefit is

meeting the space requirements for each month.

b) The decisions to be made are how much space to lease and for how many months. The

constraints on these decisions are the minimum required space. The overall measure of

performance is cost which is to be minimized.

c) Month 1: (M1 1mo lease) + (M1 2mo lease) + (M1 3mo lease) + (M1 4mo lease) + (M1

5 mo lease) ≥ 30,000 square feet.

Month 2: (M1 2mo lease) + M1 3 mo lease) + (M1 4 mo lease) + (M1 5mo lease) +

(M2 1 mo lease) + (M2 2 mo lease) + (M2 3 mo lease) + (M2 4 mo lease) ≥ 20,000

square feet.

Month 3: (M1 3mo lease) + (M1 4mo lease) + (M1 5mo lease) + (M2 2mo lease) + (M2

3mo lease) + (M2 4mo lease) + (M3 1mo lease) + (M3 2mo lease) + (M3 3mo lease) ≥

40,000 square feet.

Month 4: (M1 4mo lease) + (M1 5mo lease) + (M2 3mo lease) + (M2 4mo lease) + (M3

2 mo lease) + (M3 3mo lease) + (M4 1mo lease) + (M4 2mo lease) ≥ 10,000 square

feet.

Month 5: (M1 5mo lease) + (M2 4mo lease) + (M3 3mo lease) + (M4 2 mo lease) +

(M5 1mo lease) ≥ 50,000 square feet.

Nonnegativity: (M1 1mo lease) ≥ 0, (M1 2mo lease) ≥ 0, (M1 3 mo lease) ≥ 0, (M1 4

mo lease) ≥ 0, (M1 5mo lease) ≥ 0, (M2 1mo lease) ≥ 0, (M2 2mo lease) ≥ 0, (M2 3 mo

lease) ≥ 0, (M2 4mo lease) ≥ 0, (M3 1mo lease) ≥ 0, (M3 2mo lease) ≥ 0, (M3 3mo

lease) ≥ 0, (M4 1mo lease) ≥ 0, (M4 2mo lease) ≥ 0, (M5 1mo lease) ≥ 0.

Cost = ($650)[(M1 1mo lease) + (M2 1mo lease) + (M3 1mo lease) + (M4 1mo lease) +

(M5 1mo lease)] + ($1,000)[(M1 2mo lease) + (M2 2mo lease) + (M3 2mo lease) +

(M4 2mo lease)] + ($1,350)[(M1 3mo lease) + (M2 3mo lease) + (M3 3mo lease)] +

($1,600)[(M1 4mo lease) + (M2 4mo lease)] + ($1,900)[M1 5mo lease]

3-10

d)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S

1 Month Covered by Lease? Total Space

2 Month of Lease: 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 Leased Required

3 Length of Lease: 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 1 (sq. ft.) (sq. ft.)

4 Month 1 1 1 1 1 1 30,000 >= 30,000

5 Month 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 30,000 >= 20,000

6 Month 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 40,000 >= 40,000

7 Month 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 30,000 >= 10,000

8 Month 5 1 1 1 1 1 50,000 >= 50,000

9

10 Cost of Lease $65 $100 $135 $160 $190 $65 $100 $135 $160 $65 $100 $135 $65 $100 $65

11 (per sq. ft.)

12 Total Cost

13 Lease (sq. ft.) 0 0 0 0 30,000 0 0 0 0 10,000 0 0 0 0 20,000 $7,650,000

Changing cells: B13:P13

Target cell: S13

Output cells: Q4:Q8

Q

1 Total

2 Leased

3 (sq. f t.)

4 =SUMPRODUCT(B4:P4,$B$13:$P$13)

5 =SUMPRODUCT(B5:P5,$B$13:$P$13)

6 =SUMPRODUCT(B6:P6,$B$13:$P$13) S

7 =SUMPRODUCT(B7:P7,$B$13:$P$13) 12 Total Cost

8 =SUMPRODUCT(B8:P8,$B$13:$P$13) 13 =SUMPRODUCT(B10:P10,B13:P13)

e) Let xij = square feet of space leased in month i for a period of j months.

for i = 1, ... , 5 and j = 1, ... , 6-i.

