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1

SC-GCM-118 CM Issue 2 © Copyright 2005 Spirax-Sarco Limited

Module 16.1

Equations

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

Equations

Block 1: Introduction

Equation number Equation

Equation number Equation

Thermodynamic temperature

2.1.1 =

Density of a material

2.1.2 Where:

r = Density (kg/m³)

m = Mass (kg)

V = Volume (m³)

vg = Specific volume (m³ /kg)

Specific gravity of a material

ρ

2.1.3 =

ρ

Δ

2.1.4 Where:

Q = Quantity of energy (kJ)

m = Mass of the substance (kg)

cp = Specific heat capacity of the substance (kJ /kg °C )

DT= Temperature rise of the substance (°C)

Change in entropy

2.1.5 Δ

Δ

Δ

2.1.6 Δ

Δ

Δ

2.2.1 Where:

hg = Total enthalpy of saturated steam (Total heat) (kJ/kg)

hf = Liquid enthalpy (Sensible heat) (kJ /kg)

hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation (Latent heat) (kJ /kg)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

= χ

2.2.2

Where:

hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation (Latent heat) (kJ /kg)

χ = Dryness fraction

Total enthalpy of wet steam

= χ

2.2.3 Where:

hf = Liquid enthalpy (Sensible heat) (kJ /kg)

hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation (Latent heat) (kJ /kg)

χ = Dryness fraction

Specific volume of wet steam

= χ

2.2.4

Where:

vg = Specific volume of dry steam at same pressure

χ = Dryness fraction

Flash steam produced from hot water and condensate

2.2.5 Where:

P1 = Initial pressure

P2 = Final pressure

hf = Liquid enthalpy (kJ /kg)

hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation (kJ /kg)

Carnot efficiency

η =

2.3.1

Where:

Ti = Temperature at turbine inlet (K)

Te = Temperature at turbine exhaust (K)

Rankine efficiency

η

2.3.2 Where:

Hi = Heat at turbine inlet (kJ /kg)

He = Heat at turbine exhaust (kJ /kg)

he = Sensible heat in condensate (kJ /kg)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

2.4.1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

Δ

=

2.5.1 Where:

Q = Heat transferred per unit time (W)

k = Thermal conductivity of the material (W/m K or W/m°C)

A = Heat transfer area (m²)

ΔT = Temperature difference across the material (K or °C)

= Material thickness (m)

Heat transfer by convection (Newtons law of cooling)

= Δ

2.5.2 Where:

Q = Heat transferred per unit time (W)

h = Convective heat transfer coefficient of the process (W/m² °C)

A = Heat transfer area of the surface (m²)

ΔT = Temperature difference between the surface

and the bulk fluid (K or °C)

General heat transfer

Δ

Where:

Q = Heat transferred per unit time (W)

2.5.3 U = Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m² °C)

A = Heat transfer area (m²)

ΔT = Temperature difference between the primary

and secondary fluid (K or °C)

Note: Q will be a mean heat transfer rate (QM) if DT is a mean

temperature difference (DTLM or DTAM).

Arithmetic mean temperature difference (AMTD or DTAM)

Δ ⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

2.5.4

Where:

Ts = Steam temperature (°C)

T1 = Secondary fluid in temperature (°C)

T2 = Secondary fluid out temperature (°C)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

Δ

⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

2.5.5

Where:

Ts = Steam temperature (°C)

T1 = Secondary fluid in temperature (°C)

T2 = Secondary fluid out temperature (°C)

ln = A mathematical function known as natural logarithm

Rate of heat transfer across a barrier knowing the thickness

and conductivity

Δ

=

2.5.6 Where:

Q = Heat transferred per unit time (W / m2)

A = Heat transfer area (m²)

ΔT = Temperature difference across the barrier (°C)

/ = Barrier thickness / material thermal conductivity ⎛ ⎞

k ⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

Rate of heat transfer across a barrier knowing thermal resistance

Δ

2.5.7 Where:

Q = Heat transferred per unit time (W )

A = Heat transfer area (m²)

ΔT = Temperature difference across the barrier (°C)

R = Thermal resistance of the barrier (m2 °C / W)

Resistivity from conductivity

2.5.8 Where:

r = Thermal resistivity (m°C / W)

k = Thermal conductivity (W / m°C)

Thermal transmittance (heat transfer coefficient)

from thermal resistance

2.5.9 Where:

U = Thermal transmittance of the barrier (W / m2 °C)

R = Thermal resistance of the barrier (m2 °C / W)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

