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Operation and Technical Training

JAFZA Johnson Control Training Center – Dubai –UAE

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Air Cooled Chiller

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Jonson Control York YLAA Chiller
Basic:
System understanding
Nomenclature
Refrigerant Type
Understanding Pressure / Temperature Chart
Intermediate:
Understanding of PH diagram.
Thermal Expansion Valve Adjustment
Refrigeration Cycle.
Advance:
YLAA Refrigeration Cycle.
Capacity Control.
Refrigerant Charging (R410).
Adjusting Sub-cooling and Super heat.
Operation and programming
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Refrigerants

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Refrigerant
R11,R12 OZONE DEPLETION

CFC ODP
CHLORINE DAMAGES
THE OZONE LAYER
R22
HCFC (Less chlorine)
GLOBAL WARMING

HFC (No chlorine) GWP

CO2
TEWI (98% to 99%
of Chiller GWP)

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Refrigerants Used In chillers


R11 , R12 , R13 , R113 , R114 , R115 , R500 , R502 , R503

Mostly used on Centrifugal Chillers


RETROFIT WITH HFC R134a (Synthetic Oil)

RETROFIT EXISTING CHILLERS WITH HCFC R123 (Open Drive)

HCFC refrigerants not produced by global signatories after 2030

HCFC REFRIGERANTS NOT PRODUCED IN EUROPE AFTER 2010

R22 IS THE MOST COMMONLY USED REFRIGERANT IN AIR CONDITIONING


R22 Chillers are usually reciprocating and will be replaced.

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Global Warming Potential (GWP)
The number is a comparison to an atom of carbon dioxide CO2 equal to one
with a life of 100 years

GWP
(100a) CO2 = 1.0 HCFC - R22 = 1700

100a = 100 year time horizon HFC - R134a = 1200

HFC - R407C = 1500

HFC - R410a = 1890

HFC - R404a = 3750

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HFC Refrigerants

R134a and R407C are the new refrigerants most commonly used in Chillers.

GWP 1500. Cooling capacity approximately 6% less than R22.


Blend. COP 3rd

GWP 1200. Cooling capacity up to 35% less than R22.


COP 2nd

R717 Ammonia GWP = Zero. Cooling capacity approximately 8% greater than R22.
Unpleasant effects. COP 1st

H2O ABSORPTION CHILLERS. COP 4th

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Physical Principles of HVAC systems

0,7 bar
1 bar

90 °C
90 °C 3 000 m ü. M.

100
100 °C
°C
0 m ü. M.
1,5 bar
110°C
110 °C

Air pressure and boiling point of water depend on the height above sea
level
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Physical Principles of HVAC systems


Temperature-pressure diagram of saturated steam
(°C )
210

200

190

180

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70
Temperatur

60

50

40
0 1 00 2 00 300 4 00 5 00 600 7 00 8 00 9 00 1 00 0 1 10 0 1 20 0 1 30 0 1 40 0 1 50 0 1 60 0 1 70 0 1 80 0 (k P a )
Pressure
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 (b a r )
D a m p fd r u c k

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Physical Principles of HVAC systems

°C
115 D
B C
100

28,3
-335 419 2257

10
A
0
0 419 2676 2704,3
h (kJ / kg)
Temperature-enthalpy diagram of water at air pressure of 1013 mbar

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PRESSURE ENTHALPY DIAGRAM

Pressure - Enthalpy Curve Pressure - Enthalpy Curve


(Pressure reduction)
Pressure

Expansion Valve

Air Cooled Condenser

Compressor
Temperature oC

Temperature oC

Water 12
7

Condenser
Subcooling Evaporator
Chilled Water Chilled Water Low Pressure
OUT IN Superheated
Vapour

Enthalpy (Total Heat)


High Pressure Liquid Low Pressure Liquid Low Pressure Saturated Vapour

Low Pressure Superheated Vapour High Pressure Superheated Vapour

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P / H Chart Over View

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PH Chart Curves

1. Isobars (bar) -- Line of constat Pressure


2. Isotherms (°C ) -- Line of constant Temp erature
3. Isenthalpic (KJ/kg) -- Line of Constant Enthalpy
4. Isentropic (KJ/kg °K) -- Line of Constant Specific E nthalpy
5. Isovolume (m³/kg) -- Line of Constant Volume
6. Isotitles (%) -- Line of Constant Quality ( Vapor)
7. Isochorev (m³/kg °K) -- Line of Constant Specific V olume

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Isobars ( Bar )– Lines of Constant Pressure

Isobar 10 Bar

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Isenthalpic ( Kj/Kg ) – Lines of Constant Enthalpy

Isenthalpic 240 Kj/Kg


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Isotherms – Lines of Constant Temperature

Isotherm
10 °C

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Isotitles – Lines of Constant Quality ( % Vapor )

Isotitles %30
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Isentropic ( Kj / Kg °K ) – Line of Constant Specific Enthalpy

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Isochorev - Lines of Constant Specific Volume

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Refrigeration Cycle , Sub cool & Super Heat Effect.