Minimize C = $650(x11 + x21 + x31 + x41 + x51) + $1,000(x12 + x22 + x32 + x42)

+$1,350(x13 + x23 + x33) + $1,600(x14 + x24) + $1,900x15

subject to x11 + x12 + x13 + x14 + x15 ≥ 30,000 square feet

x12 + x13 + x14 + x15 + x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 ≥ 20,000 square feet

x13 + x14 + x15 + x22 + x23 + x24 + x31 + x32 + x33 ≥ 40,000 sq. feet

x14 + x15 + x23 + x24 + x32 + x33 + x41 + x42 ≥ 10,000 square feet

x15 + x24 + x33 + x42 + x51 ≥ 50,000 square feet

and xij ≥ 0, for i = 1, ... , 5 and j = 1 , ... , 6-i.

3.13

A B C D E F G H

1 Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4

2 Unit Cost 2 1 -1 3

3 Minimum

4 Benefit Contribution per Level Acceptable

5 Unit of Each Activity Achieved Level

6 Benefit 1 3 2 -2 5 80 >= 80

7 Benefit 2 1 -1 0 1 10 >= 10

8 Benefit 3 1 1 -1 2 32.857 >= 30

9

10 Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 Total Cost

11 Level of Activity 0 4.286 0 14.286 47.14

3-11

3.15 a) This is a distribution-network problem because it deals with the distribution of goods

through a distribution network at minimum cost.

b)

A B C D E F G

1 Shipping Cost Customer 1 Customer 2 Customer 3

2 Factory 1 $600 $800 $700

3 Factory 2 $400 $900 $600

4

5 Total

6 Shipped

7 Units Shipped Customer 1 Customer 2 Customer 3 Out Output

8 Factory 1 0 200 200 400 = 400

9 Factory 2 300 0 200 500 = 500

10 Total To Customer 300 200 400

11 = = = Total Cost

12 Order Size 300 200 400 $540,000

Minimize Cost = $600x11 + $800x12 + $700x13 + $400x21 + $900x22 + $600x23

subject to x11 + x12 + x13 = 400

x21 + x22 + x23 = 500

x11 + x21 = 300

x12 + x22 = 200

x13 + x23 = 400

and x11 ≥ 0, x12 ≥ 0, x13 ≥ 0, x21 ≥ 0, x22 ≥ 0, x23 ≥ 0.

3.16 a) Requirement 1: The total amount shipped from Mine 1 must be 40 tons.

Requirement 2: The total amount shipped from Mine 2 must be 60 tons.

Requirement 3: The total amount shipped to the Plant must be 100 tons.

Requirement 4: For Storage 1, the amount shipped out = the amount in.

Requirement 5: For Storage 2, the amount shipped out = the amount in.

3-12

b)

A B C D E F

1 Shipping

2 Cost S1 S2

3 M1 $2,000 $1,700

4 M2 $1,600 $1,100

5 P $400 $800

6

7 Capacity S1 S2

8 M1 30 30

9 M2 50 50

10 P 70 70

11

12 Units Total Shipped

13 Shipped S1 S2 Out of M1,M2 Output

14 M1 30 10 40 = 40

15 M2 10 50 60 = 60

16 Total Into S1,S2 40 60

17 = = Total Shipped

18 Total Out of S1,S2 40 60 Into P Needed

19 P 40 60 100 = 100

20

21 Total Cost

22 Units Shipped ² Capacity $212,000

xM1S2 = number of units shipped from Mine 1 to Storage 2

xM2S1 = number of units shipped from Mine 2 to Storage 1

xM2S2 = number of units shipped from Mine 2 to Storage 2

xS1P = number of units shipped from Storage 1 to the Plant

xS2P = number of units shipped from Storage 2 to the Plant

Minimize Cost = $2,000xM1S1 + $1,700xM1S2 + $1,600xM2S1 + $1,100xM2S2

+$400xS1P + $800xS2P

subject to xM1S1 + xM1S2 = 40

xM2S1 + xM2S2 = 60

xM1S1 + xM2S1 = xS1P

xM1S2 + xM2S2 = xS2P

xS1P + xS2P = 100

xM1S1 ≤ 30, xM1S2 ≤ 30, xM2S1 ≤ 50, xM2S2 ≤ 50, xS1P ≤ 70, xS2P ≤ 70

and xM1S1 ≥ 0, xM1S2 ≥ 0, xM2S1 ≥ 0, xM2S2 ≥ 0, xS1P ≥ 0, xS2P ≥ 0.

