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in Anaesthesia & Critical

Care Technology (BACT)

First Year

Centre for Para-Medical Sciences

Indira Gandhi National Open University
Maidan Garhi, New Delhi-110 068
As explained in the Programme Guide, there are four Tutor Marked Assignments (TMA) and all these
assignments are compulsory. Please note that you are required to score a minimum of 50% marks in each
assignment component. The assignments carry a weightage of 30% marks towards the final evaluation in theory
component. Submission of related assignments is a pre-requisite for appearing in theory term-end examination
for respective papers. All the assignments should be submitted before 31st May 2011.

Please take note of the following points before writing your assignments:

● Use only foolscap size paper for writing your responses. Only hand written assignments will be
accepted. Typed or printed copies of assignments will not be accepted.

● Tie all the pages after numbering them carefully.

● Write the question number with each answer and marks allotted.

● All the questions are compulsory.

● Every assignment will be evaluated out of a full mark of 100. Weightage is indicated against each

Suggestions for writing an assignment:

Read the assignments carefully. Scan through the whole material of the course, answers may be linked within the
blocks/units. Draw a rough outline of your answer in your own words. Support your answer from your clinical
experience. Make a logical order. Then write your answer neatly and submit. Give illustrations and tables
wherever necessary. You must keep a Xerox copy of the answer sheets for the future reference. Do not copy
from printed course material. Answer each assignment on separate sheet. On the first page of the assignment
response sheet, write the course code, course title, assignment code, name of your Programme study centre
(PSC) and date of submission. Your roll number, name and full address should be mentioned on the first page.
The first page of your response sheet should look like the format given.

Course Code : ........................................... Enrolment No. .........................................

Course Title : ........................................... Name : ............................................

Assignment Code : ........................................... Address : ............................................

PSC : ........................................... ............................................

Date of Submission : ........................................... ............................................

Please submit the assignments to the Programme In-charge of the Programme Study Centre allotted to
Programme Code: BACT
Course Code: BOS - 001
Assignment Code: BOS / AS 1
Maximum Marks: 100
Last date of Submission: 31st May 2011
This assignment has 10 questions. Answer all the
1. Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions. (15)

Kanpur is one of the big and important city of India. Unfortunately, it is also one of the dirtiest.
The streets of the city remain covered with litter; the station remains filthy; the water supply is
polluted and the sewers remain choked. Isn’t it the duty of all of us to keep our city clean?

First of all we all have a duty to dispose our rubbish in the proper way. This means that we must
not throw our rubbish in the open or our street. We must take it to the rubbish dump set up by
the Corporation in our area. Second we also must stop littering! Do you throw chocolate bar
wrappers and empty cartons on your living room floor? Of course not! And you should not throw
these things on the street or in to the gutter, also! When you go to a city park, do you want to
step on a piece of glass? Of course not! But would you do that such a thing did not happen to
you or any body? Have you ever thought about it?

If we want to live in a clean environment, we have to work together to make it possible. This
weekend you have the chance to do that. Join us in our Cleaning up Operation on Sunday. And
at the end of the day, you’ll see the difference! You needn’t bring any thing with you ; we will
provide every thing you’ll need to help us clean up our city. If we do it more often, we shall all
live in a clean city.

a) How should we dispose our rubbish?

b) What does the city corporation provide?
c) What do we all have to stop?
d) What is wrong with the drainage system?
e) What is the duty of each one of us towards our city?

2. Write a paragraph on one of the following topics (150 – 200 : words) (15)
a) Common Wealth Games
b) Importance of Optometry education in India
3. Write a letter applying for the job of an optometrist in a private hospital. (15)
Write a letter to your friend inviting him to attend a conference on optometry.
4. Write a referral letter to a general physician for a patient who has hypertensive

5) Fill in the blanks: (10)

A) With the right form of verb:

a) I………………….. an Indian (be).
b) We think that this…………………a very interesting story (be).
c) There …………………..fifty student in the class (be).
d) Rajeev…………………..not speak English well ( do, does).
e) She ……………………..many employees working for her (has, have).
B) With the correct article (a, an, the):
a) …………….apple is ………fruit.
b) I shall be back in half ……………hour.
c) This is …………best book on English grammar.
d) Shrilanka is …………..Island.
e) Buildings all over……… are very much ……….same.