2.5.10 Where:

R1 = Resistance of the air film

R2 = Resistance of the condensate film

R3 = Resistance of the scale film on the steam side

R4 = Resistance of the of the metal wall

R5 = Resistance of the scale film on the water side

R6 = Resistance of the product film

Thermal transmittance (U) from the individual thicknesses

and conductivities

+ +

2.5.11

Δ

=

2.6.1 Where:

Q = Mean heat transfer rate (kW (kJ /s))

m = Mass of the fluid (kg)

c p = Specific heat capacity of the fluid (kJ /kg °C)

ΔT = Increase in fluid temperature (°C)

t = Time for the heating process (seconds)

Quantity of heat transferred by condensing steam

=

2.6.2 Where:

Q = Quantity of heat (kJ)

ms = Mass of steam (kg)

hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ /kg)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

=

2.6.3 Where:

Q = Mean heat transfer rate (kW or kJ /s)

ms = Mean steam consumption (kg /s)

hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ /kg)

Energy balance between steam and secondary fluid

of a non-flow process

Δ

= =

Where:

2.6.4 ms = Mean steam consumption rate (kg /s)

hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ /kg)

Q = Mean heat transfer rate (kW (kJ /s))

m = Mass of the secondary fluid (kg)

c p = Specific heat capacity of the secondary fluid (kJ /kg °C)

ΔT = Temperature rise of the secondary fluid (°C)

t = Time for the heating process (seconds)

Energy requirement for a flow-type application (e.g heat exchanger)

Δ

2.6.5 Where:

Q = Mean heat transfer rate (kW)

m = Mean secondary fluid flowrate (kg /s)

c p = Specific heat capacity of the secondary fluid (kJ/kg K) or (kJ/kg °C)

DT= Temperature rise of the secondary fluid (K or °C)

Energy balance between steam and fluid of a flow-type application

Δ

Where:

2.6.6 ms = Mean steam consumption rate (kg /s)

hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ /kg)

Q = Mean heat transfer rate (kW (kJ /s))

m = Mass flowrate of the secondary fluid (kg /s)

c p = Specific heat capacity of the secondary fluid (kJ /kg °C)

ΔT = Temperature rise of the secondary fluid (°C)

Mean steam consumption of a flow type application

Δ

Where:

2.6.7 ms = Mean steam consumption rate (kg /s)

m = Mass flowrate of the secondary fluid (kg /s)

c p = Specific heat capacity of the secondary fluid (kJ /kg °C)

ΔT = Temperature rise of the secondary fluid (°C)

hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ /kg)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

2.6.8

Where:

ms = Mean steam consumption rate (kg /s)

Q = Mean heat transfer rate (kW)

hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ /kg)

2.8.1 =

2.11.1 Where:

ms = Mean steam flowrate (kg /s)

Q = Mean heat transfer rate (kW)

hg = Specific total enthalpy of the steam upstream

of the control valve (kJ /kg)

T = Final temperature of the water

c p = Specific heat capacity of the water (kJ /kg °C)

Steam consumption to provide tank heat losses

2.11.2 Where:

ms = Mean steam flowrate to provide the heat losses from the tank (kg /s)

Q = Q(sides) + Q(surface) (kW)

2256.7 = Enthalpy of evaporation at atmospheric pressure (kJ / kg)

Mass and heat balance for steam injection into a tank

( )

Where:

2.11.3 m = Initial mass of water in the tank (kg)

ms = The mass of steam to be injected (kg)

h1 = The heat in the water at the initial temperature (kJ /kg)

h2 = The heat in the water at the final temperature (kJ /kg)

hg = The total enthalpy of the steam upstream of the control valve (kJ /kg)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

2.11.4 Where:

ms = The mass of steam to be injected (kg)

m = Initial mass of water in the tank (kg)

h1 = The heat in the water at the initial temperature (kJ /kg)

h2 = The heat in the water at the final temperature (kJ /kg)

hg = The total enthalpy of the steam upstream of the control valve (kJ /kg)

operating temperature

2.12.1 Where:

ms = Mean rate of condensation of steam (kg / h)

W = Total weight of pipe plus flanges and fittings (kg)

Ts = Steam temperature (°C)

Tamb = Ambient temperature (°C)

c p = Specific heat of pipe material (kJ / kg °C)

hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation at operating pressure (kJ / kg)

t = Time for warming up (minutes)

Steam running load to keep a steam main at operating temperature

2.12.2 Where:

ms = Rate of condensation (kg /h)

