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Rudin Chapter 6

Selected Solutions

April 18, 2011

Problems 6.1,6.2,6.3,6.4

6.1) Suppose α increases on [a, b], a x 0 b, α is continuous at x 0 , f(x 0 ) = 1, and f (x) = 0

if x

= x 0 . Prove that f R(α) and that f dα = 0.

Proof. Since f is bounded on [a, b], has one point of discontinuity, x 0 , and α is contin-

uous at x 0 , by Theorem 6.10, f R(α).

We want to show that given any > 0, there exists a partition P such that U (P, f, α)

L(P, f, α) < . Pick > 0. Since α is continuous at x 0 , we can ﬁnd (u, v) [a, b] such

that u < x 0 < v and α(v) α(u) < . Choose a partition P such that a, u, v, b P

and no points of

For the

interval, [u, v], we note that M v = 1, m v = 0. Further for all other intervals [x i1 , x i ],

M i = m i = 0. Calculating the upper and lower sums we get:

(u, v)

are in

P .

So P

= {a = x 0 ,

, u, v,

, x n

= b}.

L(P, f, α) =

n

i=1

m i α i =

n

i=1

(0)∆α i = 0

Therefore,

U(P, f, α) =

n

i=1

M i α i = M v (α(v) α(u)) = α(v) α(u)

U(P, f, α) L(P, f, α) = α(v) α(u) <

Further as 0, U (P, f, α) 0 f dα = 0.

6.2) Suppose f 0, f is continuous on [a, b], and

a b f (x) dx = 0.

all x [a, b]. (Compare this Exercise 1.)

Prove that f (x) = 0 for

Proof. By deﬁnition, we see that for any partition P

0 L(P, f)

a

b

f(x) dx = 0.

This implies that L(P, f ) = 0 for all partitions, P . Suppose there exists a t [a, b]

such that f (t) > 0. By the Intermediate Value Thm and the fact that f is continuous,

1

we can ﬁnd an s where a < s < t < b such that f (s) > 0 and f (x) > 0 for all

We can see that m > 0 for the interval

[s, t]. This implies that L(P , f ) > 0 which is a contradiction. Therefore, f (x) = 0 for

all x [a, b].

x [s, t].

x n .

Now let P = x 0 ,

, s, t,

,

In exercise 1, f did not need to be continuous at x 0 because α was continuous. Therefore

the point discontinuity in f ultimately did not aﬀect the result.

6.3) Deﬁne β 1 , β 2 , β 3 as follows:

β j (x) = 0 if x < 0, β j (x) = 1 if x > 0 for j = 1, 2, 3; and

β 1 = 0, β 2 = 1, β 3 = 1 2 . Let f be a bounded function on [1, 1].

a) Prove that f R(β 1 ) if and only if f (0+) = f (0) and that then f dβ 1 = f (0).

Proof. Take a partition P =

the following are true:

{x 0 , x 1 , x 2 , x 3 } where x 0 = 1, x 1 =

U(P, f, β 1 ) = M 2 and L(P, f, β 1 ) = m 2

Suppose

f R(β 1 ). Then,

a

b

f dβ 1 = ¯ b f dβ 1 M 2 m 2 0 as x 2 x 1

a

0, x 3 = 1. Then

f(x 2 ) f(x 1 ) as x 2 x 1 f (0+) = f (0).

Suppose f (0+)

m 2 converge to

= f (0), then f (x 2 ) f (0) as x 2 0. This implies that M 2 and

f (0) as x 2 0. Therefore,

a

b

f dβ 1 = ¯ b f dβ 1 = f (0) f R(β 1 ).

a

Further, this also implies that f dβ 1 = f (0).

b) Prove that f R(β 2 ) if and only if f (0) = f (0) and that then f dβ 2 = f (0).

