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# z Solid Angle (Ω)

R sin θ ∆ φ
The actual area traced out
R∆θ
by ∆θ and ∆φ is R 2 sin θ∆θ∆φ

## The solid angle represented

y by ∆θ and ∆φ is Ω = sin θ∆θ∆φ

## x The solid angle is range independent

The actual area is equal to R 2 Ω

## The solid angle of a sphere is 4π steradians, or sr. Solid angle is

sometimes expressed in degrees:
2
180  180 
2 2 2

π  π 
Thus there are 3282.8 × 4π = 41, 253 square degrees in a sphere

## Beam Area (ΩA), or Solid Beam Angle

This parameter provides a means for
specifying directivity when the antenna is
directive in both q and φ. Provides an
alternative to specifying beamwidth in both
q and φ separately.
Beam Area is given by the integral of the Equivalent
normalized power pattern: solid angle ΩA

ΩA = ∫ ∫ Pn (θ , φ )d Ω Actual pattern

2π π Half-Power
= ∫ ∫ P (θ , φ ) sin θ dθ dφ
0 0
n (sr) Beamwidth

## ΩA can often be approximated by the

half-power beamwidths in q and φ
ΩA ≈ θ HPφ HP (sr) Polar Plot of P(θ )

1
( φ)) and Directivity (D
( )
unlike the Poynting vector, it will be independent of range. Its
units are (Watts/steradian), and it is related to the Poynting vector
magnitude and normalized power by:
U (θ , φ ) S (θ , φ )
P (θ , φ )n = =
U (θ , φ )max S (θ , φ ) max
Directivity is the ratio of the maximum radiation intensity to the
U (θ , φ )max S (θ , φ )max
D= = (dimensionless)
U Average S Average
The average value of the Poynting vector is given by:
2π π
1 1
S Average = ∫ ∫ S (θ ,φ ) d Ω = ∫ ∫ S (θ , φ ) sin θ dθ dφ (Watts/m
2
)
4π 4π 0 0

Directivity (D
( )
Substituting our expression for Saverage into our equation for D:
S (θ , φ )max S (θ , φ )max 1
D= = =
S Average 1 1 S (θ , φ )
4π ∫ ∫ S (θ , φ ) d Ω 4π ∫ ∫ S (θ , φ )max
dΩ

1 4π
This gives us the expected result that
= =
1 ΩA
as the beam area decreases, the
∫ ∫ Pn (θ , φ ) d Ω
4π antenna becomes more directive.
Example: what is the beam area and directivity of an isotropic
antenna (assuming one existed)?
2π π
Isotropic ⇒ Pn (θ , φ ) = 1 ⇒ Ω A = ∫ ∫ P (θ , φ ) sin θ dθ dφ = 4π
n (Sr)
0 0
A beam area of 4π implies that the main beam subtends the
entire spherical surface, as would be expected

D= = 1 Which is the smallest directivity that an antenna can have
ΩA

2
Directivity (D
( ) and Gain (G
( )
Recalling our approximation ΩA ≈ θ HPφ HP (sr), we can write D as:
4π 4π (Sr) 41000 (deg2 ) Note that the number of square
D= ≈ ≈
Ω A θ HPφHP θ HP

φHP

degrees in a sphere is rounded off

## The Gain of an antenna, G, depends upon its directivity and its

efficiency. That efficiency has to do with ohmic losses (the
heating up of the antenna). For high-frequency, low-power
applications we generally assume efficiency to be 100%. G is
related to D by G = kD, where k is efficiency (0≤ k ≤ 1)
Gain is often expressed in decibels, referenced to an isotropic
antenna.
 G 
GdBi = 10 log10   = 10 log10 G
G
 isotropic 
10 log is used, rather than 20 log, since G is based on power

## Example: Apply Our Equations On Some

Published Antenna Specifications
Since the gain is less TYPE NO. 201164
than the directivity, the FREQ. RANGE 225-400-
antenna is not 100% MHz
VSWR 2.0:1 MAX.
efficient. The one dB
INPUT IMPEDANCE 50 OHMS
difference can be put
DIRECTIVITY 11 dBi
into linear units.
GAIN 10 dBi
G  kD  −0.1
NOM.
10 log10   = 10 log10   = −1 ⇒ k = 10 = 0.79 BEAMWIDTH H 60° NOM.
D  D PLANE
BEAMWIDTH E 60° NOM.
or the antenna is 79% efficient PLANE
Let’s see if directivity agrees with beamwidths SIDE AND BACK -15 dB
2 LOBE LEVEL. MIN.
41000 (deg ) 41000
D≈ = = 11.4 CROSS 20 dB
θ HP

φHP

(60)(60) POLARIZATION NOM.
POWER HANDLING 100
WATTS
 G  CW
GdBi = 10 log10   = 10 log10 11.4 = 10.6
G
 isotropic 

3
Aperture Concept
Consider a horn antenna whose
opening (aperture) has an area width
A = height x width
If the antenna is able to extract power

height
from all of its aperture, then the power
it can deliver is P = SA (Watts), where
S is the magnitude of the incident
Poynting vector (Watts/m2)
The aperture concept applies to all antennas, even wire
antennas. To calculate the aperture area for a wire antenna,
such as a dipole, we need to consider its equivalent circuit.

∼ Source Voltage
Impedance Antenna
Incident ZA
Impedance
Field

## Analyzing the Equivalent Circuit

This can be analyzed as a normal circuit,
where the source voltage is generated by the ∼
incident field. ZT
ZA
ZA and ZT are frequency
V dependent, and can be divided
I=
Z A + ZT into their real and imaginary
parts. ZT = RT + jX T and Z A = RA + jX A
The real part of the antenna impedance, RA can be subdivided into
two parts, the radiation resistance, Rr, and the loss resistance, RL:
RA = Rr + RL
The power delivered to the load, P = I2RT, where the magnitude
of the current is given by:
V V
I= =
Z A + ZT ( Rr + RL + RT ) + ( X A + X T )
2 2

4
Equivalent Circuit Analysis and Effective Aperture
We can substitute this expression for current into our equation
for power delivered to the load:
V 2 RT
P = I 2 RT =
( Rr + RL + RT ) + ( X A + X T )
2 2

## Effective Aperture(Ae), which has units of m2, is given by the

power delivered to the load divided by the magnitude of the
Poynting vector:
P (Watts ) V 2 RT
Ae = =
S (Watts / m 2 ) S ( Rr + RL + RT ) + ( X A + X T )
2 2

## If we assume that our antenna is lossless (RL = 0) and matched

to the load (XA = -XT and RT = Rr), Ae becomes:
P (Watts ) V 2 RT V2
Ae = = = (m2 or λ 2 )
S (Watts / m 2 ) ( ) + ( X A + XT )
2 2
S RT + RL + RT 2 SRr

Scattering Aperture
The currents induced in the receive antenna as a result of the
antenna. The amount of scattering that will occur is determined
by the scattering aperture, AS (also called scattering cross
section).
The power of the signal re-radiated is given by
I2Rr, where I is the same current we derived
earlier: 2
V Rr
ZT PScattered = I 2 Rr =
( Rr + RL + RT ) + ( X A + X T )
2 2
Incident
Field
The scattering aperture is defined as Pscattered/S,
and in the matched lossless case it is equal to
Ae for the matched, lossless case:
PScattered V 2 Rr V2
Ae = = =
( )
S Rr + RL + Rr + ( X A + X T )
2 2
S 4 SRr