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z Solid Angle (Ω)

R sin θ ∆ φ
The actual area traced out
R∆θ
by ∆θ and ∆φ is R 2 sin θ∆θ∆φ

The solid angle represented


y by ∆θ and ∆φ is Ω = sin θ∆θ∆φ

x The solid angle is range independent


The actual area is equal to R 2 Ω

The solid angle of a sphere is 4π steradians, or sr. Solid angle is


sometimes expressed in degrees:
2
180  180 
1 radian = = 57.3° ⇒ (1 radian ) =   = 3282.8 deg /radian
2 2 2

π  π 
Thus there are 3282.8 × 4π = 41, 253 square degrees in a sphere

Beam Area (ΩA), or Solid Beam Angle


This parameter provides a means for
specifying directivity when the antenna is
directive in both q and φ. Provides an
alternative to specifying beamwidth in both
q and φ separately.
Beam Area is given by the integral of the Equivalent
normalized power pattern: solid angle ΩA

ΩA = ∫ ∫ Pn (θ , φ )d Ω Actual pattern

2π π Half-Power
= ∫ ∫ P (θ , φ ) sin θ dθ dφ
0 0
n (sr) Beamwidth

ΩA can often be approximated by the


half-power beamwidths in q and φ
ΩA ≈ θ HPφ HP (sr) Polar Plot of P(θ )

1
Radiation Intensity (U(q,
( φ)) and Directivity (D
( )
Radiation Intensity is the power radiated per solid angle, and
unlike the Poynting vector, it will be independent of range. Its
units are (Watts/steradian), and it is related to the Poynting vector
magnitude and normalized power by:
U (θ , φ ) S (θ , φ )
P (θ , φ )n = =
U (θ , φ )max S (θ , φ ) max
Directivity is the ratio of the maximum radiation intensity to the
average radiation intensity:
U (θ , φ )max S (θ , φ )max
D= = (dimensionless)
U Average S Average
The average value of the Poynting vector is given by:
2π π
1 1
S Average = ∫ ∫ S (θ ,φ ) d Ω = ∫ ∫ S (θ , φ ) sin θ dθ dφ (Watts/m
2
)
4π 4π 0 0

Directivity (D
( )
Substituting our expression for Saverage into our equation for D:
S (θ , φ )max S (θ , φ )max 1
D= = =
S Average 1 1 S (θ , φ )
4π ∫ ∫ S (θ , φ ) d Ω 4π ∫ ∫ S (θ , φ )max
dΩ

1 4π
This gives us the expected result that
= =
1 ΩA
as the beam area decreases, the
∫ ∫ Pn (θ , φ ) d Ω
4π antenna becomes more directive.
Example: what is the beam area and directivity of an isotropic
antenna (assuming one existed)?
2π π
Isotropic ⇒ Pn (θ , φ ) = 1 ⇒ Ω A = ∫ ∫ P (θ , φ ) sin θ dθ dφ = 4π
n (Sr)
0 0
A beam area of 4π implies that the main beam subtends the
entire spherical surface, as would be expected

D= = 1 Which is the smallest directivity that an antenna can have
ΩA

2
Directivity (D
( ) and Gain (G
( )
Recalling our approximation ΩA ≈ θ HPφ HP (sr), we can write D as:
4π 4π (Sr) 41000 (deg2 ) Note that the number of square
D= ≈ ≈
Ω A θ HPφHP θ HP

φHP

degrees in a sphere is rounded off

The Gain of an antenna, G, depends upon its directivity and its


efficiency. That efficiency has to do with ohmic losses (the
heating up of the antenna). For high-frequency, low-power
applications we generally assume efficiency to be 100%. G is
related to D by G = kD, where k is efficiency (0≤ k ≤ 1)
Gain is often expressed in decibels, referenced to an isotropic
antenna.
 G 
GdBi = 10 log10   = 10 log10 G
G
 isotropic 
10 log is used, rather than 20 log, since G is based on power

