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Oracle General Ledger

Technical Foundation

Presented At:
Atlanta Oracle Application User Group Meeting
August 20, 1999

Presented by:
Brad Eldredge

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Agenda:
u Introduction [5 min]
l Speaker & Audience
l Establish Baseline Understanding & Set Expectations
l Objectives, Assumptions, & Scope

u Technical Foundation [10 min]


l Application “Technical Foundation” Roles & Responsibilities
l Database Objects, Tools, & Resources

u GL Tables & Processes [20 min]


l Foundation (FND)
l General Ledger Interface
l General Ledger Setup
l General Ledger Data

u Conclusion [5 min]
l Next Steps
l Questions & Answers
l Attend Breakout Session For More Details (Informal 1 hour)
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Introductions & Experience:
u Brad Eldredge
l Manager, Oracle|solutions
l AnswerThink Consulting Group
l 6 years of Oracle applications experience - functional & technical / user & consultant
l GL Enhancements Chairman Since Spring 1995
l GL SIG Coordinator Since Fall 1998

u Audience
l Application Release? User Interface (Character, Smart Client, Internet/NCA)?
l Application Perspective
èEnd User / Business Analyst
èTechnical (e.g. Developer, DBA, IT, System Support)
èOther
l Roles
èCurrent - Technical Ability (Application, Tools, & Process)
èFuture - Desire to become more Technical?
l Role Perspective
èConsultant / Implementation
èOrganizational Setup / Support / Reporting / Developer

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Objectives, Assumptions, & Scope:
u Presentation Objectives
l Provide overview of technical roles, responsibilities, & tools - relating to Oracle GL
(applies generically to all applications)
l Provide understanding of major GL & FND application tables as they relate to
application processes
l Provide information about where to obtain more information & how to become “more
technical”
u Presentation Assumptions
l Already Familiar w/ Rel 11.0 & General Ledger application
l Commercial Installation
u Presentation - Out Of Scope Topics
l Average Balancing
l Encumbrance & Budgetary Control (non-profit/govt)
l How to use technical tools (e.g. SQL)
l Database schema design
u Presentation Expectations
l Q&A - Please hold until end or ask during breakout session
l Aggressive agenda - We will move quickly through the materials & will only scratch
the surface

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Apps Tech Foundation Perspectives:
u Application Super Users Perspective
l Ad-hoc Reporting (e.g. Discoverer)
l OLAP tools (e.g. Oracle Financial Analyzer)
l Production Support (e.g. Fix problems, delete unwanted data, etc.)

u Implementation Perspective
l Programmatically Loading Apps Setups (e.g. COA values)
l Interfaces & Extracts
l Historical Data Conversion
l Application Customizations

u Application Development & Support Perspective


l Custom Reports
l Application Customizations & Enhancements
l Oracle Alert
l Oracle Discoverer - End User Layer / Business Areas
l Data Warehouse / Data Mart

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Database Objects:
l Database Object - something created and stored in a database. Tables, views,
synonyms, indexes, sequences, clusters, and columns are all types of database
objects.

l Table - the basic storage structure in a relational database, which consists of one or
more units of information (rows) each containing the same kinds of values
(columns).

l View - a database object that is a logical representation of a table, which is derived


from a table but has no storage of its own and often may be used in the same
manner as a table.

l Synonym - a name assigned to a table or view that may thereafter be used to refer
to it.

l Index - an Oracle feature used primarily to speed execution and impose uniqueness
upon certain data. Indexes provide a faster access method to a table’s data instead
of being required to perform a full table scan. Works similar to a card catalog.

l Sequence - a database object used to generate unique integers for use as primary
keys.

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Technical Tools Introduction:

u Data Dictionary (yellow pages for the database)


l “DBA_” Tables
l Views
l Joins / Primary - Foreign key relationships
l Table indexes & sequences
l Etc.

u Data Definition Language (DDL)


l Creating / Changing database objects . . .
l Create Table, Alter Table, Drop Table
l Granting Database access & object privileges

u Data Manipulation Language (DML)


l Changing data w/i tables . . .
l Select, Insert, Update, Delete

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Technical Tools:
u SQL (Structured Query Language) - used to perform DDL &
DML commands (SQL*Plus)

u SQL*Loader - used to load data from flat files into Oracle


database tables

u PL/SQL - used to perform programming logic (e.g. “If . . .


