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# Reference Guide & Formula Sheet for Physics

## Dr. Hoselton & Mr. Price Page 1 of 8

#20 Heating a Solid, Liquid or Gas
#3 Components of a Vector Q = m•c•∆T (no phase changes!)
if V = 34 m/sec ∠48° Q = the heat added
then c = specific heat.
Vi = 34 m/sec•(cos 48°); and VJ = 34 m/sec•(sin 48°) ∆T = temperature change, K
#21 Linear Momentum
#4 Weight = m•g momentum = p = m•v = mass • velocity
g = 9.81m/sec² near the surface of the Earth momentum is conserved in collisions
= 9.795 m/sec² in Fort Worth, TX
#23 Center of Mass – point masses on a line
Density = mass / volume xcm = Σ(mx) / Mtotal

ρ=
m
V
(
unit : kg / m 3 ) #25 Angular Speed vs. Linear Speed
Linear speed = v = r•ω = r • angular speed
#7 Ave speed = distance / time = v = d/t
Ave velocity = displacement / time = v = d/t #26 Pressure under Water
Ave acceleration = change in velocity / time P = ρ•g•h
h = depth of water
#8 Friction Force ρ = density of water
FF = µ•FN #28 Universal Gravitation
If the object is not moving, you are dealing with static m1 m2
friction and it can have any value from zero up to µs FN F =G
If the object is sliding, then you are dealing with kinetic
r2
friction and it will be constant and equal to µK FN G = 6.67 E-11 N m² / kg²

## #9 Torque #29 Mechanical Energy

PEGrav = P = m•g•h
τ = F•L•sin θ KELinear = K = ½•m•v²
Where θ is the angle between F and L; unit: Nm
#30 Impulse = Change in Momentum
#11 Newton's Second Law F•∆t = ∆(m•v)
Fnet = ΣFExt = m•a
#31 Snell's Law
#12 Work = F•D•cos θ n1•sin θ1 = n2•sin θ2
Where D is the distance moved and Index of Refraction
θ is the angle between F and the n=c/v
direction of motion, c = speed of light = 3 E+8 m/s
unit : J
#32 Ideal Gas Law
#16 Power = rate of work done P•V = n•R•T
Work n = # of moles of gas
Power = unit : watt R = gas law constant
time = 8.31 J / K mole.
Efficiency = Workout / Energyin #34 Periodic Waves
Mechanical Advantage = force out / force in v = f •λ
M.A. = Fout / Fin f=1/T T = period of wave

## #19 Constant-Acceleration Linear Motion #35 Constant-Acceleration Circular Motion

v = vο + a•t x ω = ωο + α•t θ
(x-xο) = vο•t + ½•a•t² v θ−θο= ωο•t + ½•α•t² ω
2 2
v ² = vο² + 2•a• (x - xο) t ω = ωο + 2•α•(θ−θο) t
(x-xο) = ½•( vο + v) •t a θ−θο = ½•(ωο + ω)•t α
(x-xο) = v•t - ½•a•t² vο θ−θο = ω•t - ½•α•t² ωο