3.17 a) A1 + B1 + R1 = $60,000

A2 + B2 + C2 + R2 = R1

A3 + B3 + R3 = R2 + 1.40A1

A4 + R4 = R3 + 1.40A2 + 1.70B1

A5 + D5 + R5 = R4 + 1.40A3 + 1.70B2

3-13

b) Let At = amount invested in investment A at the beginning of year t.

Bt = amount invested in investment B at the beginning of year t.

Ct = amount invested in investment C at the beginning of year t.

Dt = amount invested in investment D at the beginning of year t.

Rt = amount not invested at the beginninf of year t.

Maximize Return = 1.40A4 + 1.70B3 + 1.90C2 + 1.30D5 + R5

subject to A1 + B1 + R1 = $60,000

A2 + B2 + C2 – R1 + R2 = 0

–1.40A1 + A3 + B3 – R2 + R3 = 0

–1.40A2 + A4 – 1.70B1 – R3 + R4 = 0

–1.40A3 – 1.70B2 + D5 – R4 + R5 = 0

and At ≥ 0, Bt ≥ 0, Ct ≥ 0, Dt ≥ 0, Rt ≥ 0.

c)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R

1 Investment A A A A B B B C D R R R R R Total Available

2 Year 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 2 5 1 2 3 4 5 Invested to Invest

3 Year 1 1 1 1 $60,000 = $60,000

4 Year 2 1 1 1 -1 1 $0 = $0

5 Year 3 -1.4 1 1 -1 1 $0 = $0

6 Year 4 -1.4 1 -1.7 -1 1 $0 = $0

7 Year 5 -1.4 -1.7 1 -1 1 $0 = $0

8

9 Total Return

10 Return in Year 6 1.4 1.7 1.9 1.3 1 $152,880

11

12 Dollars Invested $60,000 $0 $84,000 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $117,600 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0

(60%)x1 + (25%)x2 + (45%)x3 + (20%)x4 + (50%)x5 = 40%

(10%)x1 + (15%)x2 + (45%)x3 + (50%)x4 + (40%)x5 = 35%

(30%)x1 + (60%)x2 + (10%)x3 + (30%)x4 + (10%)x5 = 25%

x1 + x2 + x3 + x4+ x5 = 100%

b)

A B C D E F G H I

1 Alloy 1 Alloy 2 Alloy 3 Alloy 4 Alloy 5

2 Cost ($/lb.) $22 $20 $25 $24 $27

3 New Alloy Desired

4 Alloy Composition Composition Composition

5 Tin 60% 25% 45% 20% 50% 40% = 40%

6 Zinc 10% 15% 45% 50% 40% 35% = 35%

7 Lead 30% 60% 10% 30% 10% 25% = 25%

8

9 Alloy 1 Alloy 2 Alloy 3 Alloy 4 Alloy 5 Total Blend

10 New Alloy Blend 4.3% 28.3% 67.4% 0.0% 0.0% 100% = 100%

11

12 Total Cost

13 $23.46

3-14

c) Let xi = percentage of alloy i in the new alloy (i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5).

Minimize Cost = $22x1 + $20x2 + $25x3 + $24x4 + $27x5

subject to (60%)x1 + (25%)x2 + (45%)x3 + (20%)x4 + (50%)x5 = 40%

(10%)x1 + (15%)x2 + (45%)x3 + (50%)x4 + (40%)x5 = 35%

(30%)x1+ (60%)x2 + (10%)x3 + (30%)x4 + (10%)x5 = 25%

and x1 ≥ 0, x2 ≥ 0, x3 ≥ 0, x4 ≥ 0, x5 ≥ 0.

