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K. Wi´sniewski

Finite Rotation Shells

Basic Equations and Finite Elements for Reissner Kinematics

February 25, 2010

Springer

V

To my wife Ewa, my parents, and my children.

Contents

I

PRELIMINARIES

 

1

Introduction

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2

1.1 Subject of

the book

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2

1.2 Notation

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4

2

Operations on tensors and their representations

 

6

2.1 Cartesian bases

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6

2.2 Normal bases

 

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10

2.3 Gradients and derivatives

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19

II

SHELL EQUATIONS

 

3

Rotations for 3D Cauchy continuum

 

22

3.1 Polar decomposition

of deformation gradient

 

22

3.2 Rotation Constraint

equation

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24

3.3 Interpretation of rotation Q

 

26

3.4 Rate

form of

RC

 

equation

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28

3.5 Rotations calculated from the RC equation

 

29

4

3D formulations with rotations

 

30

4.1 Governing

equations

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31

4.2 4-F

formulation

for

nominal

stress

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37

4.3 3-F

formulation

for

nominal

stress

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40

3-F

4.4 and

2-F

formulations

for

Biot

stress

 

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42

4.5 3-F and 2-F formulations for second Piola–Kirchhoff stress

45

4.6 2-F

formulation with unconstrained rotations

 

48

Contents

VII

5 Basic geometric definitions for shells

 

49

5.1 Coordinates and position vector

 

49

5.2 Basic geometric definitions

 

52

5.3 Example: Geometrical description of

cylinder

 

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57

6 Shells with Reissner kinematics and drilling rotation

 

60

6.1 Kinematics

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60

6.2 Rotation Constraint for shells

 

65

6.3 Shell strains

 

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66

6.3.1 Non-symmetric relaxed right stretch strain

 

66

6.3.2 Symmetric relaxed

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6.3.3 Green strain

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right stretch strain .

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68

69

6.3.4 Transverse shear strains satisfying RC.

 

Kirchhoff

 
 

kinematics

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73

6.3.5 Rotation as an intermediate variable symmetrizing

 
 

strain

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75

6.3.6 In-plane deformation with drilling rotation

 

76

6.3.7 Forward-rotated shell strains variations

 

78

6.4 Virtual work equation for shell

 

80

6.4.1 Virtual

work

of

Biot

stress

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80

6.4.2 Virtual work of second Piola–Kirchhoff

 

82

6.4.3 Variation of RC term

 

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83

6.4.4 Virtual work of body forces and external forces

 

84

6.4.5 Virtual

work

equation

for shell

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85

6.5 Local shell equations

 

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86

6.6 Enhanced shell kinematics

 

91

6.6.1 Two normal stretches

 

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91

6.6.2 In-plane twist rotation

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92

6.6.3 Warping parameters for cross-section

 

94

6.6.4 Shift of the reference surface

 

95

7 Shell-type constitutive equations

 

97

7.1 Constitutive equations for 3D shells

 

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97

7.1.1 Incremental

3D constitutive equations

 

98

7.1.2 Incremental constitutive equations for shell resultants

99

7.1.3 General form of constitutive equations for shell

 
 

resultants

 

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101

7.2 Reduced shell constitutive

equations

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107

7.2.1

Reduced constitutive equations for ZNS condition

 

108

VIII

Contents

 

7.2.2

Reduced constitutive equations for incompressibility

 

condition

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115

 

7.3

Shear

correction

factor

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120

III

FINITE ROTATIONS FOR SHELLS

 

8

Parametrization of finite rotations

 

126

8.1 Basic properties of rotations

 

126

 

8.1.1 Rotation

tensor

 

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127

of

8.1.2 vector about axis

Rotation

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128

8.1.3 a triad of

Rotation

of

vectors

 

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134

 

8.2 Parametrization of rotations

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137

 

8.2.1 Six parameters

 

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139

8.2.2 Five parameters

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140

8.2.3 Four parameters: Euler parameters (quaternions)

 

144

8.2.4 Three parameters: rotation pseudo-vectors

 

146

8.2.5 Three

parameters:

Euler

angles

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160

8.2.6 Two parameters: constrained rotations of shell

 

director

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164

 

8.3 Composition of rotations

 

170

 

8.3.1 Composition

of

rotation tensors

 

170

8.3.2 Composition of Euler parameters (quaternions)

 

172

8.3.3 Composition

of

rotation pseudo-vectors

 

173

8.3.4 Composition

of

Euler angles

 

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177

9

Algorithmic schemes for finite

rotations

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178

9.1 Increments of rotation vectors in two tangent planes

 

179

 

9.1.1 Operator

T

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179

9.1.2 Differential χT

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188

 

9.2 Variation of rotation tensor

 

189

 

9.2.1 Variation of rotation tensor for additive composition

 

189

9.2.2 Variation of rotation tensor for multiplicative

 

composition .

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190

9.2.3 Relations between variations for various composition

 

rules

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192

9.2.4 Second variation of rotation tensor

 

198

 

9.3 Algorithmic schemes for finite rotations

 

202

 

9.3.1 Scheme

1:

formulation

in

T I SO(3)

 

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204

9.3.2 Scheme

2:

formulation

in

T R ref SO(3)

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205

Contents

IX

 

9.3.3 Scheme 3: formulation in T R SO(3)

 

208

9.3.4 Symmetry of tangent operator for structures with

 

rotational dofs

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209

9.3.5 Example: twisted ring by 3D beam element

 

210

9.4

Angular velocity and acceleration

 

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212

9.4.1 Basic

definitions

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212

9.4.2 Angular velocity and acceleration for parametrizations214

 

9.4.3 Examples of updates

for rigid body motion

 

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218

IV

FOUR-NODE SHELL ELEMENTS

 

10

Basic relations for four-node shell elements

 

230

10.1 Bilinear isoparametric approximations

 

230

10.2 Geometry and bases of shell element

 

232

10.3 Jacobian matrices

 

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240

10.4 Deformation gradient, F T F and Q T F products

 

249

10.5 Numerical integration of shell elements

 

255

10.6 Newton method and tangent

 

261

11

Plane four-node elements (without drilling rotation)

 

268

11.1 Basic equations

 

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268

11.2 Displacement element Q4

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272

11.3 Solution of FE equations for problems with additional

 

variables

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274

11.4 Enhanced strain elements based on potential energy

 

277

11.4.1 ID4

 

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