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# Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.

1

Module 16.1
Equations

## The Steam and Condensate Loop 16.1.1

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

Equations

Block 1: Introduction
Equation number Equation

## Block 2: Steam engineering principles and heat transfer

Equation number Equation

Thermodynamic temperature
2.1.1 =

Density of a material

2.1.2 Where:
r = Density (kg/m³)
m = Mass (kg)
V = Volume (m³)
vg = Specific volume (m³ /kg)
Specific gravity of a material
ρ
2.1.3 =
ρ

## Energy transfer equation

Δ

2.1.4 Where:
Q = Quantity of energy (kJ)
m = Mass of the substance (kg)
cp = Specific heat capacity of the substance (kJ /kg °C )
DT= Temperature rise of the substance (°C)
Change in entropy
2.1.5 Δ
Δ
Δ

2.1.6 Δ
Δ
Δ

## Total enthalpy of saturated steam

2.2.1 Where:
hg = Total enthalpy of saturated steam (Total heat) (kJ/kg)
hf = Liquid enthalpy (Sensible heat) (kJ /kg)
hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation (Latent heat) (kJ /kg)

## 16.1.2 The Steam and Condensate Loop

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Enthalpy of evaporation of wet steam

= χ
2.2.2
Where:
hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation (Latent heat) (kJ /kg)
χ = Dryness fraction
Total enthalpy of wet steam
= χ

2.2.3 Where:
hf = Liquid enthalpy (Sensible heat) (kJ /kg)
hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation (Latent heat) (kJ /kg)
χ = Dryness fraction
Specific volume of wet steam
= χ
2.2.4
Where:
vg = Specific volume of dry steam at same pressure
χ = Dryness fraction
Flash steam produced from hot water and condensate

2.2.5 Where:
P1 = Initial pressure
P2 = Final pressure
hf = Liquid enthalpy (kJ /kg)
hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation (kJ /kg)

Carnot efficiency

η =
2.3.1
Where:
Ti = Temperature at turbine inlet (K)
Te = Temperature at turbine exhaust (K)
Rankine efficiency

η
2.3.2 Where:
Hi = Heat at turbine inlet (kJ /kg)
He = Heat at turbine exhaust (kJ /kg)
he = Sensible heat in condensate (kJ /kg)

## The Steam and Condensate Loop 16.1.3

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Daltons law of partial pressures

2.4.1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

## Heat transfer by conduction through a layer (Fouriers law)

Δ
=

2.5.1 Where:
Q = Heat transferred per unit time (W)
k = Thermal conductivity of the material (W/m K or W/m°C)
A = Heat transfer area (m²)
ΔT = Temperature difference across the material (K or °C)
 = Material thickness (m)
Heat transfer by convection (Newtons law of cooling)
= Δ

2.5.2 Where:
Q = Heat transferred per unit time (W)
h = Convective heat transfer coefficient of the process (W/m² °C)
A = Heat transfer area of the surface (m²)
ΔT = Temperature difference between the surface
and the bulk fluid (K or °C)
General heat transfer
Δ
Where:
Q = Heat transferred per unit time (W)
2.5.3 U = Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m² °C)
A = Heat transfer area (m²)
ΔT = Temperature difference between the primary
and secondary fluid (K or °C)
Note: Q will be a mean heat transfer rate (QM) if DT is a mean
temperature difference (DTLM or DTAM).
Arithmetic mean temperature difference (AMTD or DTAM)

Δ ⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
2.5.4
Where:
Ts = Steam temperature (°C)
T1 = Secondary fluid in temperature (°C)
T2 = Secondary fluid out temperature (°C)

## 16.1.4 The Steam and Condensate Loop

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Log mean temperature difference (LMTD or DTLM)

Δ
⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
2.5.5
Where:
Ts = Steam temperature (°C)
T1 = Secondary fluid in temperature (°C)
T2 = Secondary fluid out temperature (°C)
ln = A mathematical function known as natural logarithm
Rate of heat transfer across a barrier knowing the thickness
and conductivity
Δ
=

2.5.6 Where:
Q = Heat transferred per unit time (W / m2)
A = Heat transfer area (m²)
ΔT = Temperature difference across the barrier (°C)
/ = Barrier thickness / material thermal conductivity ⎛ ⎞
k ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
Rate of heat transfer across a barrier knowing thermal resistance
Δ

2.5.7 Where:
Q = Heat transferred per unit time (W )
A = Heat transfer area (m²)
ΔT = Temperature difference across the barrier (°C)
R = Thermal resistance of the barrier (m2 °C / W)
Resistivity from conductivity

2.5.8 Where:
r = Thermal resistivity (m°C / W)
k = Thermal conductivity (W / m°C)
Thermal transmittance (heat transfer coefficient)
from thermal resistance

2.5.9 Where:
U = Thermal transmittance of the barrier (W / m2 °C)
R = Thermal resistance of the barrier (m2 °C / W)

## The Steam and Condensate Loop 16.1.5

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Thermal transmittance (U) from the individual thermal resistances

2.5.10 Where:
R1 = Resistance of the air film
R2 = Resistance of the condensate film
R3 = Resistance of the scale film on the steam side
R4 = Resistance of the of the metal wall
R5 = Resistance of the scale film on the water side
R6 = Resistance of the product film
Thermal transmittance (U) from the individual thicknesses
and conductivities

+ +

2.5.11

## Energy requirement for a non-flow application (e.g. batch or tank)

Δ
=

2.6.1 Where:
Q = Mean heat transfer rate (kW (kJ /s))
m = Mass of the fluid (kg)
c p = Specific heat capacity of the fluid (kJ /kg °C)
ΔT = Increase in fluid temperature (°C)
t = Time for the heating process (seconds)
Quantity of heat transferred by condensing steam
=
2.6.2 Where:
Q = Quantity of heat (kJ)
ms = Mass of steam (kg)
hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ /kg)