Version 5/12/2005
Reference Guide & Formula Sheet for Physics
Dr. Hoselton & Mr. Price Page 2 of 8
#53 Resistor Combinations
#36 Buoyant Force - Buoyancy SERIES
FB = ρ•V•g = mDisplaced fluid•g = weightDisplaced fluid Req = R1 + R2+ R3+. . .
ρ = density of the fluid PARALLEL
n
V = volume of fluid displaced 1 1 1 1 1
R eq
= +
R1 R 2
+K +
Rn
= ∑R
i =1 i
#37 Ohm's Law
V = I•R #54 Newton's Second Law and
V = voltage applied Rotational Inertia
I = current τ = torque = I•α
R = resistance I = moment of inertia = m•r² (for a point mass)
(See table in Lesson 58 for I of 3D shapes.)
Resistance of a Wire
R = ρ•L / Ax #55 Circular Unbanked Tracks
ρ = resistivity of wire material
mv 2
L = length of the wire = µmg
Ax = cross-sectional area of the wire r
#56 Continuity of Fluid Flow
#39 Heat of a Phase Change Ain•vin = Aout•vout A= Area
Q = m•L v = velocity
L = Latent Heat of phase change #58 Moment of Inertia - I
cylindrical hoop m•r2
#41 Hooke's Law solid cylinder or disk ½ m•r2
2
F = k•x solid sphere /5 m•r2
Potential Energy of a spring hollow sphere ⅔ m•r2
1
W = ½•k•x² = Work done on spring thin rod (center) /12 m•L2
thin rod (end) ⅓ m•L2
#42 Electric Power
P = I²•R = V ² / R = I•V #59 Capacitors Q = C•V
Q = charge on the capacitor
#44 Speed of a Wave on a String C = capacitance of the capacitor
mv 2 V = voltage applied to the capacitor
T= RC Circuits (Discharging)
L − t/RC
Vc = Vo•e
T = tension in string
Vc − I•R = 0
m = mass of string
L = length of string
#60 Thermal Expansion
#45 Projectile Motion
Linear: ∆L = Lo•α•∆T
Horizontal: x-xο= vο•t + 0
Vertical: y-yο = vο•t + ½•a•t² Volume: ∆V = Vo•β•∆T

## #46 Centripetal Force #61 Bernoulli's Equation

mv 2 P + ρ•g•h + ½•ρ•v ² = constant
F= = mω 2 r QVolume Flow Rate = A1•v1 = A2•v2 = constant
r
#62 Rotational Kinetic Energy (See LEM, pg 8)
#47 Kirchhoff’s Laws 2
KErotational = ½•I•ω = ½•I• (v / r)2
Loop Rule: ΣAround any loop ∆Vi = 0 2
KErolling w/o slipping = ½•m•v2 + ½•I•ω
Node Rule: Σat any node Ii = 0

## #51 Minimum Speed at the top of a Angular Momentum = L = I•ω = m•v•r•sin θ

Vertical Circular Loop Angular Impulse equals
CHANGE IN Angular Momentum
v = rg ∆L = τorque•∆t = ∆(I•ω)

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Reference Guide & Formula Sheet for Physics
Dr. Hoselton & Mr. Price Page 3 of 8
#75 Thin Lens Equation
#63 Period of Simple Harmonic Motion f = focal length
T = 2π
m where k = spring constant 1 1 1 1 1 i = image distance
= + = +
k f D o D i o i o = object distance
f = 1 / T = 1 / period
#64 Banked Circular Tracks Magnification
v2 = r•g•tan θ M = −Di / Do = −i / o = Hi / Ho

#66 First Law of Thermodynamics Helpful reminders for mirrors and lenses
∆U = QNet + WNet Focal Length of: positive negative
Change in Internal Energy of a system = mirror concave convex
+Net Heat added to the system lens converging diverging
+Net Work done on the system Object distance = o all objects
Object height = Ho all objects
Flow of Heat through a Solid Image distance = i real virtual
∆Q / ∆t = k•A•∆T / L Image height = Hi virtual, upright real, inverted
k = thermal conductivity Magnification virtual, upright real, inverted
A = area of solid
L = thickness of solid #76 Coulomb's Law
q1 q 2
#68 Potential Energy stored in a Capacitor F =k
P = ½•C•V² r2
1 N ⋅m2
k= = 9E9
RC Circuit formula (Charging) 4πε o C2
− t / RC
Vc = Vcell•(1 − e ) #77 Capacitor Combinations
R•C = τ = time constant PARALLEL
Vcell - Vcapacitor − I•R = 0 Ceq = C1 + C2+ C3 + …
SERIES
n
1 1 1 1 1
#71 Simple Pendulum C eq
= +
C1 C 2
+K +
Cn
= ∑C
i =1 i
L and f = 1/ T
T = 2π
g #78 Work done on a gas or by a gas
W = P•∆V
#72 Sinusoidal motion
x = A•cos(ω•t) = A•cos(2•π•f •t) #80 Electric Field around a point charge
ω = angular frequency q
E=k
f = frequency r2
#73 Doppler Effect 1 N ⋅m2
k = = 9E9
343 ± Toward
vo 4πε o C2
f′= f
Away