Then . . . Else”)

u Developer 2000 - used to develop custom forms, reports,


etc.

u Designer 2000 - case tool used to design database


schemas & generate custom tables

u Discoverer 2000 - Adhoc query & reporting tool used to


access data in database tables

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Technical Tools Cont’d:

u Operating System:
l Operating system commands & navigation(e.g. Unix)
l Operating system file structure
l Text Editor (e.g. Unix vi)

u Connectivity Tools:
l FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
l Telnet

u Understanding of server & database connectivity:


l IP Address / Host Name
l TNSNAMES.ORA file (c:\orawin\network\admin\ directory)
l IDs & Passwords (e.g. Operating System & Database)

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Database vs. Application Security:
u Database Level Security:
l Database Users (e.g. GL, AP, AR, APPLSYS, etc.) - own all database objects & have
been granted privileges to access

l Database IDs required for ALL tools which directly access Oracle database objects
(e.g. SQL*Plus, Discoverer, Developer / Designer 2000, etc.)

u Application Level Security:


l System Administration application - controls application access (via forms, reports,
programs, etc.) to database objects through “Data Groups”, which are assigned to
User Responsibilities

l End users sheltered from the database level of security when accessing via Oracle
applications

l “APPS” schema contains privileges to access ALL application objects owned by


Oracle-defined database users (e.g. GL, AP, AR, APPLSYS, etc.)

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Linking Applications To Back-End:
u From w/i Oracle applications, use the following menu command... “Help |
About This Record”, which indicates the base table or view associated with
the active form

u Examine Utility . . . Accessed via Oracle application menu . . . “Help |


Tools | Examine”. This utility can be secured via a profile option & requires
knowledge of the “Apps” database password. Permits viewing of context-
sensitive information associated w/ form (ties front end application to back
end database)

u Oracle Application Technical Reference Manuals (TRMs) - Learn about


primary/foreign key relationships & tables impacted by various modules

u Oracle Application User Guides; Application Object Library & System


Administration

u SQL Trace Utility . . . Accessed via Oracle application menu . . . “Help |


Tools | Trace” - creates a log file of SQL calls
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Technical Education Resources:

u Books such as . . . “ORACLE The Complete Reference” by George


Koch & Kevin Loney

u Oracle Education . . . Technical / Application Developer Tracks .


. . “Introduction to Oracle” (5-day course on SQL*Plus & PL/SQL)

u Computer Based Training (CBT) -


l SQL
l PL/SQL
l SQL*Loader
l UNIX

u OAUG - conferences & white papers

u Exploring - Using the tools / utilities & methods identified in


“Linking Applications To Back End”

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Oracle Table Types:
In Scope For Today:
u GL Application Foundation (FND) Tables
l Accounting Flexfield - “FND_ID_FLEX_STRUCTURES” & “FND_ID_FLEX_SEGMENTS”
l Value Sets - “FND_FLEX_VALUE_SETS”
l Segment Values - “FND_FLEX_VALUES” & “FND_FLEX_VALUES_TL”
u GL Application - Setup Tables
l Set of Books - “GL_SETS_OF_BOOKS”
l Code Combinations - “GL_CODE_COMBINATIONS”
l Calendar - “GL_PERIODS”, “GL_PERIOD_STATUSES”
l Budget Definitions - “GL_BUDGETS”, “GL_BUDGET_ENTITIES”, “GL_BUDGET_VERSIONS”
u GL Application - Open Interface Tables
l Actuals Interface - “GL_INTERFACE”
l Budget Interface - “GL_BUDGET_INTERFACE”
l Daily Foreign Currency Rates - “GL_DAILY_RATES_INTERFACE”
u GL Application - Transaction & Balance Data Tables
l Journal Entries (Transactions) - “GL_JE_BATCHES”, “GL_JE_HEADERS”, “GL_JE_LINES”
l Balances - “GL_BALANCES”