## 16.1.6 The Steam and Condensate Loop

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Heat transfer of condensing steam

=
2.6.3 Where:
Q = Mean heat transfer rate (kW or kJ /s)
ms = Mean steam consumption (kg /s)
hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ /kg)
Energy balance between steam and secondary fluid
of a non-flow process
Δ
= =

Where:
2.6.4 ms = Mean steam consumption rate (kg /s)
hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ /kg)
Q = Mean heat transfer rate (kW (kJ /s))
m = Mass of the secondary fluid (kg)
c p = Specific heat capacity of the secondary fluid (kJ /kg °C)
ΔT = Temperature rise of the secondary fluid (°C)
t = Time for the heating process (seconds)
Energy requirement for a flow-type application (e.g heat exchanger)
Δ
2.6.5 Where:
Q = Mean heat transfer rate (kW)
m = Mean secondary fluid flowrate (kg /s)
c p = Specific heat capacity of the secondary fluid (kJ/kg K) or (kJ/kg °C)
DT= Temperature rise of the secondary fluid (K or °C)
Energy balance between steam and fluid of a flow-type application
Δ
Where:
2.6.6 ms = Mean steam consumption rate (kg /s)
hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ /kg)
Q = Mean heat transfer rate (kW (kJ /s))
m = Mass flowrate of the secondary fluid (kg /s)
c p = Specific heat capacity of the secondary fluid (kJ /kg °C)
ΔT = Temperature rise of the secondary fluid (°C)
Mean steam consumption of a flow type application
Δ

Where:
2.6.7 ms = Mean steam consumption rate (kg /s)
m = Mass flowrate of the secondary fluid (kg /s)
c p = Specific heat capacity of the secondary fluid (kJ /kg °C)
ΔT = Temperature rise of the secondary fluid (°C)
hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ /kg)

## The Steam and Condensate Loop 16.1.7

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Mean steam consumption of a flow type application

2.6.8
Where:
ms = Mean steam consumption rate (kg /s)
Q = Mean heat transfer rate (kW)
hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ /kg)

2.8.1 =

## To determine the steam flowrate for a steam injection process

2.11.1 Where:
ms = Mean steam flowrate (kg /s)
Q = Mean heat transfer rate (kW)
hg = Specific total enthalpy of the steam upstream
of the control valve (kJ /kg)
T = Final temperature of the water
c p = Specific heat capacity of the water (kJ /kg °C)
Steam consumption to provide tank heat losses

2.11.2 Where:
ms = Mean steam flowrate to provide the heat losses from the tank (kg /s)
Q = Q(sides) + Q(surface) (kW)
2256.7 = Enthalpy of evaporation at atmospheric pressure (kJ / kg)
Mass and heat balance for steam injection into a tank
( )
Where:
2.11.3 m = Initial mass of water in the tank (kg)
ms = The mass of steam to be injected (kg)
h1 = The heat in the water at the initial temperature (kJ /kg)
h2 = The heat in the water at the final temperature (kJ /kg)
hg = The total enthalpy of the steam upstream of the control valve (kJ /kg)

## 16.1.8 The Steam and Condensate Loop

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Steam consumption by injection into a tank

2.11.4 Where:
ms = The mass of steam to be injected (kg)
m = Initial mass of water in the tank (kg)
h1 = The heat in the water at the initial temperature (kJ /kg)
h2 = The heat in the water at the final temperature (kJ /kg)
hg = The total enthalpy of the steam upstream of the control valve (kJ /kg)

## Steam start-up load to bring steam pipework to

operating temperature

2.12.1 Where:
ms = Mean rate of condensation of steam (kg / h)
W = Total weight of pipe plus flanges and fittings (kg)
Ts = Steam temperature (°C)
Tamb = Ambient temperature (°C)
c p = Specific heat of pipe material (kJ / kg °C)
hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation at operating pressure (kJ / kg)
t = Time for warming up (minutes)
Steam running load to keep a steam main at operating temperature

2.12.2 Where:
ms = Rate of condensation (kg /h)
Q = Heat emission rate (W/m)
L = Effective length of pipe allowing for flanges and fittings (m)
f = Insulation factor (dimensionless)
hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation at operating pressure (kJ / kg)

## Note: The constant 3.6 gives the answer in kg / h

Steam condensing rate for air heating equipment
Δ

2.12.3 Where:
ms = Rate of steam condensation (kg /h)
V = Volumetric flowrate of air being heated (m³/s)
ΔT = Air temperature rise (°C)
c p = Specific heat of air at constant pressure (kJ / m³ °C)
hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation of steam in the coils (kJ / kg)

## The Steam and Condensate Loop 16.1.9

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Steam condensing rate for horizontal pipes in still air

2.12.4 Where:
ms = Rate of steam condensation (kg / h)
Q = Heat emission from pipe (W/m)
L = Effective length of pipes (m)
hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation at the working pressure (kJ / kg)

## Mean steam flowrate to a storage calorifier

Δ
=

2.13.1 Where:
ms = Mean rate of condensation (kg / h)
m = Mass of water heated (kg)
c p = Specific heat of water (kJ / kg °C)
ΔT = Change in temperature of water (°C)
hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ / kg)
t = Recovery time to heat the water (hours)

## Steam consumption of drying cylinders

[ ] [ ]

2.14.1 Where:
ms = Mass flowrate of steam (kg / h)
W d = Throughput of dry material (kg / h)
W w = Throughput of wet material (kg / h)
T1 = Temperature of material entering the machine (°C)
T2 = Temperature of material leaving the machine (°C)
hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation of steam in cylinders (kJ / kg)