3.19 a)

A B C D E F G H I J K

1 Large Medium Small

2 Unit Profit $420 $360 $300

3

4 Space Required 20 15 12

5 (sq.ft. per unit)

6 Total Space Space

7 Production Large Medium Small Produced Capacity Required Available

8 Plant 1 516.67 177.78 0 694.4 <= 750 13,000 <= 13,000

9 Plant 2 0 666.67 166.67 833.3 <= 900 12,000 <= 12,000

10 Plant 3 0 0 416.67 416.7 <= 450 5,000 <= 5,000

11 Total Produced 516.67 844.44 583.33

12 <= <= <= Total Profit

13 Sales Forecast 900 1200 750 $696,000

14

15 Percentage of Plant 1 Capacity 93% = 93% Percentage of Plant 2 Capacity

16 Percentage of Plant 1 Capacity 93% = 93% Percentage of Plant 3 Capacity

Maximize Profit = $420(x1L + x2L + x3L) + $360(x1M + x2M + x3M) + $300(x1S + x2S + x3S)

subject to x1L + x1M + x1S ≤ 750

x2L + x2M + x2S ≤ 900

x3L + x3M + x3S ≤ 450

20x1L + 15x1M + 12x1S ≤ 13,000 square feet

20x2L + 15x2M + 12x2S ≤ 12,000 square feet

20x3L + 15x3M + 12x3S ≤ 5,000 square feet

x1L + x2L + x3L ≤ 900

x1M + x2M + x3M ≤ 1,200

x1S + x2S + x3S ≤ 750

(x1L + x1M + x1S) / 750 = (x2L + x2M + x2S) / 900

(x1L + x1M + x1S) / 750 = (x3L + x3M + x3S) / 450

and x1L ≥ 0, x1M ≥ 0, x1S ≥ 0, x2L ≥ 0, x2M ≥ 0, x2S ≥ 0, x3L ≥ 0, x3M ≥ 0, x3S ≥ 0.

3-15

3.21 a)

A B C D E F G

1 Men's Women's Children's

2 Gross Profit $8 $10 $6

3 (per glove)

4 Full Time Part Time

5 Labor Cost (per hour) $13 $10

6 Hours worked per week 40 20

7 Labor Cost (per week) $520 $200

8

9 Resource Usage Resource Resource

10 per Unit of Activity Used Available

11 Material (sq. ft.) 2 1.5 1 5000 <= 5000

12 Labor (minutes) 30 45 40 75000 <= 75,000

13

14 Men's Women's Children's

15 Production (per week) 2500 0 0

16 Gross Profit $20,000

17 Full Time Part Time Labor Cost $15,500

18 Employees 25 12.5 Net Profit $4,500

19 >=

20 Minimum Full Time 20

21 2

22 Full Time 25 >= 25 Times Part-Time

W = number of women’s gloves to produce per week,

C = number of children’s gloves to produce per week,

F = number of full-time workers to employ,

PT = number of part-time workers to employ.

Maximize Profit = $8M + $10W + $6C – $13(40)F – $10(20)PT

subject to 2M + 1.5W + C ≤ 5,000 square feet

30M + 45W + 40C ≤ 40(60)F + 20(60)PT hours

F ≥ 20

F ≥ 2PT

and M ≥ 0, W ≥ 0, C ≥ 0, F ≥ 0, PT ≥ 0.

3.22

A B C D E F G H I J

1 Hours Av ailable

2 Wage Rate Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

3 K.C. $10.00 6 0 6 0 6

4 D.H. $10.10 0 6 0 6 0

5 H.B. $9.90 4 8 4 0 4

6 S.C. $9.80 5 5 5 0 5

7 K.S. $10.80 3 0 3 8 0

8 N.K. $11.30 0 0 0 6 2

9

10 Hours

11 Hours Worked Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Worked Output

12 K.C. 4 0 2 0 3 9 >= 8

13 D.H. 0 2 0 6 0 8 >= 8

14 H.B. 4 7 4 0 4 19 >= 8

15 S.C. 5 5 5 0 5 20 >= 8

16 K.S. 1 0 3 3 0 7 >= 7

17 N.K. 0 0 0 5 2 7 >= 7

18 Hours Worked 14 14 14 14 14

19 = = = = = Total Cost

20 Hours Needed 14 14 14 14 14 $710

21

22 Hours Worked <= Hours Available

3-16

3.23 a) Resource Constraints:

Calories must be no more than 420.

No more than 20% of total calories from fat.

