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R sin θ ∆ φ

The actual area traced out

R∆θ

by ∆θ and ∆φ is R 2 sin θ∆θ∆φ

y by ∆θ and ∆φ is Ω = sin θ∆θ∆φ

The actual area is equal to R 2 Ω

sometimes expressed in degrees:

2

180 180

1 radian = = 57.3° ⇒ (1 radian ) = = 3282.8 deg /radian

2 2 2

π π

Thus there are 3282.8 × 4π = 41, 253 square degrees in a sphere

This parameter provides a means for

specifying directivity when the antenna is

directive in both q and φ. Provides an

alternative to specifying beamwidth in both

q and φ separately.

Beam Area is given by the integral of the Equivalent

normalized power pattern: solid angle ΩA

ΩA = ∫ ∫ Pn (θ , φ )d Ω Actual pattern

2π π Half-Power

= ∫ ∫ P (θ , φ ) sin θ dθ dφ

0 0

n (sr) Beamwidth

half-power beamwidths in q and φ

ΩA ≈ θ HPφ HP (sr) Polar Plot of P(θ )

1

Radiation Intensity (U(q,

( φ)) and Directivity (D

( )

Radiation Intensity is the power radiated per solid angle, and

unlike the Poynting vector, it will be independent of range. Its

units are (Watts/steradian), and it is related to the Poynting vector

magnitude and normalized power by:

U (θ , φ ) S (θ , φ )

P (θ , φ )n = =

U (θ , φ )max S (θ , φ ) max

Directivity is the ratio of the maximum radiation intensity to the

average radiation intensity:

U (θ , φ )max S (θ , φ )max

D= = (dimensionless)

U Average S Average

The average value of the Poynting vector is given by:

2π π

1 1

S Average = ∫ ∫ S (θ ,φ ) d Ω = ∫ ∫ S (θ , φ ) sin θ dθ dφ (Watts/m

2

)

4π 4π 0 0

Directivity (D

( )

Substituting our expression for Saverage into our equation for D:

S (θ , φ )max S (θ , φ )max 1

D= = =

S Average 1 1 S (θ , φ )

4π ∫ ∫ S (θ , φ ) d Ω 4π ∫ ∫ S (θ , φ )max

dΩ

1 4π

This gives us the expected result that

= =

1 ΩA

as the beam area decreases, the

∫ ∫ Pn (θ , φ ) d Ω

4π antenna becomes more directive.

Example: what is the beam area and directivity of an isotropic

antenna (assuming one existed)?

2π π

Isotropic ⇒ Pn (θ , φ ) = 1 ⇒ Ω A = ∫ ∫ P (θ , φ ) sin θ dθ dφ = 4π

n (Sr)

0 0

A beam area of 4π implies that the main beam subtends the

entire spherical surface, as would be expected

4π

D= = 1 Which is the smallest directivity that an antenna can have

ΩA

2

Directivity (D

( ) and Gain (G

( )

Recalling our approximation ΩA ≈ θ HPφ HP (sr), we can write D as:

4π 4π (Sr) 41000 (deg2 ) Note that the number of square

D= ≈ ≈

Ω A θ HPφHP θ HP

φHP

degrees in a sphere is rounded off

efficiency. That efficiency has to do with ohmic losses (the

heating up of the antenna). For high-frequency, low-power

applications we generally assume efficiency to be 100%. G is

related to D by G = kD, where k is efficiency (0≤ k ≤ 1)

Gain is often expressed in decibels, referenced to an isotropic

antenna.

G

GdBi = 10 log10 = 10 log10 G

G

isotropic

10 log is used, rather than 20 log, since G is based on power

Published Antenna Specifications

Since the gain is less TYPE NO. 201164

than the directivity, the FREQ. RANGE 225-400-

antenna is not 100% MHz

VSWR 2.0:1 MAX.

efficient. The one dB

INPUT IMPEDANCE 50 OHMS

difference can be put

DIRECTIVITY 11 dBi

into linear units.

GAIN 10 dBi

G kD −0.1

NOM.

10 log10 = 10 log10 = −1 ⇒ k = 10 = 0.79 BEAMWIDTH H 60° NOM.

D D PLANE

BEAMWIDTH E 60° NOM.

or the antenna is 79% efficient PLANE

Let’s see if directivity agrees with beamwidths SIDE AND BACK -15 dB

2 LOBE LEVEL. MIN.

41000 (deg ) 41000

D≈ = = 11.4 CROSS 20 dB

θ HP

φHP

(60)(60) POLARIZATION NOM.

POWER HANDLING 100

WATTS

G CW

GdBi = 10 log10 = 10 log10 11.4 = 10.6

G

isotropic

3

Aperture Concept

Consider a horn antenna whose

opening (aperture) has an area width

A = height x width

If the antenna is able to extract power

height

from all of its aperture, then the power

it can deliver is P = SA (Watts), where

S is the magnitude of the incident

Poynting vector (Watts/m2)

The aperture concept applies to all antennas, even wire

antennas. To calculate the aperture area for a wire antenna,

such as a dipole, we need to consider its equivalent circuit.

∼ Source Voltage

ZT Load ZT

Impedance Antenna

Incident ZA

Impedance

Field

This can be analyzed as a normal circuit,

where the source voltage is generated by the ∼

incident field. ZT

ZA

ZA and ZT are frequency

V dependent, and can be divided

I=

Z A + ZT into their real and imaginary

parts. ZT = RT + jX T and Z A = RA + jX A

The real part of the antenna impedance, RA can be subdivided into

two parts, the radiation resistance, Rr, and the loss resistance, RL:

RA = Rr + RL

The power delivered to the load, P = I2RT, where the magnitude

of the current is given by:

V V

I= =

Z A + ZT ( Rr + RL + RT ) + ( X A + X T )

2 2

4

Equivalent Circuit Analysis and Effective Aperture

We can substitute this expression for current into our equation

for power delivered to the load:

V 2 RT

P = I 2 RT =

( Rr + RL + RT ) + ( X A + X T )

2 2

power delivered to the load divided by the magnitude of the

Poynting vector:

P (Watts ) V 2 RT

Ae = =

S (Watts / m 2 ) S ( Rr + RL + RT ) + ( X A + X T )

2 2

to the load (XA = -XT and RT = Rr), Ae becomes:

P (Watts ) V 2 RT V2

Ae = = = (m2 or λ 2 )

S (Watts / m 2 ) ( ) + ( X A + XT )

2 2

S RT + RL + RT 2 SRr

Scattering Aperture

The currents induced in the receive antenna as a result of the

incident field will cause re-radiation, or scattering, by the receive

antenna. The amount of scattering that will occur is determined

by the scattering aperture, AS (also called scattering cross

section).

The power of the signal re-radiated is given by

I2Rr, where I is the same current we derived

earlier: 2

V Rr

ZT PScattered = I 2 Rr =

( Rr + RL + RT ) + ( X A + X T )

2 2

Incident

Field

The scattering aperture is defined as Pscattered/S,

and in the matched lossless case it is equal to

Ae for the matched, lossless case:

PScattered V 2 Rr V2

Ae = = =

( )

S Rr + RL + Rr + ( X A + X T )

2 2

S 4 SRr

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