## The kinetic energy in steam

2.16.1 Where:
E = Kinetic energy (kJ)
m = Mass of the fluid (kg)
u = Velocity of the fluid (m /s)
g = Acceleration due to gravity (9.806 65 m /s²)
J = Joules mechanical equivalent of heat (101.972 m kg /kJ)

## 16.1.10 The Steam and Condensate Loop

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Velocity of steam passing through an orifice in terms

of kinetic energy

2.16.2 Where:
u = Velocity of the fluid (m /s)
E = Kinetic energy (kJ)
g = Acceleration due to gravity (9.806 65 m /s²)
J = Joules mechanical equivalent of heat (101.972 m kg /kJ)
m = Mass of the fluid (kg)
Velocity of steam passing through an orifice in terms of heat drop

2.16.3 Where:
u = Velocity of the fluid (m/s)
h = Heat drop per unit mass (kJ/kg)
Mass flow of steam through an orifice

2.16.4

## Velocity of steam passing through an orifice in terms of heat drop

2.16.5 Where:
u = Velocity of the fluid (m/s)
h = Heat drop per unit mass (J/kg)

## The Steam and Condensate Loop 16.1.11

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Block 3: The boiler house

Equation number Equation

## Stress in a boiler shell resulting from boiler pressure

3.2.1 Where:
s = Hoop stress (N /m²)
P = Boiler pressure (N /m² = bar x 105)
D = Diameter of cylinder (m)
 = Plate thickness (m)
Relating boiler pressure to heat transfer rate

3.2.2
Where:
P = Boiler pressure (N /m² = bar x 105)
Q = Heat transfer rate (kW)

To determine the evaporation factor of a boiler from its From & At
rating

=
3.5.1
Where:
A = Specific enthalpy of evaporation at atmospheric pressure.
B = Specific enthalpy of steam at operating pressure.
C = Specific enthalpy of water at feedwater temperature.
To determine the actual evaporation rate of a boiler from its kW
rating and the energy required to be added to the feedwater
to make steam

3.5.2

Where:
m = Steam output (kg/h)
Q = Boiler rating (kW)
To determine boiler horse power from heat transfer area

3.5.3
Where:
A = Heat transfer (ft2)
BoHP = Boiler horsepower

3.6.1

## 16.1.12 The Steam and Condensate Loop

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

3.12.1

3.12.2 ó

## To correct the conductivity of a sample at a temperature from 25°C

Where:
3.12.3
sT = Conductivity at temperature T (µS / cm)
s25 = Conductivity at 25°C (µS / cm)
a = Temperature coefficient, per °C (Typically 0.02 / °C or 2%°C)
T = Temperature (°C)
The electrical resistance of a conductivity probe

3.12.4
Where:
R = Resistance (Ohm)
K = Cell constant (cm-1)
s = Conductivity (S / cm)
To determine the blowdown rate of a boiler

3.12.5
Where:
F = Feedwater TDS (ppm).
S = Steam generation rate (kg / h)
B = Required boiler water TDS (ppm)

Ohms Law

=
3.16.1
Where:
I = Current (amperes)
V = Voltage (volts)
R = Resistance (ohms)
Capacitance Law

3.16.2 Where:
K = Dielectric constant (non-dimensional)
A = Area (m²)
D = Distance between plates (m)

## The Steam and Condensate Loop 16.1.13

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Steam injection required to power a steam deaerator

3.21.1 Where:
ms = Mass of steam to be injected (kg / h)
m = Maximum boiler output at the initial feedwater temperature (kg / h)
h1 = Enthalpy of water at the initial temperature (kJ / kg)
h2 = Enthalpy of water at the required temperature (kJ / kg)
hg = Enthalpy of steam supplying the control valve (kJ / kg)
Sizing a control valve for saturated steam

Where:
3.21.2 ms = Steam mass flowrate (kg /h)
K v = Valve coefficient required
P1 = Pressure upstream of the control valve (bar a)
P2 = Pressure downstream of the control valve (bar a)

( )
Sizing a control valve for liquid

3.21.3 Where:
V = Volumetric flowrate (m3 /h)
K v = Valve coefficient required
DP= Pressure drop across the valve (bar)
G = Relative density of fluid (water = 1)

3.22.1

## 16.1.14 The Steam and Condensate Loop

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

Block 4: Flowmetering
Equation number Equation

## To determine the Absolute or Dynamic viscosity of a fluid by

dropping a sphere through a fluid

ρ
μ

Where:
4.1.1 µ = Absolute (or dynamic) viscosity (Pa s (1 cP = 10-3 Pa s))
Dr = Difference in density between the sphere and the liquid (kg / m3)
g = Acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m / s 2)
r = Radius of sphere (m)

u = ⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

## To determine the Kinematic viscosity of a fluid

μ
ν
ρ
4.1.2
Where:
v = Kinematic viscosity (centistokes)
µ = Dynamic viscosity (Pa s)
r = Density (kg / m3)
To determine the Reynolds number of a fluid in a circular pipe
ρ

Where:
4.1.3
R e = Reynolds number (dimensionless)
r = Density (kg /m3)
u = Mean velocity in the pipe (m /s)
D = Internal pipe diameter (m)
µ = Dynamic viscosity (Pa s)
To determine volumetric flowrate from velocity
=
4.1.4
Where:
qv = Volume flow (m3/s)
A = Cross sectional area of the pipe (m2)
u = Velocity (m / s)
To determine mass flowrate from volumetric flowrate

=
4.1.5
Where:
qm = Mass flow (kg / s)
qv = Volume flow (m3/s)
v g = Specific volume (m3/ kg)

