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Tanya Lam

Period 4
Chapter 22 & 23 Test Review

1.Why was the War Information Board necessary?: In War, the governement
mobilizes the military but the WIB said that the war needs more people's
support.
2.What was significant about America's entry in to WWI with regard to US
influence around the world?: It showed that European countries needed
the United States. We are a world power. We also wanted to spread
democracy and show our culture to them because we thought ours was
the best.
3.Henry Ford in WWI: Mass production, assembly line, his employees were
paid alot compared to other companies. He sent half a million dollars to
send 100 men and women to Europe on a peace ship in an attempt to
negotiate an end to the war.
4.US response to German resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare:
Wilson broke off diplomatic relations with Germany on Febuary 3.
5.Jeannette Rankin: Representative of Montana that voted against the action
with 6 other senators an 50 members of the House. She was the first
woman elected to Congress. "I want to stand by my country, but I cannot
vote for war."
6.Selective Service Act: In May 1917, underlined the increasing power of the
state over ordinary citizens. It respected the nation's tradition of individual
freedom and local autonomy. Still, the process of draft registration
demonstrated the bureaucratic potential of the American state.
Committee on Public Information: Wilson formed this to promote public
support for the war. This government propaganda agency headed by the
journalist Creel, attracted progressive reformers and muckracking
journalists such as Tarbell and Baker. (educating citizens about
democracy, promoting national unity, assimilating immigrants, and
breaking down the isolation of rural life. Advertising. Had "4minuteMen"
with speeches and patriotic lit. American Expeditionary Force: Led by
General Pershing. Before the new army could fight, it had to e trained and
outfitted and transported across the submarine-infested Atlantic. Food
Administration: the most successful wartime agency was the Food
Administration, created in 1917 and led by Herbert Hoover. He convinced
famers to expand production fo wheat and other grains. Supplied
Americans with food and also allowed a threefold rise in food exports to
war-torn Europe. War Industries Board: The central agency for directing
military production. Under Baruch. It greatly expanded the federal
government's economic powers. It gathered economic data and statistics,
allocated scarce resources among industries, ordered factories to convert
to war production, set prices, and standardized procedures.
7.African-American soldiers: recieved the worst treatment. Over 400,000
black men served in the military, accounting for 13 % of the armed forces.
92% were draftees. Blacks were organized into rigidly segregated units,
almost always under the control of white officers. They were assigned to
the most menial tasks, such as kitchen and clean up. August 1917 the
Twenty fourth Infantry's Third Battalion killed fifteen white soldiers. 64
soldiers were tried in courts and 19 were hanged.
8.Paying for the War: Wilson secured passage of War Revenue Bills in 1917
and 1918 that embodied progressive priniciples of economic justice.
Rather than taxin the wages and salaries of working class and middle
class, the legislation imposed levies on the income of wealthier individuals
and the excess-profits of business corporations. Taxes then rest came
from loans, especially the popular Liberty Loans that encouraged public
support for the war effort.
9.Modern bureaucratic state: New deal changed people's thoughts about the
government, which was much stronger. WWI left the government more
powerful. Draft. WIB people became more tolerant. Small government was
a better American Ideal.
10.National War Labor Board: formed in April 1918, also improved the
working lives of laboring men and women. Composed of representatives
of labor, management, and the public, the NWLB established an eight-
hour day for war workers, with time and a half for overtime, and endorsed
equal pay for women workers. Also supported the workers' right to
organize unions and required employers to deal with shop committees.
11.Great Migration: African Americans from the rural South to the cities of
the North marked a pivotal point in 20th century African American history.
Chicago Urban League, an organization that helped southern migrants
adjust to their new environment.
12.19th Amendment: the amendment that gave woman the right to vote.
13.Fourteen Points: Wilson called for open diplomacy, "absolute freedom of
navigation upon the seas," arms reduction, the removal of trade barriers,
and an international commitment to national self determination for the
peoples of Austro Hungarian, Russian, and German empires.
Irreconcilables: consisted of western Republican progressives such as
William Borah of Idaho, Hiram Johnson of CA, and La Follette of Wisconsin.
They oppose the treaty of Versailles. War Risk Insurance: Required
enlisted men and noncommissioned officers to allot $15 of their monthly
military pay to their dependents: the federal government contributed an
additional allowance to the dependents of servicemen. Espionage and
Sedition Acts: focused on disloyal speech, writing, and behavior that might
"incite, provoke, or encourage resistance to the United States, or promote
the cause of its enemies." Espionage Act imposed stiff penalties for
antiwar activities and allowed the federal government to ban treasonous
materials from the mails.