Proof. Take a partition P =

the following are true:

{x 0 , x 1 , x 2 , x 3 } where x 0 = 1, x 2 = 0, x 3 = 1. Then

U(P, f, β 2 ) = M 2 and L(P, f, β 2 ) = m 2

2

Suppose

f R(β 2 ). Then,

a

b

f dβ 2 = ¯ b f dβ 2 M 2 m 2 0 as x 1 x 2

a

f(x 1 ) f(x 2 ) as x 1 x 2 f (0) = f (0).

Suppose f (0) = f (0), then f (x 1 ) f (0) as x 1 0. This implies that M 2 and

m 2 converge to

f (0) as x 1 0. Therefore,

a

b

f dβ 2 = ¯ b f dβ 2 = f (0) f R(β 2 ).

a

Further, this also implies that f dβ 2 = f (0).

c) Prove that f R(β 3 ) if and only if f is continuous at 0.

Proof. Take a partition P = {x 0 , x 1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 } where x 0 = 1, x 2 = 0, x 4 = 1.

Then the following are true:

U(P, f, β 3 ) = 1 2 (M 2 + M 3 ) and L(P, f, β 3 ) =

1

2

(m 2 + m 3 )

 ⇐ Suppose f is continuous then f (0−) = f (0+) = f (0). So f (x 2 ) → f (0) as x 2 → 0 and f (x 3 ) → f (0) as x 3 → 0. This implies that M 2

and m 2 converge to f (0) as x 2 0 and M 3 and m 3 converge to f (0) as x 3 0.

So from the earlier partition P ,

U(P, f, β 3 ) =

L(P, f, β 3 )

1

2

(M 2 + M 3 ) 1

2 (f (0) + f (0)) = f (0) and

= 1 2 (m 2 + m 3 )

1

2 (f (0) + f (0)) = f (0),

as x 2 and x 3 converge to 0.

Suppose f R(β 3 ) and pick an > 0.Then

1 f dβ 3 = 1 f dβ 3 + 1 f dβ 3

1

0

0

From this we know there is a partition P 1

1 f dβ 3 such that

0

=

{−1, x 1 ,

U(P 1 , f, β 3 ) L(P 1 , f, β 3 ) <

2

3

,

x n1 , x n

=

0} for

We note that U (P 1 , f, β 3 ) = 1 2 (M n ) and L(P 1 , f, β 3 )

=

1

2

(m n ). So,

U(P 1 , f, β 3 ) L(P, f, β 3 ) =

1

2

(M n m n ) <

2

This means that given an > 0 there exists a δ = (0 x n1 ) such that

|f (0) f (x n1 )| < since f (0), f (x n1 ) [m n , M n ].

This implies that f (0) = f (0).

A similar argument can be made for

1

0

f dβ 3 to show that

f (0) = f (0+) = f (0), f is continuous at

0.

f (0+) = f (0). Since

Therefore,

a

b

f dβ 3 = ¯ b f dβ 3 = f (0) f R(β 3 ).

a

Finally, this implies that f dβ 3 = f (0).

d) If f is continuous at 0, prove that

f dβ 1 = f dβ 2 = f dβ 3 = f (0).

Proof. Since f is continuous at 0, this implies that f (0) = f (0+) = f (0).

Therefore, by parts a, b, and c above,

6.4)

f dβ 1 = f dβ 2 = f dβ 3 = f (0).

If f (x) = 0, for all irrational x, f (x) = 1 for all rational x, prove that f / R on [a, b]

for any a < b.

, x n }. We note that every

interval [x i1 , x i ] contains at least one irrational and one rational number. Therefore

Proof. Let P be any partition on [a, b] where P = {x 0 ,

M i = 1 and m i = 0 for every interval in the partition. This means:

U(P, f) =

n

i=1

M i x i =

n

i=1

(1)∆x i =

n

i=1

x i = b a

L(P, f) =

n

i=1

m i x i =

n

i=1

(0)∆x i = 0

4

Since we chose P arbitrarily, this result is true for all P . This means since a

= b,

(b a) = inf U (P, f ) = ¯ b f dx

a

=

a

b

f dx = sup L(P, f ) = 0

Therefore f / R.

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