## The Steam and Condensate Loop 16.1.15

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## To determine mass flowrate from velocity

4.1.6 Where:
qm = Mass flow (kg / s)
A = Cross sectional area (m2)
u = Velocity (m /s)
v g = Specific volume (kg/m3)

4.2.1 =

## Bernoullis Equation for a liquid

+ + = + +
ρ ρ
Where:
4.2.2
P1 and P2 = Pressure at points within a system (Pa)
u1 and u2 = Velocities at corresponding points within a system (m /s)
h1 and h2 = Relative vertical heights within a system (m)
r = Density (kg / m3)
g = Gravitational constant (9.81 m /s²)
Bernoullis Equation multiplied throughout by r g

ρ ρ ρ ρ
4.2.3 Where:
P1 and P2 = Pressure at points within a system (Pa)
u1 and u2 = Velocities at corresponding points within a system (m /s)
h1 and h2 = Relative vertical heights within a system (m)
r = Density (kg / m3)
g = Gravitational constant (9.81 m /s²)
Bernoullis Equation with constant potential energy terms

ρ ρ
4.2.4
Where:
P1 and P2 = Pressure at points within a system (Pa)
u1 and u2 = Velocities at corresponding points within a system (m /s)
r = Density (kg / m3)
Bernoullis Equation with constant potential energy terms and
frictional losses

ρ ρ
4.2.5
Where:
P1 and P2 = Pressure at points within a system (Pa)
u1 and u2 = Velocities at corresponding points within a system (m /s)
r = Density (kg / m3)
hf = Friction loss (Pa)

## 16.1.16 The Steam and Condensate Loop

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## The pressure drop for a liquid equals the friction loss

4.2.6 Where:
P1 = Upstream pressure (Pa)
P2 = Downstream pressure (Pa)
hf = Friction loss (Pa)
Potential energy

4.2.7 Where:
m = Mass of all the molecules above hole
g = Gravitational constant (9.81 m/s2)
h = Cumulative height of molecules above the hole
Kinetic energy

4.2.8
Where:
m = Mass of the object (kg)
u = Velocity of the object at any point (m/s)
Potential energy at Kinetic energy at
=
the start of process the end of process

4.2.9
Where:
m = Mass of the object (kg)
g = Gravitational constant (9.81 m/s2)
h = Height of the object above a reference point (m)
Velocity of liquid through an orifice

4.2.10
Where:
u = Velocity (m / s)
g = Gravitational constant (9.81 m/s2)
Volumetric flowrate of liquid through an orifice
=
Where:
4.2.11 qv = Volumetric flowrate (m3/s)
C = Coefficient of discharge (dimensionless)
A = Area of orifice (m2)
g = Gravitational constant (9.8 m/s2)
h = Differential pressure (m)

## The Steam and Condensate Loop 16.1.17

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Volumetric flowrate of liquid is proportional to the square root

of pressure drop

4.2.12
∝ Δ
Where:
qv = Volumetric flowrate (m3 / s)
Dp= Pressure drop (m)
The liquid velocity measured by a Pitot tube
Δ
=
4.2.13 ρ
Where:
u1 = The fluid velocity in the pipe
DP= Static pressure - dynamic pressure
r = The fluid density

4.3.1 =

## Note: Diameters must be in the same unit of measurement

To determine the vortex shedding frequency around a bluff body

4.3.2 Where:
f = Shedding frequency (Hz)
Sr = Strouhal number (dimensionless)
u = Mean pipe flow velocity (m/s)
d = Bluff body diameter (m)
The volumetric flowrate from the shedding frequency

=
4.3.3
Where:
qv = Volumetric flowrate (m3/s)
A = Cross sectional area of the orifice (m2)
f = Shedding frequency (Hz)
k = A constant for all fluids for a given design of meter

## 16.1.18 The Steam and Condensate Loop

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Percentage error when using a velocity sensing meter which is

not pressure compensated
⎡⎛ ρ⎞ ⎤
= ⎢⎜ ⎟ − ⎥
⎣⎝ ρ ⎠ ⎦
4.4.1
Where:
e = Flow error expressed as a percentage of the actual flow
Specified r = Density of steam at the specified steam line pressure
Actual r = Density of steam at the actual line pressure
Percentage error when using a pressure difference meter which is
not pressure compensate
⎛ ⎞
) = ⎜ − ⎟
⎝ ⎠
4.4.2
Where:
e = Percentage flow error
Actual r = Density of steam at actual pressure (kg /m3)
Specified r = Density of steam at specified pressure (kg /m3)
To determine the density of steam with known dryness fraction

ρ =
ν
4.4.3 Where:
r = Density of steam with dryness fraction c
n g = Specific volume of dry steam
c = Dryness fraction
Approximation of relationship between indicated and actual
flowrate with a deviation in dryness fraction

4.4.4

## Actual value of superheated steam flowing through a flowmeter

calibrated for saturated steam

4.4.5 =
⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤
⎜ ⎟⎥
⎣⎢ ⎝ ⎠⎦

## Block 5: Basic control theory

Equation number Equation
There are no equations in Block 5

## The Steam and Condensate Loop 16.1.19

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Block 6: Control hardware: Electric/pneumatic actuation

Equation number Equation

## Closing force to close a valve

(A x ΔP) + Friction allowance = F
6.1.1 Where:
A = Valve seating area (m2)
ΔP = Differential pressure (kPa)
F = Closing force required (kN)