343 m Toward
Away vs #82 Magnetic Field around a wire
vo = velocity of observer: vs = velocity of source µ I
B= o
2π r
#74 2nd Law of Thermodynamics Magnetic Flux
The change in internal energy of a system is Φ = B•A•cos θ
∆U = QAdded + WDone On – Qlost – WDone By
Force caused by a magnetic field
Maximum Efficiency of a Heat Engine on a moving charge
(Carnot Cycle) (Temperatures in Kelvin) F = q•v•B•sin θ
Tc
% Eff = (1 − ) ⋅100% #83 Entropy change at constant T
Th ∆S = Q / T
(Phase changes only: melting, boiling, freezing, etc)

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Dr. Hoselton & Mr. Price Page 4 of 8
#95 Relativistic Time Dilation
#84 Capacitance of a Capacitor ∆t = ∆to / β
C = κ•εo•A / d
κ = dielectric constant #96 Relativistic Length Contraction
A = area of plates ∆x = β•∆xo
d = distance between plates
εo = 8.85 E(-12) F/m Relativistic Mass Increase
m = mo / β
#85 Induced Voltage N = # of loops
∆Φ #97 Energy of a Photon or a Particle
Emf = N E = h•f = m•c2
∆t
Lenz’s Law – induced current flows to create a B-field h = Planck's constant = 6.63 E(-34) J sec
opposing the change in magnetic flux. f = frequency of the photon

#86 Inductors during an increase in current #98 Radioactive Decay Rate Law
−kt
VL = Vcell•e
− t / (L / R) A = Ao•e = (1/2n)•A0 (after n half-lives)
Where k = (ln 2) / half-life
− t / (L / R)
I = (Vcell/R)•[ 1 - e ] #99 Blackbody Radiation and
L / R = τ = time constant the Photoelectric Effect
#88 Transformers E= n•h•f where h = Planck's constant
N 1 / N 2 = V 1 / V2
I1•V1 = I2•V2 #100 Early Quantum Physics
#89 Decibel Scale Rutherford-Bohr Hydrogen-like Atoms
B (Decibel level of sound) = 10 log ( I / Io )
I = intensity of sound 1  1 1 
Io = intensity of softest audible sound
= R ⋅  2 − 2 meters −1
λ  ns n 
or
#92 Poiseuille's Law
∆P = 8•η•L•Q/(π•r )
4
c  1 1 
f = = cR  2 − 2  Hz
η = coefficient of viscosity λ  ns n 
L = length of pipe R = Rydberg's Constant
r = radius of pipe = 1.097373143 E7 m-1
Q = flow rate of fluid ns = series integer (2 = Balmer)
Stress and Strain n = an integer > ns
Y or S or B = stress / strain
stress = F/A Mass-Energy Equivalence
Three kinds of strain: unit-less ratios mv = mo / β
I. Linear: strain = ∆L / L Total Energy = KE + moc2 = moc2 / β
II. Shear: strain = ∆x / L Usually written simply as E = m c2
III. Volume: strain = ∆V / V
de Broglie Matter Waves
#93 Postulates of Special Relativity For light: Ep = h•f = h•c / λ = p•c
1. Absolute, uniform motion cannot be
detected. Therefore, momentum: p = h / λ
2. No energy or mass transfer can occur Similarly for particles, p = m•v = h / λ,
at speeds faster than the speed of light. so the matter wave's wavelength must be
λ=h/mv
#94 Lorentz Transformation Factor Energy Released by Nuclear
v2 Fission or Fusion Reaction
β = 1− 2 E = ∆mo•c2
c