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Oracle Table Types Cont’d:
Out Of Scope For Today:
u GL Application Definition Tables
l Cross Validation Rules - “FND_FLEX_VALIDATION_RULES” &
“FND_FLEX_VALIDATION_RULE_LINES”
l Mass Allocations - “GL_ALLOC_BATCHES”, “GL_ALLOC_FORMULAS”,
“GL_ALLOC_FORMULA_LINES”

u Application Lookup Tables


l GL Lookup Values (e.g. A, B, E) - “GL_LOOKUPS”
l FND Lookup Values - “FND_LOOKUPS”

u GL Application Processing & Temporary Tables


l Control - “GL_INTERFACE_CONTORL”
l Temporary - “GL_POSTING_INTERIM”, “GL_TEMPORARY_COMBINATIONS”

u GL Application Archive, Log, & History Tables


l History - “GL_ALLOC_HISTORY”, “GL_ARCHIVE_HISTORY”, “GL_INTERFACE_HISTORY”
l Archive & Purge - “GL_ARCHIVE_BATCHES”
l Log - “GL_IMPORT_REFERENCES”

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GL Objects Trivia:

u Oracle General Ledger - Release 11.0 contains . . .


l 130 tables, excluding temporary processing tables
l 70 forms
l 140 concurrent programs / reports
l Note: These counts do NOT reflect tables and forms, which are part of and
accessible to the GL application, but are NOT owned by the GL user (e.g. FND
objects owned by APPLSYS are NOT included).

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Applsys / Foundation Tables:

u Database tables beginning with “FND_”, often referred to as


“Foundation” are common across many applications (e.g. Key &
Descriptive Flexfields)

u Owner for “FND_” Database Objects . . . “APPLSYS”

u In order to be recognized by Oracle Applications, all tables, forms,


concurrent programs / executables, etc. must be “registered”;
Registration occurs via the “Application Object Library” application
using the responsibilities called “Application Developer” and
“System Administrator”

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GL Technical Foundation - Tables :

Application Setup Tables


“FND_”

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Tables - Application Setup (FND) :
u FND_APPLICATION (_TL)
l APPLICATION_ID = 101 (Identifies Oracle General Ledger)

u FND_ID_FLEX_STRUCTURES (_TL) - Identifies information


about each “Key Flexfield” w/i Oracle Applications
l Accounting Key Flexfield; ID_FLEX_CODE = ‘GL#’
l Accounting Key Flexfield; ID_FLEX_NAME = 101

u FND_ID_FLEX_SEGMENTS (_TL) - Identifies information about


Accounting Flexfiled Segments
l Segment Name
l Segment Order
l Flex Value Set ID - Ties segments to value sets
l Application Column Name (e.g. SEGMENT1 w/i GL_CODE_COMBINATIONS)

u FND_CURRENCIES (_TL)
l Currency Code - Ties to Set of Books, GL Data, & Interface Tables

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Tables - Application Setup (FND) Cont’d:
u FND_FLEX_VALUE_SETS
l Flex Value Set ID (Primary Key which uniquely identifies records)
l Validation Type (e.g. Independent, Dependent, Table, None, etc.)
l Format Type (e.g. Char, Numeric, Date, etc.)
l Maximum Size
l Alphanumeric, Alpha Only, Numeric Only; Uppercase Alpha Flag

u FND_FLEX_VALUES (_TL)
l Segment Value
l Description
l Flex Value Set ID - Associates Segment Value w/ Value Set
l Parent Flag
l Enabled Flag
l 50 Descriptive Flexfields available

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Table - FND_FLEX_VALUES :
Name Null? Type
------------------------------- -------- ---------------
FLEX_VALUE_SET_ID NOT NULL NUMBER(10)
FLEX_VALUE_ID NOT NULL NUMBER(15)
FLEX_VALUE NOT NULL VARCHAR2(150)
ENABLED_FLAG NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1)
SUMMARY_FLAG NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1)
START_DATE_ACTIVE DATE
END_DATE_ACTIVE DATE
PARENT_FLEX_VALUE_LOW VARCHAR2(60)
PARENT_FLEX_VALUE_HIGH VARCHAR2(60)
STRUCTURED_HIERARCHY_LEVEL NUMBER(15)
HIERARCHY_LEVEL VARCHAR2(30)
COMPILED_VALUE_ATTRIBUTES VARCHAR2(2000)
VALUE_CATEGORY VARCHAR2(30)
ATTRIBUTE1 - ATTRIBUTE50 VARCHAR2(240)