## Calculate valve Kv for liquids

6.3.1 Where:
K v = Flow of liquid that will create a pressure drop of 1 bar (m³/ h bar)
V = Flowrate (m³/h)
G = Relative density /specific gravity of the liquid (dimensionless).
DP = Pressure drop across the valve (bar)
Volumetric flow of water through a valve
=
6.3.2 Where:
V = Flowrate (m³ /h)
K v = Flow of liquid to create a pressure drop of 1 bar (m³ /h bar)
DP = Pressure drop across a valve (bar)
The flow of liquid through a constant bore pipe relative to
pressure loss

6.3.3
Where:
V1 = Flowrate at pressure loss P1
V2 = Flowrate at pressure loss P2
Valve authority
Δ
Δ + Δ
6.3.4 Where:
N = Valve authority
DP 1 = Pressure drop across a fully open control valve
DP 2 = Pressure drop across the remainder of the circuit
DP1 + DP2 = Pressure drop across the whole circuit

## 16.1.20 The Steam and Condensate Loop

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Critical pressure ratio for dry steam and gases

γ
γ
⎛ ⎞
⎜γ ⎟
6.4.1 ⎝ ⎠
Where:
g = Isentropic exponent of the steam or gas
Speed of sound in steam
γ
Where:
6.4.2 C = Speed of sound in steam (m / s)
31.6 = Constant of proportionality
g = Steam isentropic exponent (1.135 : saturated, 1.3 : superheated)
R = 0.461 5 the gas constant for steam (kJ / kg)
T = Absolute steam temperature (K)
Steam flow through a valve under critical flow conditions

6.4.3 Where:
ms = Mass flow through a valve (kg/h)
K v = Valve capacity (m3/h bar)
P1 = Upstream pressure (bar a)

## Volumetric flow through an equal percentage valve

τ
6.5.1 Where:
V = Volumetric flow through the valve at lift H
e = Exponential constant 2.7183
x = (ln t) H (where: In = Natural logarithm)
t = Valve rangeability
H = Valve lift (0 = closed, 1 = fully open)
V max = Maximum volumetric flow through the valve
Required capacity of a water control valve

6.5.2 Where:
Kvr = The actual valve capacity required by the installation (m³/h bar)
V = Flowrate through the valve (m3/h)
DP = The differential pressure across the valve (bar)

## The Steam and Condensate Loop 16.1.21

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Percentage lift of an equal percentage valve in terms

of relative flow
⎡ τ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
= ⎣ ⎦
τ
6.5.3 Where:
H% = Percentage lift
In = Natural logarithm
V = Flow through the valve at lift H (m3/h)
t = Valve rangeability
V max = Maximum flow through the valve at full lift (m3/h)
Percentage lift of an equal percentage valve in terms of relative Kv

⎡ τ⎤
⎢⎣ ⎥⎦
=
τ
6.5.4 Where:
H% = Percentage lift
In = Natural logarithm
K vr = Required capacity at lift H (m3/h bar)
t = Valve rangeability
Kvs = Valve capacity full open (m3/h bar)
The required capacity for a steam valve under sub-sonic flow

6.5.5 Where:
K vr = Required capacity at lift H (m3/h bar)
ms = Steam mass flowrate (kg/h)
P1 = Upstream pressure (bar a)
P2 = Downstream pressure (bar a)
x = (P1 - P2) / P1

## Block 7: Control hardware: Self-acting actuation

Equation number Equation

## Stem force required to close a control valve

π
Δ

7.1.1
Where:
d = Diameter of valve orifice (mm)
DP = Differential pressure (bar)

## 16.1.22 The Steam and Condensate Loop

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Block 8: Control applications

Equation number Equation

## Block 9: Safety valves

Equation number Equation

## Flow area of a safety valve

= π
9.1.1
Where:
d = The area of the inlet port at its narrowest point
Curtain area of a safety valve
= π
9.1.2 Where:
d1 = Minimum area of opening between the valve and seat
L = Maximum lift from seat to valve

## Required opening force for a safety valve with the spring

housing vented via the discharge vent pipe

9.2.1 Where:
PV = Fluid inlet pressure
AN = Nozzle area
FS = Spring force
PB = Backpressure
Required opening force for a safety valve with the spring
housing vented to atmosphere

9.2.2 Where:
PV = Fluid inlet pressure
AN = Nozzle area
FS = Spring force
PB = Backpressure
A D = Disc area
Required opening force for a safety valve with the spring housing
vented via the discharge vent pipe and taking into effect the
build-up backpressure

9.2.3 Where:
PS = Set pressure of safety valves
AN = Nozzle area
FS = Spring force
PB = Backpressure
PO = Overpressure

## The Steam and Condensate Loop 16.1.23

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Required opening force for a balanced safety valve

9.2.4 Where:
PV = Fluid inlet pressure
AN = Nozzle area
FS = Spring force

## Cold differential pressure

9.3.1 Where:
CDSP = Cold differential set pressure
RISP = Required installed set pressure
CBP = Constant backpressure

Coefficient of discharge

9.4.1
Where:
K d = Coefficient of discharge
Critical pressure ratio

( )( )
9.4.2 Where:
PB = Critical backpressure (bar a)
P1 = Actual relieving pressure (bar a)
k = Isentropic coefficient of the gas or vapour at the relieving conditions
AD-Merkblatt valves - Minimum flow area for steam
χ
α
9.4.3 Where:
AO = Minimum cross sectional flow area (mm2)
c = Pressure medium coefficient
m = Mass flow to be discharged (kg / h)
a W = Outflow coefficient
PR = Absolute relieving pressure (bar a)
AD-Merkblatt valves - Minimum flow area for dry gases and air

Ψ α
Where:
AO = Minimum cross sectional flow area (mm2)
9.4.4 m = Mass flow to be discharged (kg / h)
Y = Outflow function
a W = Outflow coefficient
PR = Absolute relieving pressure (bar a)
T = Inlet temperature (K)
M = Molar mass (kg / kmol)
Z = Compressibility factor