6) Change the following into passive voice:

a) Who built this house?
b) The boys painted the gate, red.
c) We can solve this problem.
d) Akash opened the door.
e) The cat killed the mouse.
f) I have sold my jewelry.
g) The teacher will punish him.
h) Peon cleans this table every day.
i) Rahul has written this book.
j) They sell all variety of garments in this market.
7) There are many words that end in ( -cate) . The list has been started for you .Look at the clue to
solve the rest. (5)
( Vacate, indicate, reciprocate, masticate, lubricate, educate, dedicate, suffocate, duplicate,

a) masticate : to chew
b) : to teach
c) : to leave a place or position
d) : to have difficulty in breathing
e) : to show some thing by pointing
f) : to devote one self to a good cause
g) : to put oil and grease on or in a machine to make it run smoothly
h) : to make something more difficult to do
i) : to make exact copy of some thing
j) : to give and receive something in return

8) Read the passage below and fill in the blanks with the correct preposition (10)
Here are some preposition for your help: in, on, at, during, for, about, by.

Kanta is a nurse …………..1) a Mumbai hospital. She lives……………..2) Vashi and has to take
a train to go to work. The journey take over an hour…………….3) which Kanta usually sleeps
and reads. For once……………….4) the hospital, she hardly has any time to rest and has to be
……………5) her toes. But Kanta enjoys her work and does not mind. Of course certain days are
very taxing even …………..6) her. She feels that the best time …………….7) the day is lunch
break. Then she and her colleagues relax and talk ……………..8) their work…………….9) the
time she reaches home is quite late, yet Kanta manage to by fruits and vegetables……………10)
her way back. Doctors……………..11) the hospital know how invaluable she is and like and
respect her. Her patients love her dearly, through she is quite strict……………….12) them
…………..13) times. “I can’t think of another job that is more satisfying,” says Kanta and you
can’t but agree.

9) Write the questions for the following answers starting with (who). (5)
a) We came by train
b) The accident happened at midnight
c) It is very hot here, during the day time.
d) The shop close at 7 o’clock.
e) I study in the central school.

10. Match the following. (5)

Column (A) Column (B)

a) Willed i) complete change
b) Assignable ii) adaptability to change so as to be suitable
for different conditions

c) Transformation iii) made by power of mind

d) Adaptability iv) completely destructive

e) Devastating v) which can be fixed


Programme Code: BACT

Course Code: BOS - 001
Assignment Code: BOS / AS 2
Maximum Marks: 100
Last date of submission: 31st May 2011
This assignment has 10 questions. Answer all the
1. Look at the steps involved in the working of a modern sewage treatment plant and make a flow
chart of a modern sewage treatment work. (15)

The industrial waste and domestic sewage is pretreated together. The first step is the
mechanical screening of solids and its separation in to solid waste and effluents. The solids are
further separated for primary and secondary sludge. The effluents or soluble fraction is then
aerated for aerobic digestion by microbes, which is once again screened for solids. This
effluent or soluble fraction is once again filtered and separated for nitrates and phosphates so
that the clear water could be discharge.

The second sludge, which is produced after first mechanical screening, is simultaneously
processed for anaerobic digestion by microbes, after which the hydrogen, methane and carbon
dioxide are separated. The water content is discharged while the solids of the digested sludge
are used as fertilizers.

Another alternative to the aerobic and anaerobic digestion by microbes is the trickling to filter
activated sludge oxidation ponds and biological fluidized bed.

2. Two friends are planning a picnic. Write a brief conversation in about 100 words.
Begin: ‘Manoj, we must leave home by 6 in the morning.’ . (15)

3. Make the summary of the passage. (15)


The fact that people who speak the same language often do not speak the same way is obvious to us
all .,but how many of us can identify different language ?as an example, let consider regional and
social varieties of language.

People from different region within an area that shares a common language have different accents,
and they often use different vocabulary and slang. These differences are known as regional varieties
because they are based solely on geography distinctions, furthermore, since people expect regional
variations within a country, this language usually does not lead to social discrimination.

While languages vary from area to area, there are different varieties to be found within one area as
well. Consider, for example, two people from Boston. one of them says, "I don't have any money,"
and the second one says," I am not got money." these ate varieties of the same language, but they are
not based on geography. They are sometime caused by differences in social class and degree of
education; as a result ,they are known as social varieties, unlike speakers of regional varieties,
speakers of social dialects often suffer from social discrimination.