14.How the War affected the 18th Amendments: prohibited the
"manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors". Example of
wartime success of a progressive reform. It also stood as yet another
example of the widening influence of the national state on matters of
economic policy and personal behavior.
15.Article X of the treaty of Versailles: It required allies to protect and back
up their allies if attacked. Have to go to war. Henry Cabot Lodge led
group to go against it.
16.Schenck vs. US, 1920: Charles Schenck sent through mail that people
should be anti-war. Rights were taken away.
17.Discrimination after WWI: Number of lynchings rose. Race riots broke out
in the northern states. Most deadly one was in illinois. Chicage was 5 days
of rioting in July. Ethnic conflicts over jobs and patronage had long been
part of the urban scene.
18.Strikes after WWI: expectations were higher. Prosperity had brought
higher pay, shorter hours, and better working conditions, but the
employers cut all of these down. More than 4 million wage laborers went
on strike. Started with shipyard workers in Seattle, then the steel industry,
demanded union recognition and representation and hours shifts.
19.Henry Cabot Lodge: led his allies and a group of Republicans against the
Treaty of Versailles and article 10. The provision for collective security.
League of Nations: which was authorized by the peace treaty, would
moderate the terms of the settlement and secure a peaceful resolution of
other international disputes. Treaty of Versailles: The armistice to end the
fighting of WWI had been signed on 11 November 1918, but the Treaty of
Versailles was the result of six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace
Conference to conclude the terms of the peace treaty. The Treaty required
that Germany accept sole responsibility for causing the war and that it
make reparations to certain members of the Allied forces. Further
conditions imposed by the Treaty included Germany losing a certain
amount of its own territory to a number of surrounding countries and
being stripped of all its overseas colonies. Germany was also required to
substantially reduce its military to limit its ability to make war again. The
Treaty of Versailles was a contentious one: none of the parties concerned
were satisfied with its terms, and Germany was not permanently
weakened. However, enough damage and humiliation was dealt to
Germany to make them desire revenge to regain their pride, and as such
this treaty can be seen as a cause of the Second World War.
20.Palmer Raids: of the FBI, Palmer's agents stormed the headquarters of
radical organizations. Pulled in thousands of aliens who had committed no
crime but were suspect because of beliefs or immigrantion backgrounds.
21.Trend in protecting civil liberties during war-time: liberties taken away.
None were protected.
22.How was Hoover percieved during the Great Depression: He was hated
because he gave most of the government support and money to the
businesses instead of those in need of it to try to build up businesses.
23.F. Scott Fitzgerald: wrote the Great Gatsby and Theodore Dreiser: wrote
An American Tradegy, both probing indiciments of the mindless pursuit of
material goods and wealth. Sinclair Lewis: wrote Babbitt, which satirized
the stifling conformity of a middle-class businessman. T.S. Elliot: The
Wastle Land, portrayed a fragmented civilization in ruins. Ernest
Hemingway: Our Time, The Sun Also Rises, and A Farewell to Arms, which
powerfully described the dehumanizing consequences and the futility of
war.
24.Bonus Army: veterans that staged a protest in 1932. 15,000 unemployed
WW1 veterans, hitch hiked to Washington to demand immediate payment
of their bonuses, a pension payment that was due to be paid in 1945.
Camped outside the U.S Capitol, and when refused to move away from
camp, Hoover called out regular army troops under Douglas and lit up
their camps.
25.Harlem Renaissance: The center of African American life in New York City.
"the symbol of liberty and the Promised Land to Negroes everywhere."
Talented artists and writers came here to Harlem, where they broke with
older genteel traditions of black literature to reclaim a cultural identity
with their roots. Mckay, Toomer, Fauset authors. Hughes leading
exponent.
26.Welfare Capitalism: Owners (system of labor) gave workers insurance,
pensions, and other to stop unions. It worked and stopped unions.
27.Affect of US tariffs on world economy: Banks loan money to other
countries like Germany and Great Britain and made bank with the
interests. The Fordney -McCumber Tariff of 1922 excluded foreign made
goods, therefore, unable to sell their goods in the US, Europe could not
easily ear the dollars needed to pay their debts.
28.Dawes Plan: We agreed to load Germany money for reparations and
compesations for the war and get interest.