Benefit Constraints:

Calories must be at least 380

There must be at least 50 mg of vitamin content.

There must be at least 2 times as much strawberry flavoring as sweetener.

Fixed-Requirement Constraints:

There must be 15 mg of thickeners.

b)

A B C D E F G H I J K

1 Strawberry Cream Vitamin Sweetener Thickener

2 Unit Cost $0.10 $0.08 $0.25 $0.15 $0.06

3 (per tbsp)

4 Level

5 Nutritional Contents (per tbsp) Achieved Minimum Maximum

6 Total Calories 50 100 0 120 80 380 >= 380 <= 420

7 Vitamin Content (mg) 20 0 50 0 2 64.167 >= 50

8 Thickeners (mg) 3 8 1 2 25 15 = 15

9 Calories from Fat 1 75 0 0 30 23.521 <= 76

10 20%

11 Strawberry Cream Vitamin Sweetener Thickener Total Cost of Total Calories

12 Contents (tbsp) 3.208 0.271 0 1.604 0 $0.58

13 >=

14 3.208 2 times Sweetener

CR = Tablespoons of cream,

V = Tablespoons of vitamin supplement,

A = Tablespoons of artificial sweetener,

T = Tablespoons of thickening agent,

Minimize C = $0.10S + $0.08CR + $0.25V + $0.15A + $0.06T

subject to 50S + 100CR + 120A + 80T ≥ 380 calories

50S + 100CR + 120A + 80T ≤ 420 calories

S + 75CR + 30T ≤ 0.2(50S + 100C + 120A + 80T)

20S + 50V + 2T ≥ 50 mg Vitamins

S ≥ 2A

3S + 8CR + V + 2A + 25T = 15 mg Thickeners

and S ≥ 0, CR ≥ 0, V ≥ 0, A ≥ 0, T ≥ 0.

3-17

3.24 a) Resource Constraints:

Calories must be no more than 600.

No more than 30% of total calories from fat.

Benefit Constraints:

Calories must be at least 400

There must be at least 60 mg of vitamin C.

There must be at least 12 g of protein.

There must be at least 2 times as much peanut butter as jelly.

There must be at least 1 cup of liquid

Fixed-Requirement Constraints:

There must be 2 slices of bread.

b)

A B C D E F G H I J K L

1 Peanut Strawberry Graham

2 Bread Butter Jelly Cracker Milk Juice

3 (slice) (tbsp.) (tbsp.) (tbsp.) (cup) (cup)

4 Unit Cost $0.05 $0.04 $0.07 $0.08 $0.15 $0.35

5 Level

6 Nutritional Contents Achieved Minimum Maximum

7 Total Calories 70 100 50 60 150 100 400 >= 400 <= 600

8 Vitamin C (mg) 0 0 3 0 2 120 60 >= 60

9 Protein (g) 3 4 0 1 8 1 13.949 >= 12

10 Calories from Fat 10 75 0 20 70 0 120 <= 120

11 30%

12 Peanut Strawberry Graham of Total Calories

13 Bread Butter Jelly Cracker Milk Juice

14 (slice) (tbsp.) (tbsp.) (tbsp.) (cup) (cup) Total Cost

15 Contents (tbsp) 2 0.575 0.287 1.039 0.516 0.484 $0.47

16 =

17 2

18

19 Peanut Butter 0.575 >= 0.575 2 Times Strawberry Jelly

20 Total Liquid 1 >= 1

P= Tablespoons of peanut butter,

S = Tablespoons of strawberry jelly,

G = graham crackers,

M = cups of milk,

J = cups of juice.

Minimize C = $0.05B + $0.04P + $0.07S + $0.08G + $0.15M + $0.35J

subject to 70B + 100P + 50S + 60G + 150M + 100J ≥ 400 calories

70B + 100P + 50S + 60G + 150M + 100J ≤ 600 calories

10B + 75P + 20G + 70M

≤ 0.3(70B + 100P + 50S + 60G + 150M + 100J)

3S + 2M + 120J ≥ 60mg Vitamin C

3B + 4P + G + 8M + J ≥ 12mg Protein

B = 2 slices

P ≥ 2S

M + J ≥ 1 cup

and B ≥ 0, P ≥ 0, S ≥ 0, G ≥ 0, M ≥ 0, J ≥ 0.