Version 5/12/2005
Reference Guide & Formula Sheet for Physics
Dr. Hoselton & Mr. Price Page 5 of 8

## MISCELLANEOUS FORMULAS Fundamental SI Units

Unit Base Unit Symbol
Quadratic Formula …………………….
if a x² + b x + c = 0 Length meter m
then
Mass kilogram kg
− b ± b − 4ac2
Time second s
x=
2a Electric
Current ampere A
Trigonometric Definitions Thermodynamic
sin θ = opposite / hypotenuse Temperature kelvin K
cos θ = adjacent / hypotenuse Luminous
tan θ = opposite / adjacent Intensity candela cd
Quantity of
sec θ = 1 / cos θ = hyp / adj Substance moles mol
csc θ = 1 / sin θ = hyp / opp
cot θ = 1 / tan θ = adj / opp Plane Angle radian rad

## Inverse Trigonometric Definitions Solid Angle steradian sr or str

θ = sin-1 (opp / hyp)
θ = cos-1 (adj / hyp)
θ = tan-1 (opp / adj) Some Derived SI Units
Symbol/Unit Quantity Base Units
Law of Sines …………………….
a / sin A = b / sin B = c / sin C C coulomb Electric Charge A•s
or
sin A / a = sin B / b = sin C / c F farad Capacitance A2•s4/(kg•m2)

## Law of Cosines H henry Inductance kg•m2/(A2•s2)

a = b + c2 - 2 b c cos A
2 2

## b2 = c2 + a2 - 2 c a cos B Hz hertz Frequency s-1

c² = a² + b² - 2 a b cos C
J joule Energy & Work kg•m2/s2 = N•m
T-Pots
For the functional form N newton Force kg•m/s2
1 1 1
= + Ω ohm Elec Resistance kg•m2/(A2•s2)
A B C
Pa pascal Pressure kg/(m•s2)
You may use "The Product over the Sum" rule.
B ⋅C T tesla Magnetic Field kg/(A•s2)
A=
B+C
V volt Elec Potential kg•m2/(A•s3)
For the Alternate Functional form
1 1 1 W watt Power kg•m2/s3
= −
A B C Non-SI Units
o
C degrees Celsius Temperature
You may substitute T-Pot-d
B ⋅C B ⋅C eV electron-volt Energy, Work
A= =−
C−B B−C