Check the below points


by changing the ,
Pressure,
Subcooling, super
heating :
1. Lift
2. Head of
Compression
3. Compression Ratio
4. COP

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What are the Formulas for :

Suction Superheat = Saturation Temp – Actual Suction Temp


Liquid Subcooling = Condensing Saturation Temp – Actual liquid Temp

C.O.P. = Net Refrigeration Effect


Power Input

Compression Ratio = Absolute Discharge Pressure


Absolute Suction Pressure

PH Chart Benefits of Use

1. Adjusting Sub – cooling Temperature


2. Adjust Superheat Temperature
3. Control the chiller or equipment efficiency ( COP).
4. Keep the Compressor in safe running condition.
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Nomenclature

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Component location

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Component location

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Air-Cooled Reciprocating Chiller

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Air-Cooled Reciprocating Chiller

DX Evaporator

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Air-Cooled Reciprocating Chiller

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Air-Cooled Reciprocating Chiller

Reciprocating
Compressor

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Air-Cooled Reciprocating Chiller

Stop Valves

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Air-Cooled Reciprocating Chiller

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Air-Cooled Reciprocating Chiller

Condens
Condenser er Coils
Coils

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Air-Cooled Reciprocating Chiller
Condenser
Fans

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Air-Cooled Reciprocating Chiller

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Air-Cooled Reciprocating Chiller

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Air-Cooled Reciprocating Chiller

Thermal
Expansion
Valve

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Air-Cooled Reciprocating Chiller
Condenser
Fans

Condenser Condenser
Coils Coils

Thermal
Stop
Expansion
Valves
Valve
DX
Evaporator Reciprocating
Compressor

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PIPEWORK ARRANGEMENT

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Evaporator pressure Drop

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Refrigeration System , Accessory Components

Secondary Components
 Service Valves
 Shutoff Valves
 Filter-Driers
 Sight Glasses
 Liquid Line Solenoid Valves
 Hot Gas Bypass Valve

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Suction Service Valve

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Shutoff Service Valve (King Valve)

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Filter-Driers
Types
 Permanent
 Removable Core
Removes moisture, scale or other foreign material that may
become mixed in refrigerant

Permanent Removable Core

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Filter-Drier
Regardless of type the main purpose is to filter any foreign material from
the refrigerant
Desiccant core removes moisture and small dirt collected in refrigerant
Internal screens filter any solid material (metal chips)

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Filter-Drier
Permanent

Removable Core

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Filter Driers
Evaporator

High-Pressure Vapor

High-Pressure Liquid

Condenser
Low-Pressure Mixture

Low-Pressure Vapor

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Sight Glass
Visual indication whether system is
contaminated with moisture
 Green is dry, Yellow is wet
Shows bubbles which could indicate
problem

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Sight Glass

Evaporator

High-Pressure Vapor

High-Pressure Liquid

Low-Pressure Mixture
Condenser

Low-Pressure Vapor

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Solenoid Valve
 Automatically actuated valve Usually normally closed
 Stops flow of refrigerant when activated
 Typically installed in liquid line
 Used to eliminate liquid refrigerant “slugging” the compressor at startup

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Liquid Line Solenoid Valve

Evaporator

High-Pressure Vapor

High-Pressure Liquid

Low-Pressure Mixture
Condenser

Low-Pressure Vapor

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Hot Gas Bypass Valve

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Refrigeration Cycle W/HGB

Evaporator

High-Pressure Vapor

High-Pressure Liquid

Low-Pressure Mixture
Condenser

Low-Pressure Vapor

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CONTROL / POWER PANEL COMPONENTS (CONT)

Control
Signal input
Control
Signal output

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YORK MILLENNIUM CONTROL CENTER

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STATUS KEY
By pressing the STATUS KEY related General Messages
parameter for individual systems,
SYS 1 and, SYS 2 messages will both be Remote Controlled Shutdown
displayed and may be different. Daily Schedule Shutdown
*Flow Switch/Remote Stop
Fault Messages System X Switch Off
System X No Cool Load
System Safeties System X Comps Run
System X High Disch Pressure System X AR Timer
System X Low Suct Pressure System X Zone
System X MP/HPCO Fault Thermostat Off
System X AC Timer
Unit Safeties System X Disch Limiting
Low Ambient Temp System X Suct Limiting
115VAC Under voltage System X % Load Limiting
Low Battery Manual Overide Status
Check Prog/Setup/Option System X Pumping Down

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OPER DATA KEY


Evaporator Discharge Air Temperature
Ambient Air Temperature
System 1 Suction and Discharge Pressure
System 1 Suction Temperature
System 2 Suction and Discharge Pressure
System 2 Suction Temperature
*System X Accumulated Run Times
*System X Accumulated Starts
**Load and Unload Timers
**Cooling Demand Steps
**Lead System Indicator
Evaporator Pump Contact Status
Remote Control Active
*System X Number of Compressors Running
*System X Run Time
Sys 1 LLSV & HGSV Status
*System X Condenser Fan Staging
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Entry Keys
The Entry Keys allows the user to view, change programmed values.

The ENTRY keys consist of an UP ARROW key, DOWN ARROW key, and an
ENTER/ADV key.

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Cooling Setpoints Key


By Pressing cooling setpoints after scroll down the
display there would be access to change cooling set
points and you will see this display :

This shows (Discharge Air Temperature control)

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Unit KEY
There are eleven programmable options (nine for units
with a single refrigerant system) under the OPTIONS
key. The OPTIONS key is used to scroll through the
list of options by repeatedly pressing the OPTIONS key.
After the selected option has been displayed, the UP
and DOWN arrow keys are then used to change that
particular option. After the option is changed, the ENTER/
ADV key must be pressed to enter the data into memory.

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Capacity Control

The setpoint in Discharge Air Temperature Control is the temperature the


condensing unit will control to within +/- the control range. The setpoint High Limit is
the Setpoint plus the Cooling Range.
The Setpoint Low Limit is the Setpoint minus the Cooling Range.

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Thank you for your attention.

Wish you all the best and successful work.

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