29.Kellog-Briand Pact: a naiive attempt to stop war. The Kellogg–Briand Pact
(also called the Pact of Paris) was a multinational treaty that prohibited
the use of war as "an instrument of national policy." It failed in its purpose
but was significant for later developments in international law. It was
named after the American secretary of state Frank B. Kellogg and French
foreign minister Aristide Briand, who drafted the pact.
30.How did FDR promised to fix the Great Depression: The New Deal was
created to a series of economic programs he initiated between 1933 and
1936 with the goals of giving work (relief) to the unemployed, reform of
business and financial practices, and recovery of the economy during The
Great Depression.
31.Jazz: The Jazz Singer was the first talkie. Jazz music captured important
aspects of the culture of the 1920s. Began in dance halls and bordellos in
New Orleans. Most of the early jazz musicians were black, and they were
in Chicago, NY, Kansas City, and LA. The best know performers were
composer-pianist Ferdinand "Jelly Roll" Morton, trumpeter Louis "Satchmo"
Armstrong, composer bandleader Edward "Duke" Ellington, and singer
Bessie Smith, "the empress of the Blues."
32.Twentieth Amendment: Elected in Nov, Roosevelt would not begin his
presidency until March 1933. The 20th amendment ratified in 1933, set
subsequent inaugurations for Jan 20.
33.National Origins Act, 1924: The act cut immigration quotas to 2 percent of
each nationality, as reflected in the 1890 census, which had included few
people from southeastern Europe and Russia.
34.Scopes Monkey Trial: In 1925, the Tennessee legislature passes a law
prohibiting the teaching of the scientific theory of evolution in the state's
public schools. The law resulted in the trial of John Scopes in Dayton,
Tennessee. Guilty even with famous Darrow against Bryan.
35.Causes of the Great Depression: The Stock Market Crash of 1929 on Black
Thursday and Tuesday Oct 29. Lost more that $40 billion dollars. Bank
failures. 9000 banks failed. Bank loans were not being paid back. As
businesses began failing, the government created the Smoot-Hawley
Tariff in 1930 to help protect American companies. This charged a high
tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign
countries along with some economic retaliation. With the stock market
crash and the fears of further economic woes, individuals from all classes
stopped purchasing items. This then led to a reduction in the number of
items produced and thus a reduction in the workforce. As people lost their
jobs, they were unable to keep up with paying for items they had bought
through installment plans and their items were repossessed.
36.Marcus Garvey: Jamaican born, led the Universal Negro Improvement
Association (UNIA) which built racial pride among artists and the same
among the black working class. He urged blacks to return to Africa
because their own kind won't mistreat them like whites.
37.Al Smith in the 1928 election: Catholic drinker, urban laborers and Irish
drinkers were appealed to him but he lost.
38.Hoover in the election of 1928: his candidacy rested on his outstanding
career as an engineer and pro administrator. He embodied the managerial
and technological promise of the Progressive era. He had benefited eight
years of Republican prosperity and strong support from the business
comunity. He promised voters that his vision of individualism and
cooperative endeavor would promote prosperity and banish poverty from
the US.
39.What did Harding mean by "a return to normalcy"?: He meant to go back
and focus on ourselves and business and get rich.
40.Tea Pot Dome: Hardings corrupt scandal with the secret leasing to private
companies of government oil reserves in Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and in
Elk Hills, CA. Albert Fall was eventually convicted of taking $300,000 in
bribes and became the first cabinet officer in American history to serve a
prison sentence.
41.Demographic shifts in the 1920s: People move to cities for more
opportunities and to get richer.
42.Radio: the newest instrument of mass culture. It began in Nov. 1920 when
station KDKA in Pittsburgh carried the presedential election returns. 800
stations were on the air and in American households. Unlike Europe,
American radio stations were government licensed but privately owned
not government monopoly. They drew their revenue from advertisers and
corporate sponsors. Most Famous = Amos 'n' Andy.
43.Affects of Prohibition: more crime because of the prohibition of alcohol.
People drank less after the 18th Amendment though. Urban ethnic groups
still made liquor underground like the "bathtup gin" and saloons. Caused
the Roaring Twenties.
44.Rugged individualism of Americans: he belief that all individuals, or nearly
all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for
people should be minimal. The phrase is often associated with policies of
the Republican party and was widely used by the Republican president
Herbert Hoover. The phrase was later used in scorn by the Democratic
presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman to refer to the
disasters of Hoover's administration, during which the stock market Crash
of 1929 occurred and the Great Depression began.