Version 5/12/2005
Reference Guide & Formula Sheet for Physics
Dr. Hoselton & Mr. Price Page 6 of 8
Αα Alpha angular acceleration, coefficient of
Aa acceleration, Area, Ax=Cross-sectional Area, linear expansion,
Amperes, Amplitude of a Wave, Angle, Ββ Beta coefficient of volume expansion,
Bb Magnetic Field, Decibel Level of Sound, Lorentz transformation factor,
Angle, Χχ Chi
Cc specific heat, speed of light, Capacitance,
Angle, Coulombs, oCelsius, Celsius
Degrees, candela, ∆δ Delta ∆=change in a variable,
Dd displacement, differential change in a variable,
Distance, Distance Moved, distance, Εε Epsilon εο = permittivity of free space,
Ee base of the natural logarithms, charge on the
electron, Energy, Φφ Phi Magnetic Flux, angle,
Ff Force, frequency of a wave or periodic motion,
Farads, Γγ Gamma surface tension = F / L,
Gg Universal Gravitational Constant, acceleration 1 / γ = Lorentz transformation factor,
due to gravity, Gauss, grams, Giga-, Ηη Eta
Hh depth of a fluid, height, vertical distance,
Henrys, Hz=Hertz,
Ιι Iota
Ii Current, Moment of Inertia, image distance,
Intensity of Sound,
ϑϕ Theta and Phi lower case alternates.
Jj Joules,
Kk K or KE = Kinetic Energy, force constant of Κκ Kappa dielectric constant,
a spring, thermal conductivity, coulomb's
law constant, kg=kilograms, Kelvins,
kilo-, rate constant for Radioactive
decay =1/τ=ln2 / half-life,
Λλ Lambda wavelength of a wave, rate constant
Ll Length, Length of a wire, Latent Heat of
Fusion or Vaporization, Angular for Radioactive decay =1/τ=ln2/half-life,
Momentum, Thickness, Inductance,
Μµ Mu friction, µo = permeability of free space,
Mm mass, Total Mass, meters, milli-, Mega-,
micro-,
mo=rest mass, mol=moles,
Nn index of refraction, moles of a gas, Newtons, Νν Nu alternate symbol for frequency,
Number of Loops, nano-,
Oo Οο Omicron
Pp Power, Pressure of a Gas or Fluid, Potential Ππ Pi 3.1425926536…,
Energy, momentum, Power, Pa=Pascal,
Qq Heat gained or lost, Maximum Charge on a Θθ Theta angle between two vectors,
Capacitor, object distance, Flow Rate,
Rr radius, Ideal Gas Law Constant, Resistance, Ρρ Rho density of a solid or liquid, resistivity,
magnitude or length of a vector,
rad=radians
Ss speed, seconds, Entropy, length along an arc, Σσ Sigma Summation, standard deviation,
Tt time, Temperature, Period of a Wave, Tension, Ττ Tau torque, time constant for a exponential
Teslas, t1/2=half-life, processes; eg τ=RC or τ=L/R or τ=1/k=1/λ,
Uu Potential Energy, Internal Energy, Υυ Upsilon
Vv velocity, Velocity, Volume of a Gas, velocity of ςϖ Zeta and Omega lower case alternates
wave, Volume of Fluid Displaced, Voltage, Volts, Ωω Omega angular speed or angular velocity,
Ww weight, Work, Watts, Wb=Weber, Ohms
Xx distance, horizontal distance, x-coordinate Ξξ Xi
east-and-west coordinate,
Yy vertical distance, y-coordinate, Ψψ Psi
north-and-south coordinate,
Zz z-coordinate, up-and-down coordinate, Ζζ Zeta

Version 5/12/2005
Reference Guide & Formula Sheet for Physics
Dr. Hoselton & Mr. Price Page 7 of 8
Values of Trigonometric Functions
for 1st Quadrant Angles Prefixes
(simple mostly-rational approximations)
θ sin θ cos θ tan θ Factor Prefix Symbol Example
o
0 0 1 0
10o 1/6 65/66 11/65 1018 exa- E 38 Es (Age of
15o 1/4 28/29 29/108 the Universe
in Seconds)
20o 1/3 16/17 17/47
1015 peta- P
29o 151/2/8 7/8 151/2/7
30o 1/2 31/2/2 1/31/2
o 1012 tera- T 0.3 TW (Peak
37 3/5 4/5 3/4 power of a
42o 2/3 3/4 8/9 1 ps pulse
45o 21/2/2 21/2/2 1 from a typical
o
49 3/4 2/3 9/8 Nd-glass laser)
53o 4/5 3/5 4/3
60 31/2/2 1/2 31/2 109 giga- G 22 G\$ (Size of
61o 7/8 151/2/8 7/151/2 Bill & Melissa
o
70 16/17 1/3 47/17 Gates’ Trust)
o
75 28/29 1/4 108/29
80o 65/66 1/6 65/11 106 mega- M 6.37 Mm (The
90 o
1 0 ∞ radius of the
Earth)
(Memorize the Bold rows for future reference.)
103 kilo- k 1 kg (SI unit
Derivatives of Polynomials of mass)