## 16.1.24 The Steam and Condensate Loop

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## AD-Merkblatt valves - Minimum flow area for liquids

α ρ
Where:
9.4.5 AO = Minimum cross sectional flow area (mm2)
m = Mass flow to be discharged (kg / h)
a W = Outflow coefficient
r = Density (kg / m3)
DP = PR - PB
PR = Absolute relieving pressure (bar a)
PB = Absolute backpressure (bar a)
Compressibility factor for compressible steam and dry gases
ν

Where:
9.4.6 Z = Compressibility factor
PR = Safety valve relieving pressure (bar a)
M = Molar mass (kg / kmol)
n = Specific volume (m3/kg)
R u = Universal gas constant (8 314 Nm / kmol K)
T = Actual relieving temperature (K)
Proportion of vapour in two phase discharge

9.4.7 Where:
n = The proportion of discharge fluid which is vapour
hf1 = Enthalpy of liquid before the valve (kJ / kg)
hf2 = Enthalpy of liquid after the valve (kJ / kg)
hfg2 = Enthalpy of evaporation after the valve (kJ / kg)
ASME (API RP 520) valves - Minimum flow area for steam

9.4.8 Where:
AO = Required effective discharge area (in2)
m = Required mass flow through the valve (lb / h)
PR = Upstream relieving pressure (psi a)
K d = Effective coefficient of discharge
K SH = Superheat correction factor
ASME (API RP 520) valves - Minimum flow area for dry gases and air

Where:
AO = Required effective discharge area (in2)
V = Required volume flow through the valve (ft3 / min)
9.4.9 T = Relieving temperature (°R)
Z = Compressibility factor
G = Specific gravity of the air or gas
Cg = Nozzle gas constant
K d = Effective coefficient of discharge
PR = Upstream relieving pressure (bar a)
K B = Backpressure correction factor for gas and vapour

## The Steam and Condensate Loop 16.1.25

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## ASME (API RP 520) valves - Minimum flow area for liquids

Where:
AO = Required effective discharge area (mm2)
9.4.10 V1 = Required volume flow through the valve (U.S. gal / min)
K d = Effective coefficient of discharge
K µ = Viscosity factor
K W = Backpressure correction factor for liquids
G = Specific gravity of the liquid
PR = Upstream relieving pressure (bar a)
PB = Backpressure (psi a)
ASME (API RP 520) valves - Nozzle gas constant

( )
9.4.11
( )
Where:
C g = Nozzle gas constant
k = Isentropic coefficient of the gas or vapour at the relieving conditions
ASME (API RP 520) valves - Backpressure correction factor

9.4.12 Where:
K B = Backpressure correction factor
C1 = Capacity of valve with backpressure applied
C2 = Capacity of valve when discharging to atmosphere
ASME (API RP 520) valves - Bellows balanced valves

9.4.13
Where:
PB = Backpressure (psi g)
PS = Set pressure (psi g)
ASME (API RP 520) valves - Conventional valves

9.4.14
Where:
PB = Backpressure (psi g)
PR = Relieving pressure (psi g)
ASME (API RP 520) valves - Reynolds number: Metric units

9.4.15 Where:
R e = Reynolds number
m = Mass flow to be discharged (kg / h)
µ = Dynamic viscosity (Pa s)
AO = Discharge area (mm2)

## 16.1.26 The Steam and Condensate Loop

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## ASME (API RP 520) valves - Reynolds number: Imperial units

9.4.16 Where:
Re = Reynolds number
G = Specific gravity
V = Volume flow to be discharged (U.S. gal / min)
µ = Dynamic viscosity (cP)
AO = Discharge area (in2)
BS 6759 valves - Minimum orifice area for steam

Where:
9.4.17 AO = Flow area (mm2)
m = Mass flow to be discharged (kg / h)
PR = Absolute relieving pressure (bar a)
K dr = Derated coefficient of discharge
K SH = Superheat correction factor
BS 6759 valves - Minimum orifice area for air

Where:
9.4.18
AO = Flow area (mm2)
V = Volumetric flow to be discharged (l / s)
PR = Absolute relieving pressure (bar a)
K dr = Derated coefficient of discharge
T = Inlet temperature (K)
BS 6759 valves - Minimum orifice area for dry gases

Where:
AO = Flow area (mm2)
9.4.19 m = Mass flow to be discharged (kg / h)
PR = Absolute relieving pressure (bar a)
Cg = Nozzle gas constant
K dr = Derated coefficient of discharge
Z = Compressibility factor
T = Inlet temperature (K)
M = Molar mass (molecular weight) (kg / kmol)

## The Steam and Condensate Loop 16.1.27

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## BS 6759 valves - Minimum orifice area for liquids

\$2    
.GU . P ρ  '3


Where:
9.4.20 AO = Flow area (mm2)
m = Mass flow to be discharged (kg / h)
K dr = Derated coefficient of discharge
K µ = Viscosity correction factor
r = Density (kg / m3)
DP = PR - PB
PR = Absolute relieving pressure (bar a)
PB = Absolute backpressure (bar a)
BS 6759 valves - Minimum orifice area for hot water

\$2  3
5 .GU 
9.4.21 Where:
AO = Flow area (mm2)
Q = Hot water heating capacity (kW)
PR = Absolute relieving pressure (bar a)
K dr = Derated coefficient of discharge
BS 6759 valves - Nozzle gas constant

 ( N   ) 
N  

( )


&J   N
9.4.22 N
Where:
k = Isentropic coefficient of gas or vapour
EN ISO 4126 valves - Minimum orifice area for steam, air and
dry gas at critical flow