3-18

6.3 a)

Unit Cost ($)

Destination (Retail Outlet)

1 2 3 4 Supply

1 500 600 400 200 10

Source 2 200 900 100 300 20

(Plant) 3 300 400 200 100 20

4 200 100 300 200 10

Demand 20 10 10 20

b)

A B C D E F G H I

1 Unit Cost Retail Outlet

2 1 2 3 4

3 1 $500 $600 $400 $200

4 Plant 2 $200 $900 $100 $300

5 3 $300 $400 $200 $100

6 4 $200 $100 $300 $200

7

8

9 Shipments Retail Outlet

10 1 2 3 4 Total Shipped Supply

11 1 0 0 0 10 10 = 10

12 Plant 2 20 0 0 0 20 = 20

13 3 0 0 10 10 20 = 20

14 4 0 10 0 0 10 = 10

15 Total Received 20 10 10 20

16 = = = = Total Cost

17 Demand 20 10 10 20 $10,000

3.25

A B C D E F G H I

1 Unit Cost Retail Outlet

2 1 2 3 4

3 1 $500 $600 $400 $200

4 Plant 2 $200 $900 $100 $300

5 3 $300 $400 $200 $100

6 4 $200 $100 $300 $200

7

8

9 Shipments Retail Outlet

10 1 2 3 4 Total Shipped Supply

11 1 0 0 0 10 10 = 10

12 Plant 2 20 0 0 0 20 = 20

13 3 0 0 10 10 20 = 20

14 4 0 10 0 0 10 = 10

15 Total Received 20 10 10 20

16 = = = = Total Cost

17 Demand 20 10 10 20 $10,000

3-19

3.26

A B C D E F G H I

1 Distance (miles) Distribution Center

2 1 2 3 4

3 1 800 1,300 400 700

4 Plant 2 1,100 1,400 600 1,000

5 3 600 1,200 800 900

6

7 Fixed Cost $100

8 Cost per Mile $0.50

9

10

11 Unit Cost Distribution Center

12 1 2 3 4

13 1 $500 $750 $300 $450

14 Plant 2 $650 $800 $400 $600

15 3 $400 $700 $500 $550

16

17

18 Shipments Distribution Center

19 1 2 3 4 Total Shipped Supply

20 1 0 0 2 10 12 = 12

21 Plant 2 0 9 8 0 17 = 17

22 3 10 1 0 0 11 = 11

23 Total Received 10 10 10 10

24 = = = = Total Cost

25 Demand 10 10 10 10 $20,200

3.27

A B C D E F G H I

1 Unit Profit Customer

2 1 2 3 4

3 1 $800 $700 $500 $200

4 Plant 2 $500 $200 $100 $300

5 3 $600 $400 $300 $500

6

7

8 Shipments Customer

9 1 2 3 4 Total Shipped Supply

10 1 0 60 0 0 60 = 60

11 Plant 2 40 0 0 40 80 = 80

12 3 0 0 20 20 40 = 40

13 Total Received 40 60 20 60

14 = = >= Total Cost

15 Commitment 40 60 20 $90,000

3-20

3.28

A B C D E F G H

1 Unit Cost Distribution Center

2 1 2 3

3 Plant A $800 $700 $400

4 B $600 $800 $500

5

6

7 Shipments Distribution Center

8 1 2 3 Total Shipped Supply

9 Plant A 0 20 20 40 <= 50

10 B 20 0 0 20 <= 50

11 Total Received 20 20 20

12 = = = Total Cost

13 Demand 20 20 20 $34,000

3.29

A B C D E F G H

1 Unit Cost Distribution Center

2 1 2 3

3 Plant A $800 $700 $400

4 B $600 $800 $500

5

6

7 Shipments Distribution Center

8 1 2 3 Total Shipped Supply

9 Plant A 0 10 30 40 <= 50

10 B 20 0 0 20 <= 50

11

12 10 10 10

13 <= <= <= Total

14 Total Received 20 10 30 60 = 60

15 <= <= <=

16 Demand 30 30 30 Total Cost

17 $31,000

3-21

3.30

A B C D E F G H

1 Unit Cost Job

2 1 2 3

3 A $5 $7 $4

4 Person B $3 $6 $5

5 C $2 $3 $4

6

7

8 Assignments Job Total

9 1 2 3 Assignments Supply

10 A 0 0 1 1 = 1

11 Person B 1 0 0 1 = 1

12 C 0 1 0 1 = 1

13 Total Assigned 1 1 1

14 = = = Total Cost

15 Demand 1 1 1 $10

3.31 a) This problem fits as an assignment problem with ships as assignees and ports as

assignments.