For polynomials, with individual terms of the form Axn, 10-1 deci- d 10 cm
we define the derivative of each term as
10-2 centi- c 2.54 cm (=1 in)
d
dx
( )
Ax n = nAx n −1 10-3 milli- m 1 mm (The
smallest
To find the derivative of the polynomial, simply add the division on a
derivatives for the individual terms: meter stick)

d
dx
( )
3x 2 + 6 x − 3 = 6 x + 6 10-6 micro- µ

## 10-9 nano- n 510 nm (Wave-

Integrals of Polynomials length of green
light)
For polynomials, with individual terms of the form Axn,
we define the indefinite integral of each term as 10-12 pico- p 1 pg (Typical
mass of a DNA
∫ (Ax )dx = n + 1 Ax
n 1 n +1
sample used in
genome
To find the indefinite studies)
integral of the polynomial, simply add the integrals for 10-15 femto- f
the individual terms and the constant of integration, C.
10-18 atto- a 600 as (Time

## ∫ (6 x + 6)dx = [3x + 6x + C ] duration of the

2
shortest laser
pulses)

Version 5/12/2005
Reference Guide & Formula Sheet for Physics
Dr. Hoselton & Mr. Price Page 8 of 8

Linear Equivalent Mass The only external force on this system is the weight of
the hanging mass. The mass of the system consists of
Rotating systems can be handled using the linear forms the hanging mass plus the linear equivalent mass of the
of the equations of motion. To do so, however, you must fly-wheel. From Newton’s 2nd Law we have
use a mass equivalent to the mass of a non-rotating
object. We call this the Linear Equivalent Mass (LEM). F = ma, therefore, mg = [m + (LEM=½M)]a
(See Example I)
mg = [m + ½M] a
For objects that are both rotating and moving linearly,
you must include them twice; once as a linearly moving (mg – ma) = ½M a
object (using m) and once more as a rotating object
(using LEM). (See Example II) m(g − a) = ½Ma

## The LEM of a rotating mass is easily defined in terms of m = ½•M•a / (g − a)

its moment of inertia, I.
m = ½• 4.8 • 1.00 / (9.81 − 1)
LEM = I/r2
m = 0.27 kg
For example, using a standard table of Moments of
Inertia, we can calculate the LEM of simple objects If a = g/2 = 4.905 m/s2, m = 2.4 kg
rotating on axes through their centers of mass:
If a = ¾g = 7.3575 m/s2, m = 7.2 kg
I LEM
Note, too, that we do not need to know the radius unless
Cylindrical hoop mr2 m the angular acceleration of the fly-wheel is requested. If
you need α, and you have r, then α = a/r.
Solid disk ½mr2 ½m
Example II
Hollow sphere 2
⁄ mr2
5
2
⁄5m
Find the kinetic energy of a disk, m = 6.7 kg, that is
Solid sphere ⅔mr2 ⅔m moving at 3.2 m/s while rolling without slipping along a
flat, horizontal surface. (IDISK = ½mr2; LEM = ½m)

## Example I The total kinetic energy consists of the linear kinetic

energy, KL = ½mv2, plus the rotational kinetic energy,
A flywheel, M = 4.80 kg and r = 0.44 m, is wrapped KR = ½(I)(ω)2 = ½(I)(v/r)2 = ½(I/r2)v2 = ½(LEM)v2.
with a string. A hanging mass, m, is attached to the end
of the string. KE = ½mv2 + ½•(LEM=½m)•v2

## When the KE = ½•6.7•3.22 + ½•(½•6.7)•3.22

hanging mass is
released, it KE = 34.304 + 17.152 = 51 J
accelerates
downward at Final Note:
1.00 m/s2. Find
the hanging This method of incorporating rotating objects into the
mass. linear equations of motion works in every situation I’ve
tried; even very complex problems. Work your problem
To handle this problem using the linear form of the classic way and this way to compare the two. Once
Newton’s Second Law of Motion, all we have to do is you’ve verified that the LEM method works for a
use the LEM of the flywheel. We will assume, here, that particular type of problem, you can confidently use it for
it can be treated as a uniform solid disk. solving any other problem of the same type.

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