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Table - FND_FLEX_VALUES Cont’d:
l Notes:
èTable contains seed data
èAlways take an export of base tables before modifying w/ SQL*Plus

l Primary Key = FLEX_VALUE_ID; generated from table sequence, which should be


called by SQL*Plus script

l Foreign Key = FND_FLEX_VALUE_SETS.FLEX_VALUE_SET_ID

l COMPILED_VALUE_ATTRIBUTES (Segment Qualifiers) - must utilize syntax to


reference data . . . ‘Y’||chr(10)||‘Y’||Chr(10)||‘A’

l Account Types inherited by Account Code Combinations only @ CCID creation time;
Gotcha > Retained Earnings Year-end Closeout

l Language / Descriptions “TL_” Tables

l Ensure SQL*Plus script verifies that data in staging table meets the respective Value
Set constraints prior to populating the Oracle base table.

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Loading FND_FLEX_VALUES:
u Implementation Requirement: Setup Chart of Accounts

u Problem: No Interface table to load COA values!

u Solution: Extract values from legacy system, apply formatting / data


cleansing, automate the load directly into Oracle base tables

u Process: Accounting Flexfield Structure (COA)


l Create Value Set (via forms) > FND_FLEX_VALUE_SETS

l Create Key Segments (via forms) > FND_ID_FLEX_SEGMENTS &


FND_ID_FLEX_STRUCTURE

l Load & Verify Key Segment Values > FND_FLEX_VALUES & FND_FLEX_VALUES_TL
èCreate & populate Excel Template (based on Value Set definitions)

èSave As .txt, .csv, or .prn file type

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Loading FND_FLEX_VALUES Cont’d:
èCreate SQL*Loader control file (.ctl)

èCreate custom database tables for data staging

èFTP files (text file & control file) to server

èExecute SQL*Loader referencing text & control files

èVerify successful loads by reviewing .log & .bad files; Review data loaded into
custom staging table(s)

èPerform additional staging & data manipulation (if necessary)

èSQL*Plus: Create script & run to load data from staging into base tables

èVerify successful load & run compile flexfields concurrent request via Oracle
application form (e.g. Key Segment Values)

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GL Technical Foundation - Tables :

Accounting Cycle & GL Setup Tables


“GL_”

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Table - GL_SETS_OF_BOOKS :
Name Null? Type
------------------------------- -------- --------------
SET_OF_BOOKS_ID NOT NULL NUMBER(15)
NAME NOT NULL VARCHAR2(30)
SHORT_NAME NOT NULL VARCHAR2(20)
CHART_OF_ACCOUNTS_ID NOT NULL NUMBER(15)
CURRENCY_CODE NOT NULL VARCHAR2(15)
PERIOD_SET_NAME NOT NULL VARCHAR2(15)
SUSPENSE_ALLOWED_FLAG NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1)
ALLOW_INTERCOMPANY_POST_FLAG NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1)
ENABLE_JE_APPROVAL_FLAG NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1)
MRC_SOB_TYPE_CODE NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1)
FUTURE_ENTERABLE_PERIODS_LIMIT NUMBER(15)
LATEST_OPENED_PERIOD_NAME VARCHAR2(15)
RET_EARN_CODE_COMBINATION_ID NUMBER(15)
CUM_TRANS_CODE_COMBINATION_ID NUMBER(15)
DESCRIPTION VARCHAR2(240)
ATTRIBUTE1 - 15 VARCHAR2(150)

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Table - GL_CODE_COMBINATIONS :
Name Null? Type
------------------------------- -------- ------------
CODE_COMBINATION_ID NOT NULL NUMBER(15)
CHART_OF_ACCOUNTS_ID NOT NULL NUMBER(15)
DETAIL_POSTING_ALLOWED_FLAG NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1)
DETAIL_BUDGETING_ALLOWED_FLAG NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1)
ACCOUNT_TYPE NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1)
ENABLED_FLAG NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1)
SUMMARY_FLAG NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1)
SEGMENT1 - 30 VARCHAR2(25)
DESCRIPTION VARCHAR2(240)
TEMPLATE_ID NUMBER(15)
ATTRIBUTE1 - 10 VARCHAR2(150)