\$  
 &.GU  3νR
9.4.23 Where:
A = Flow area (not curtain area) (mm2)
m = Mass flowrate (kg / h)
C = Function of the isentropic exponent
K dr = Certified derated coefficient of discharge
P o = Relieving pressure (bar a)
n = Specific volume at relieving pressure and temperature (m³/kg)
EN ISO 4126 valves - Minimum orifice area for wet steam
at critical flow

\$  
 &.GU  ν3[R
9.4.24 Where:
A = Flow area (not curtain area) (mm2)
m = Mass flowrate (kg / h)
C = Function of the isentropic exponent
K dr = Certified derated coefficient of discharge
P o = Relieving pressure (bar a)
n = Specific volume at relieving pressure and temperature (m³/kg)
x = Dryness fraction of wet steam

## 16.1.28 The Steam and Condensate Loop

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Equation number Equation

EN ISO 4126 valves - Minimum orifice area for air and dry gas
at sub-critical flow

\$  
 &.GU .E  3νR


9.4.25 Where:
A = Flow area (not curtain area) (mm2)
m = Mass flowrate (kg / h)
C = Function of the isentropic exponent
K dr = Certified derated coefficient of discharge
K b = Theoretical correction factor for sub-critical flow
P o = Relieving pressure (bar a)
n = Specific volume at relieving pressure and temperature (m³/kg)
EN ISO 4126 valves - Minimum orifice area for liquids

\$  
.GU .Y  3R 3

ν
E

Where:
9.4.26 A = Flow area (not curtain area) (mm2)
m = Mass flowrate (kg / h)
K dr = Certified derated coefficient of discharge
K v = Viscosity correction factor
P o = Relieving pressure (bar a)
Pb = Backpressure (bar a)
n = Specific volume at relieving pressure and temperature (m³/kg)

## Safety valve vent pipe diameter

G  

/H  YJ
3
9.5.1 Where:
d = Pipe diameter (mm)
Le = Equivalent length of pipe (m)
m = Discharge capacity (kg / h)
⎛ 6DIHW\ YDOYH ⎞ ⎛ 5H TXLUHGSHUFHQWDJH ⎞
P = ⎜ ⎟ [ ⎜
⎜ VHW SUHVVXUH ED U  J ⎟ ⎜ SUHVVXUHGURS ⎟⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
vg = Specific volume of steam at the pressure (P) (m / kg) 3

## Reaction force at the end of a safety valve vent pipe

)    N7
N 0
\$3

Where:
9.5.2 F = Reaction force at the point of discharge to atmosphere (newtons)
m = Discharge mass flowrate (kg / s)
k = Isentropic coefficient of the fluid
T = Fluid temperature (K)
M = Molar mass of the fluid (kg / kmol)
A = Area of the outlet at the point of discharge (mm2)
P = Static pressure at the outlet at the point of discharge (bar g)

## The Steam and Condensate Loop 16.1.29

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Sound power level at the safety valve outlet

Where:
LP = Sound power level in dB (A)
9.5.3 m = Mass flow (kg / h)
u = Speed of sound in an ideal gas (m / s),
k = Isentropic coefficient of the gas
R u = Universal gas constant (8 314 J / kmol K)
T = Absolute gas temperature at the safety valve outlet (K)
M = Molar mass (kg / kmol)
Sound pressure level at the safety valve outlet
− π
9.5.4 Where:
L = Sound pressure level in dB (A)
LP = Sound power level in dB (A)
R = Distance from the source (m)

## Block 10: Steam distribution

Equation number Equation

## The SI based DArcy equation for determining pressure drop

due to frictional resistance

10.2.1 Where:
hf = Head loss to friction (m)
f = Friction factor (dimensionless)
L = Length (m)
u = Flow velocity (m /s)
g = Gravitational constant (9.81 m /s²)
D = Pipe diameter (m)
The Imperial based DArcy equation for determining pressure
drop due to frictional resistance

Where:
10.2.2 hf = Head loss to friction (m)
f = Friction factor (dimensionless)
L = Length (m)
u = Flow velocity (m /s)
g = Gravitational constant (9.81 m /s²)
D = Pipe diameter (m)

## 16.1.30 The Steam and Condensate Loop

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Friction factor for turbulent fluids (Colebrook-White formula)

⎛ ⎞
= − ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
10.2.3 Where:
f = Friction factor (Relates to the SI Moody chart)
kS = Absolute pipe roughness (m)
D = Pipe bore (m)
Re = Reynolds number (dimensionless)
SI based friction factors - f

10.2.4
Where:
f = Friction factor
Re = Reynolds number
Imperial based friction factors - f

10.2.5
Where:
f = Friction factor
Re = Reynolds number
Reynolds number

Where:
Re = Reynolds number
10.2.6 r = Density of water (kg /m3)
u = Velocity of water (m /s)
D = Pipe diameter (m)
m = Dynamic viscosity of water (kg /m s)
Relative pipe roughness

10.2.7
( )
Where:
ks = Pipe roughness (m)
D = Pipe bore (m)
Pressure factor

=
10.2.8 Where:
F = Pressure factor
P1 = Factor based on the inlet pressure
P2 = Factor based on the pressure at a distance of L metres of pipe

## The Steam and Condensate Loop 16.1.31

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Pressure drop formula 1

( ) ( )

10.2.9 Where:
P1 = Upstream pressure (bar a)
P2 = Downstream pressure (bar a)
L = Length of pipe (m)
m = Mass flowrate (kg /h)
D = Pipe diameter (mm)
Pressure drop formula 2 (Maximum pipe length: 200 metres)
ν
Δ