Example: Apply Our Equations On Some


Published Antenna Specifications
Since the gain is less TYPE NO. 201164
than the directivity, the FREQ. RANGE 225-400-
antenna is not 100% MHz
VSWR 2.0:1 MAX.
efficient. The one dB
INPUT IMPEDANCE 50 OHMS
difference can be put
DIRECTIVITY 11 dBi
into linear units.
GAIN 10 dBi
G  kD  −0.1
NOM.
10 log10   = 10 log10   = −1 ⇒ k = 10 = 0.79 BEAMWIDTH H 60° NOM.
D  D PLANE
BEAMWIDTH E 60° NOM.
or the antenna is 79% efficient PLANE
Let’s see if directivity agrees with beamwidths SIDE AND BACK -15 dB
2 LOBE LEVEL. MIN.
41000 (deg ) 41000
D≈ = = 11.4 CROSS 20 dB
θ HP

φHP

(60)(60) POLARIZATION NOM.
POWER HANDLING 100
WATTS
 G  CW
GdBi = 10 log10   = 10 log10 11.4 = 10.6
G
 isotropic 

3
Aperture Concept
Consider a horn antenna whose
opening (aperture) has an area width
A = height x width
If the antenna is able to extract power

height
from all of its aperture, then the power
it can deliver is P = SA (Watts), where
S is the magnitude of the incident
Poynting vector (Watts/m2)
The aperture concept applies to all antennas, even wire
antennas. To calculate the aperture area for a wire antenna,
such as a dipole, we need to consider its equivalent circuit.

∼ Source Voltage
ZT Load ZT
Impedance Antenna
Incident ZA
Impedance
Field

Schematic Equivalent Circuit

Analyzing the Equivalent Circuit


This can be analyzed as a normal circuit,
where the source voltage is generated by the ∼
incident field. ZT
ZA
ZA and ZT are frequency
V dependent, and can be divided
I=
Z A + ZT into their real and imaginary
parts. ZT = RT + jX T and Z A = RA + jX A
The real part of the antenna impedance, RA can be subdivided into
two parts, the radiation resistance, Rr, and the loss resistance, RL:
RA = Rr + RL
The power delivered to the load, P = I2RT, where the magnitude
of the current is given by:
V V
I= =
Z A + ZT ( Rr + RL + RT ) + ( X A + X T )
2 2

4
Equivalent Circuit Analysis and Effective Aperture
We can substitute this expression for current into our equation
for power delivered to the load:
V 2 RT
P = I 2 RT =
( Rr + RL + RT ) + ( X A + X T )
2 2

Effective Aperture(Ae), which has units of m2, is given by the


power delivered to the load divided by the magnitude of the
Poynting vector:
P (Watts ) V 2 RT
Ae = =
S (Watts / m 2 ) S ( Rr + RL + RT ) + ( X A + X T )
2 2

If we assume that our antenna is lossless (RL = 0) and matched


to the load (XA = -XT and RT = Rr), Ae becomes:
P (Watts ) V 2 RT V2
Ae = = = (m2 or λ 2 )
S (Watts / m 2 ) ( ) + ( X A + XT )
2 2
S RT + RL + RT 2 SRr

Scattering Aperture
The currents induced in the receive antenna as a result of the
incident field will cause re-radiation, or scattering, by the receive
antenna. The amount of scattering that will occur is determined
by the scattering aperture, AS (also called scattering cross
section).
The power of the signal re-radiated is given by
I2Rr, where I is the same current we derived
earlier: 2
V Rr
ZT PScattered = I 2 Rr =
( Rr + RL + RT ) + ( X A + X T )
2 2
Incident
Field
The scattering aperture is defined as Pscattered/S,
and in the matched lossless case it is equal to
Ae for the matched, lossless case:
PScattered V 2 Rr V2
Ae = = =
( )
S Rr + RL + Rr + ( X A + X T )
2 2
S 4 SRr