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Table - GL_PERIODS :
Name Null? Type
------------------------------- -------- ------------
PERIOD_SET_NAME NOT NULL VARCHAR2(15)
PERIOD_NAME NOT NULL VARCHAR2(15)
START_DATE NOT NULL DATE
END_DATE NOT NULL DATE
YEAR_START_DATE DATE
QUARTER_START_DATE DATE
PERIOD_TYPE NOT NULL VARCHAR2(15)
PERIOD_YEAR NOT NULL NUMBER(15)
PERIOD_NUM NOT NULL NUMBER(15)
QUARTER_NUM NOT NULL NUMBER(15)
ENTERED_PERIOD_NAME NOT NULL VARCHAR2(15)
ADJUSTMENT_PERIOD_FLAG NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1)

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Table - GL_PERIOD_STATUSES :
Name Null? Type
------------------------------- -------- ------------
APPLICATION_ID NOT NULL NUMBER(15)
SET_OF_BOOKS_ID NOT NULL NUMBER(15)
PERIOD_NAME NOT NULL VARCHAR2(15)
CLOSING_STATUS NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1)

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Tables - Budget Setup:
u GL_BUDGETS
l Stores budget definitions from “Define Budget” form
l Budget Name, Set of Books ID, Valid Period Range (e.g. First & Last periods)

u GL_BUDGET_VERSIONS
l Stores information about budget versions - currently Oracle only supports
one budget version per budget definition

u GL_BUDGET_ENTITIES
l Stores information about budget organizations. Each row includes the
organization name and the set of books ID. This is the base table for the
“Define Budget Organization” form.

u GL_BUDGET_ASSIGNMENT_RANGES
l Stores the account ranges assigned to each budget organization

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GL Technical Foundation - Tables :

GL Open Interface Tables


“GL_”

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Application Open Interface Tables (GL) :
GL_INTERFACE
Used to import journal entry transactions (budget, actual, encumbrance, and statistical)
from external sources. Also used to send transactions between sets of books (e.g.
Consolidation, MRC, CENTRA, etc.).

Notes:
Requires calendar periods to be “Open” or “Future”. The “Journal Import” program
transfers data from the Interface table into the Oracle base tables (e.g. GL_JE_BATCHES,
GL_JE_HEADERS, and GL_JE_LINES).

The “Journal Posting” program changes the posting status w/i the “GL_JE_” tables,
updates the GL_BALANCES table, creates Intercompany Balancing transactions, Suspense
Posting transactions, etc.

GL_BUDGET_INTERFACE
Used to import budget data directly into GL_BALANCES table without requiring accounting
periods to be open or run the Journal Posting program

GL_DAILY_RATES_INTERFACE
Used to automates the loading of currency conversion rates into the GL_DAILY_RATES
table.

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Open Interface Table Diagram :
Legacy System(s) / GLDI

Oracle GL - Open Interface Tables

GL_INTERFACE GL_BUDGET_INTERFACE

Run Journal Import Run Budget Upload

GL_JE_BATCHES GL_BALANCES

GL_JE_HEADERS

GL_JE_LINES

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Table - GL_INTERFACE :
Name Null? Type
------------------------------- -------- ----
STATUS NOT NULL VARCHAR2(50)
SET_OF_BOOKS_ID NOT NULL NUMBER(15)
ACCOUNTING_DATE NOT NULL DATE
CURRENCY_CODE NOT NULL VARCHAR2(15)
ACTUAL_FLAG NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1)
USER_JE_CATEGORY_NAME NOT NULL VARCHAR2(25)
USER_JE_SOURCE_NAME NOT NULL VARCHAR2(25)
BUDGET_VERSION_ID NUMBER
SEGMENT1-30 VARCHAR2(25)
ENTERED_DR NUMBER
ENTERED_CR NUMBER
ACCOUNTED_DR NUMBER
ACCOUNTED_CR NUMBER
REFERENCE1-30 VARCHAR2(100)
CODE_COMBINATION_ID NUMBER(15)
ATTRIBUTE1-20 VARCHAR2(150)