10.2.10 Where:
ΔP = Pressure drop (bar)
L = Length of pipe (m)
n g = Specific volume of steam (m³ /kg)
m = Mass flowrate (kg /h)
D = Pipe diameter (mm)

## Thermal expansion of pipe

( ) Δ α
10.4.1 Where:
L = Length of pipe between anchors (m)
ΔT = Temperature difference between ambient temperature
and operating temperatures (°C)
α = Expansion coefficient (mm /m °C x 10-3)

## Block 11: Steam trapping

Equation number Equation

## 16.1.32 The Steam and Condensate Loop

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Block 12: Pipeline ancillaries

Equation number Equation

## Pressure drop across a valve in a liquid system

⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
12.2.1 Where:
DP = Pressure drop across the valve (bar)
G = Specific gravity of the liquid (non-dimensional)
V = Flowrate of liquid (m³ / h)
Kv = Valve flow coefficient (m³/h bar)

## Equivalent water flowrate through a check valve

ρ

12.3.1 Where:
Vw = Equivalent water volume flowrate (m³ / h)
r = Density of the liquid (kg / m³)
V = Volume flowrate of liquid (m³ / h)
Converting water mass flow to volumetric flow
=
12.3.2 Where:
V = Volume flowrate (m³ / h)
m = Mass flowrate (kg / h)
n = Specific volume (m³ / kg)

## Largest particle size through a strainer screen

= +
12.4.1 Where:
c = Length of particle (mm)
a = Length of mesh hole (mm)
b = Width of mesh hole (mm)
Pressure drop across a steam valve
⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤
⎢ ⎛ ⎞
⎜⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎥
⎢ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎥⎦

12.4.2 Where:
DP = Pressure drop across the valve (bar)
P1 = Upstream pressure (bar a)
ms = Mass flowrate through the valve (kg / h)
Kv = Valve flow coefficient (m³ / h bar)

## The Steam and Condensate Loop 16.1.33

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Block 13: Condensate removal

Equation number Equation

## Calculating the heating area of a heat exchanger

Δ
13.2.1 Where:
A = Area of heating surface (m²)
Q = Mean heat transfer rate (W)
U = Heat transfer coefficient (W / m² °C)
DT M = Mean temperature difference.
The heat exchanger temperature design constant

13.2.2 Where:
TDC = Temperature design constant of the heat exchanger
Ts = Steam temperature (°C)
T1 = Secondary fluid inlet temperature (°C)
T2 = Secondary fluid outlet temperature (°C)
The steam temperature at any load

13.2.3 Where:
TDC = Temperature design constant of the heat exchanger
Ts = Steam temperature (°C)
T1 = Secondary fluid inlet temperature (°C)
T2 = Secondary fluid outlet temperature (°C)
The secondary fluid inlet temperature at any load
[ ]
13.2.4 Where:
TDC = Temperature design constant of the heat exchanger
Ts = Steam temperature (°C)
T1 = Secondary fluid inlet temperature (°C)
T2 = Secondary fluid outlet temperature (°C)
The secondary fluid outlet temperature at any load
⎡ ⎤
⎢⎣ ⎥⎦
13.2.5 Where:
TDC = Temperature design constant of the heat exchanger
Ts = Steam temperature (°C)
T1 = Secondary fluid inlet temperature (°C)
T2 = Secondary fluid outlet temperature (°C)

## 16.1.34 The Steam and Condensate Loop

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Mean differential temperature between the primary

and secondary fluids

13.3.1 Where:
DT M = Mean temperature difference (°C)
Q = Mean heat transfer rate (W)
U = Heat transfer coefficient (W / m² °C)
A = Heating area (m²)

## The secondary inlet temperature at any load

[ ]
13.4.1 Where:
Tx = The secondary inlet temperature at any load factor x (°C)
T1 = The secondary inlet temperature at full-load (°C)
T2 = The secondary outlet temperature at full-load (°C)

## The stall load for a constant flow secondary

13.5.1 Where:
A = The steam temperature in the steam space at full-load (°C)
B = The secondary fluid outlet temperature (°C)
D = The backpressure equivalent saturated steam temperature (°C)

## Calculating the stall load with a variable flow secondary

⎛ + ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎛ + ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
13.6.1 Where:
A = Steam temperature at full-load (°C)
B = Secondary fluid outlet temperature at full-load (°C)
C = Secondary fluid inlet temperature at full-load (°C)
D = Equivalent backpressure steam temperature (°C)

## The Steam and Condensate Loop 16.1.35

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

## Block 14: Condensate recovery

Equation number Equation

## Cost of fuel saved by returning condensate

14.1.1 Where:
X = Expected improvement in condensate return expressed as a
percentage
A = Cost of fuel to provide 1 GJ of energy
B = Energy required per kilogram of make-up water to reach
condensate temperature (kJ/kg).
C = Average boiler evaporation rate (kg / h)
D = Operational hours per year (h / year)
E = Boiler efficiency (%)
Cost of water saved by returning condensate
⎛ ⎞
14.1.2 ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
Cost of effluent saved by returning condensate

14.1.3 ⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

Where:
14.4.1 h d = Total delivery head
hs = Static head (pressure required to raise the water to the
desired level)
hf = Friction head (pressure required to move the water through
the pipes)
h p = Backpressure (pressure in the condensate system)
Calculate condensate velocity in a pipe

14.4.2
[ ]

## Block 15: Desuperheating

Equation number Equation

## Calculate cooling water flowrate for a desuperheater

15.1.1 Where:
mcw = Mass flowrate of cooling water (kg / h)
ms = Mass flowrate of superheated steam (kg / h)
hs = Enthalpy at superheat condition (kJ / kg)
h d = Enthalpy at desuperheated condition (kJ / kg)
hcw = Enthalpy of cooling water at inlet connection (kJ / kg)