Regional and social varieties exist in almost every major language, and they are only two of the
almost unlimited forms which a language can have.
4. Make notes of the following passage (15)
Every time a child a takes a soft drink, he’s laying the ground work for a dangerous bone disease. No,
fizzy and sugary drinks don’t cause osteoporosis. But, because they are often substituting for a glass
of milk, kids are not getting the calcium and vitamin D they need to build a strong skeleton. Many of
them also lead a sedentary lifestyle, so they aren’t getting the bone building benefits for vigorous
exercise either. These children aren’t just in jeopardy for brittle bones and fractures decades down the
road. They could be at a risk of osteoporosis at a younger age than ever before.

The Indian Society for Bone and Mineral Research, a body of osteoporosis expert’s id trying to
spread awareness about this bone crippling disease. Osteoporosis stars in childhood but has
consequences later in life. The condition causes bones to become riddled with holes, Like the
framework of a house that’s been attacked by termites. That can lead to broken bones die within a
year. Osteoporosis isn’t just your grandmother’s health threat. Although it strikes over 50 million
women in India, it also menaces over 12 million men. Osteoporosis causes loss of height, pain in
joints and back, fractures and a fear of fractures, and can be very depressing. So it is important that
we adopt preventive measures, to save millions of people.

There is new medical understanding of the best ways to protect ourselves and our children. “Simple
lifestyle changes and nutrition will help save your bones,” says Dr. Mittal to get us moving in the
right direction, he says, “it’s never too late to adopt bone-friendly habits – exercise, get enough
sunlight, and have adequate calcium. This way, can keep our bones healthy and prevent

5. You have to present a paper in a seminar. Write a seminar talk on the topic “contribution of
education in the development of country” (10)

6. Write in 100 words the basic skills in effective communication. (10)

7. a) Give meaning of the words used in conversation (5)



b) ‘Neither I nor my assistant IS


‘Neither cats nor do teenagers turn their heads when you call them.’ Make 2 similar sentences
‘Neither -nor’

8. Write down the component of speech. And enlisted the principles of effective speech/ efficiency. (5)
9. Fill in the blanks with correct adjective from the brackets: (5)

a) Everest is the ……………… mountain peak in the world. ( high/ highest)

b) The cheetah is ………………. than any other animal. (faster/ fast)

c) He is ………………. of the two. ( stronger/strongest)

d) He is ……………….but his friend is better. ( good/best)

e) This is the……………….of the three routes. (short/shortest)

10. Shorten the following sentences. (5)

a) At about the age of four the school life of a child begins

b) Heart diseases cause half a million deaths in a year in the United State of America

c) For example, water covers seventy one percent of the earth’s surface.

d) Two important diseases caused by the deficiency of vitamin A are Xerophthalmia and night

e) Road conditions also contribute to higher fuel consumption and this increase pollution.

c) Sir Charlie Chaplin directed and acted in The Great Dictator, one of the most hilarious films
in the
20th century, that equally mocks the German dictator Adolph Hitler and Italian dictator Benito
Assignment -3
(Block 1- Anatomy)

Programme Code: BACT

Course Code: BOS -003
Assignment Code: BOS / AS 3
Maximum Marks: 50
Last date of Submission: 31st May 2011

This assignment has ten questions. Answer all the questions. Each Question carries five marks.

1. Enlist the various types of tissues. Describe the nervous tissue and muscular tissue with the help of
suitable diagrams.
2. Describe the composition of blood in detail.
3. Draw a well labeled diagram of digestive system.
4. Enlist the various cranial nerves and describe the function of each. nerve.
5. Describe the structure of thyroid gland with the help of suitable diagrams.
6. Describe the structure of skin and draw a well labeled diagram.
7. Describe the various types of joints and draw diagrams wherever necessary.
8. Draw a well labeled diagram of the excretory system.
9. Enlist the organs of male reproductive system. Draw a well labeled diagram of sperm.

10. Describe the bones of pelvic girdle and lower limb.

Assignment - 4
(Block 2, 5 -Human Physiology &
Programme Code: BACT
Course Code: B0S -003
Assignment Code: B0S / AS 4
Maximum Marks: 50
Last date of Submission: 31st May 2011

This assignment has ten questions. Answer all the questions. Each Question carries five marks.
1) Describe various transport processes of the cell.