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Table - GL_BUDGET_INTERFACE :
Name Null? Type
------------------------------- -------- ------------
BUDGET_NAME NOT NULL VARCHAR2(15)
BUDGET_ENTITY_NAME NOT NULL VARCHAR2(25)
CURRENCY_CODE NOT NULL VARCHAR2(15)
FISCAL_YEAR NOT NULL NUMBER(15)
UPDATE_LOGIC_TYPE NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1)
BUDGET_ENTITY_ID NUMBER(15)
SET_OF_BOOKS_ID NUMBER(15)
CODE_COMBINATION_ID NUMBER(15)
BUDGET_VERSION_ID NUMBER(15)
PERIOD_TYPE VARCHAR2(15)
STATUS VARCHAR2(1)
ACCOUNT_TYPE VARCHAR2(25)
PERIOD1_AMOUNT NUMBER
SEGMENT1 - 30 VARCHAR2(25)

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Table - GL_DAILY_RATES_INTERFACE :
Name Null? Type
------------------------------- -------- -------------
FROM_CURRENCY NOT NULL VARCHAR2(15)
TO_CURRENCY NOT NULL VARCHAR2(15)
FROM_CONVERSION_DATE NOT NULL DATE
TO_CONVERSION_DATE NOT NULL DATE
USER_CONVERSION_TYPE NOT NULL VARCHAR2(30)
CONVERSION_RATE NOT NULL NUMBER
INVERSE_CONVERSION_RATE NUMBER

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GL Technical Foundation - Tables :

GL Transaction & Balance Data Tables


“GL_”

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Tables - Transactions & Balances :

Transactional (Detail) Data: Balance (Summary) Data:

GL_JE_BATCHES
1
M

GL_JE_HEADERS
1
M

GL_JE_LINES GL_BALANCES

Transactions summarized by code combination & stored in Balances table


during the Journal Posting program

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Data Tables - GL_JE_LINES :
Name Null? Type
------------------------------- -------- -------------
JE_HEADER_ID NOT NULL NUMBER(15)
JE_LINE_NUM NOT NULL NUMBER(15)
SET_OF_BOOKS_ID NOT NULL NUMBER(15)
CODE_COMBINATION_ID NOT NULL NUMBER(15)
PERIOD_NAME NOT NULL VARCHAR2(15)
EFFECTIVE_DATE NOT NULL DATE
STATUS NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1)
ENTERED_DR NUMBER
ENTERED_CR NUMBER
ACCOUNTED_DR NUMBER
ACCOUNTED_CR NUMBER
DESCRIPTION VARCHAR2(240)
REFERENCE_1 - _5 VARCHAR2(240)
ATTRIBUTE1 - 20 VARCHAR2(150)

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Data Tables - GL_BALANCES :
Name Null? Type
------------------------------- -------- ------------
SET_OF_BOOKS_ID NOT NULL NUMBER(15)
CODE_COMBINATION_ID NOT NULL NUMBER(15)
CURRENCY_CODE NOT NULL VARCHAR2(15)
PERIOD_NAME NOT NULL VARCHAR2(15)
ACTUAL_FLAG NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1)
BUDGET_VERSION_ID NUMBER(15)
TRANSLATED_FLAG VARCHAR2(1)
PERIOD_NET_DR NUMBER
PERIOD_NET_CR NUMBER
BEGIN_BALANCE_DR NUMBER
BEGIN_BALANCE_CR NUMBER
PERIOD_NET_DR_BEQ NUMBER
PERIOD_NET_CR_BEQ NUMBER
BEGIN_BALANCE_DR_BEQ NUMBER
BEGIN_BALANCE_CR_BEQ NUMBER
TEMPLATE_ID NUMBER(15)
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Next Steps:

u Get involved by performing technical tasks

u Get to know and work closely with technical resources (e.g.


Application Developers, DBAs, etc.)

u Take Technical Courses

u Obtain a UNIX ID/PW and Database User ID/PW in a


development environment

u Save information to database via Oracle application forms


and then use tools / utilities to view results in database

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Questions:

Contact Info: Brad Eldredge


Email: beldredge@answerthink.com
Phone: 770.690.9700, ext 3092

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