b)

A B C D E F G H I

1 Unit Cost Port

2 1 2 3 4

3 1 $500 $400 $600 $700

4 Ship 2 $600 $600 $700 $500

5 3 $700 $500 $700 $600

6 4 $500 $400 $600 $600

7

8

9 Assignments Port Total

10 1 2 3 4 Assignments Supply

11 1 0 1 0 0 1 = 1

12 Ship 2 0 0 0 1 1 = 1

13 3 0 0 1 0 1 = 1

14 4 1 0 0 0 1 = 1

15 Total Assigned 1 1 1 1

16 = = = = Total Cost

17 Demand 1 1 1 1 $2,100

3-22

3.32

A B C D E F G H

1 Unit Cost Distribution Center

2 1 2 3

3 Plant A $800 $700 $400

4 B $600 $800 $500

5

6 Demand 10 20 30

7

8 Cost of Assignment Distribution Center

9 1 2 3

10 Plant A $8,000 $14,000 $12,000

11 B $6,000 $16,000 $15,000

12

13 Shipments Distribution Center

14 1 2 3 Total Assignments Supply

15 Plant A 0 1 1 2 <= 2

16 B 1 0 0 1 <= 2

17 Total Assigned 1 1 1

18 = = = Total Cost

19 Demand 1 1 1 $32,000

S = the number of stabilizer bars to produce

Maximize Profit = $130T + $150S

subject to 3.2T + 2.4S ≤ 16 hours

2T + 3S ≤ 15 hours

and T ≥ 0, S ≥ 0

T, S are integers.

b)

A B C D E F

1 Tow Bars Stabilizer Bars

2 Unit Profit $130 $150

3 Hours Hours

4 Hours Used Per Unit Produced Used Available

5 Machine 1 3.2 2.4 12 <= 16

6 Machine 2 2 3 15 <= 15

7

8 Tow Bars Stabilizer Bars Total Profit

9 Units Produced 0 5 $750

3-23

3.34 a)

A B C D E F

1 Model A Model B

2 (high speed) (lower speed)

3 Unit Cost $6,000 $4,000

4

5 Total Capacity

6 Copies per Day Capacity Needed

7 Capacity 20,000 10,000 80,000 >= 75,000

8

9 Model A Model B

10 (high speed) (lower speed) Total Total Cost

11 Purchase 2 4 6 $28,000

12 >= >=

13 1 Min Needed 6

B = the number of Model B (lower-speed) copiers to buy

Minimize Cost = $6,000A + $4,000B

subject to A + B ≥ 6 copiers

A ≥ 1 copier

20,000A + 10,000B ≥ 75,000 copies/day

and A ≥ 0, B ≥ 0

A, B are integers.

3.35 a)

A B C D E F G

1 Long-Range Medium-Range Short-Range

2 Jets Jets Jets

3 Annual Profit ($million) 4.2 3 2.3

4 Resource Resource

5 Resource Used Per Unit Produced Used Available

6 Budget 67 50 35 1498 <= 1500

7 Maintenance Capacity 1.667 1.333 1 39.333 <= 40

8 Pilot Crews 1 1 1 30 <= 30

9

10 Long-Range Medium-Range Short-Range Total Annual

11 Jets Jets Jets Profit ($million)

12 Purchase 14 0 16 95.6

M = the number of medium-range jets to purchase

S = the number of short-range jets to purchase

Maximize Annual Profit ($millions) = 4.2L + 3M + 2.3S

subject to 67L + 50M + 35S ≤ 1,500 ($million)

(5/3)L + (4/3)M + S ≤ 40 (maintenance capacity)

L + M + S ≤ 30 (pilot crews)

and L ≥ 0, M ≥ 0, S ≥ 0

3-24

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