2) Describe the stages of cell division in Mitosis with the help of diagram.
3) Write short notes on
a) Properties of muscular tissue

b) Coagulation of blood

4) Write short note on

a) Cardiac out put
b) Blood Groups
5) Describe the secretions of pituitary gland and their functions.
6) Describe the mechanism of respiration.
7) Describe various digestive juices and their functions.
8) Describe the various types of enzymes in detail.

9) Describe the composition and function of carbohydrates.

10) Write short note on

a) Compounds and mixtures

b) Uses of water
Assignment - 5
(Block 3 -General Pathology and
Programme Code: BACT
Course Code: BOS -003
Assignment Code: BOS / AS 5
Maximum Marks: 50
Last date of Submission: 31st May 2011
This assignment has ten questions. Answer all the questions. Each Question carries five marks.
1. Differentiate between the gram positive and gram negative Bacteria. Draw diagram wherever
2. Write short note on
a) Normal flora of various body parts
b) Basis of antimicrobial action.
3. Describe the structure of a virus. Differentiate between RNA virus and DNA virus.
4. Write short note on
a) Multiplication of virus.
b) Genetic changes in viruses.

5. Describe the clinical classification of fungi. How will you diagnose the presence of fungal infections?
6. Define inflammation and describe the types of inflammation.
7. Write short note on
a) Signs of acute inflammation
b) Dysplasia
8. Describe various pathological changes in Graves’s disease and Diabetes mellitus.

9. Describe Arteriosclerosis in detail.

10. Write short note on
a) Tuberculosis
b) Gastric carcinoma
Assignment - 6
(Block 4 - Pharmacology)

Programme Code: BACT

Course Code: BOS -003
Assignment Code: BOS / AS 6
Maximum Marks: 50
Last date of Submission: 31st May 2011

This assignment has ten questions. Answer all the questions. Each Question carries five
1. Describe the various routes of drug administration.
2. Name the processes involved in pharmacokinetics and drug distribution in detail.
3. Describe cholinergic drugs.
4. Write short note on
a) Sedatives and hypnotics
b) Adrenergic agents
5. Describe the drugs used in Bronchial asthma.
6. Describe the uses and side effects of diuretics.
7. Classify the antiallergic agents. Describe each category in brief..
8. Describe the different antibacterial agents in detail..
9. Describe the local anesthetic agents.
10. Write short note on
a) Amphotericine - B
b) Acyclovir
Essentials of Clinical Medicine- 071

Programme Code: BACT

Course Code: BAHI-071
Assignment Code: BAHI/AS3
Maximum Marks: 100
Last date of Submission: 31st May 2011

Answer all the questions. Each question carries 10 marks.

1. Describe the conductions system of the Heart and the Cardiac Cycle with the help of
suitable diagrams
2. Enumerate the functions of blood. Describe the various blood groups.
3. Enumerate parts of Respiratory System and describe the mechanism of respiration.
4. Define Tidal volume, Minute volume and Vital capacity.
5. Enumerate common characteristics, properties, potency and efficacy of drugs.
6. Describe various routes of drug administration and steps to be taken to reduce adverse
effects of drug therapy.
7. What are Microbes? Explain the classification of micro organisms.
8. Enumerate galaxy of contributors of Microbiology.
9. Write short notes on:
a) Process of Respiration
b) Little’s area
c) Factors affecting drug absorption
10. Write short notes on:
a) Biotransformation
b) Endospores
c) Viruses

Programme Code: BACT

Course Code: BAHI-072
Assignment Code: BAHI/AS3
Maximum Marks: 100
Last date of Submission: 31st May 2011

Answer all the questions. Each question carries 10 marks.

1. Compare characteristics of Oxygen and nitrous oxide cylinders

2. Briefly discuss oxygen stage system
3. Describe in brief the parts of a breathing system
4. Explain the procedure of filling and changing the soda lime canister during anaesthesia.
5. Discuss the following about a volatile anaesthetic agent
a) Saturated Vapour Pressure
b) Boiling Point

6. Enumerate complications and indications of endotracheal intubation

7. Write short notes on:

a) Bains System
b) Magills Circuit

8. Write short notes on:

a) Test for Bains Circuit
b) Paediatric Circuit

9. Write short notes on:

a) Laryngoscope
b) Combitube
10. Write short notes on:
a) Back Pressure Effect
b) Tec 7 Vaporizer