Q = Heat emission rate (W/m)

L = Effective length of pipe allowing for flanges and fittings (m)

f = Insulation factor (dimensionless)

hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation at operating pressure (kJ / kg)

Steam condensing rate for air heating equipment

Δ

2.12.3 Where:

ms = Rate of steam condensation (kg /h)

V = Volumetric flowrate of air being heated (m³/s)

ΔT = Air temperature rise (°C)

c p = Specific heat of air at constant pressure (kJ / m³ °C)

hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation of steam in the coils (kJ / kg)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

2.12.4 Where:

ms = Rate of steam condensation (kg / h)

Q = Heat emission from pipe (W/m)

L = Effective length of pipes (m)

hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation at the working pressure (kJ / kg)

Δ

=

2.13.1 Where:

ms = Mean rate of condensation (kg / h)

m = Mass of water heated (kg)

c p = Specific heat of water (kJ / kg °C)

ΔT = Change in temperature of water (°C)

hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ / kg)

t = Recovery time to heat the water (hours)

[ ] [ ]

2.14.1 Where:

ms = Mass flowrate of steam (kg / h)

W d = Throughput of dry material (kg / h)

W w = Throughput of wet material (kg / h)

T1 = Temperature of material entering the machine (°C)

T2 = Temperature of material leaving the machine (°C)

hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation of steam in cylinders (kJ / kg)

2.16.1 Where:

E = Kinetic energy (kJ)

m = Mass of the fluid (kg)

u = Velocity of the fluid (m /s)

g = Acceleration due to gravity (9.806 65 m /s²)

J = Joules mechanical equivalent of heat (101.972 m kg /kJ)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

of kinetic energy

2.16.2 Where:

u = Velocity of the fluid (m /s)

E = Kinetic energy (kJ)

g = Acceleration due to gravity (9.806 65 m /s²)

J = Joules mechanical equivalent of heat (101.972 m kg /kJ)

m = Mass of the fluid (kg)

Velocity of steam passing through an orifice in terms of heat drop

2.16.3 Where:

u = Velocity of the fluid (m/s)

h = Heat drop per unit mass (kJ/kg)

Mass flow of steam through an orifice

2.16.4

2.16.5 Where:

u = Velocity of the fluid (m/s)

h = Heat drop per unit mass (J/kg)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

Equation number Equation

3.2.1 Where:

s = Hoop stress (N /m²)

P = Boiler pressure (N /m² = bar x 105)

D = Diameter of cylinder (m)

= Plate thickness (m)

Relating boiler pressure to heat transfer rate

3.2.2

Where:

P = Boiler pressure (N /m² = bar x 105)

Q = Heat transfer rate (kW)

To determine the evaporation factor of a boiler from its From & At

rating

=

3.5.1

Where:

A = Specific enthalpy of evaporation at atmospheric pressure.

B = Specific enthalpy of steam at operating pressure.

C = Specific enthalpy of water at feedwater temperature.

To determine the actual evaporation rate of a boiler from its kW

rating and the energy required to be added to the feedwater

to make steam

3.5.2

Where:

m = Steam output (kg/h)

Q = Boiler rating (kW)

To determine boiler horse power from heat transfer area

3.5.3

Where:

A = Heat transfer (ft2)

BoHP = Boiler horsepower

3.6.1

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

3.12.1

3.12.2 ó

Where:

3.12.3

sT = Conductivity at temperature T (µS / cm)

s25 = Conductivity at 25°C (µS / cm)

a = Temperature coefficient, per °C (Typically 0.02 / °C or 2%°C)

T = Temperature (°C)

The electrical resistance of a conductivity probe

3.12.4

Where:

R = Resistance (Ohm)

K = Cell constant (cm-1)

s = Conductivity (S / cm)

To determine the blowdown rate of a boiler

3.12.5

Where:

F = Feedwater TDS (ppm).

S = Steam generation rate (kg / h)

B = Required boiler water TDS (ppm)

Ohms Law

=

3.16.1

Where:

I = Current (amperes)

V = Voltage (volts)

R = Resistance (ohms)

Capacitance Law

3.16.2 Where:

C = Capacitance (farad)

K = Dielectric constant (non-dimensional)

A = Area (m²)

D = Distance between plates (m)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

3.21.1 Where:

ms = Mass of steam to be injected (kg / h)

m = Maximum boiler output at the initial feedwater temperature (kg / h)

h1 = Enthalpy of water at the initial temperature (kJ / kg)

h2 = Enthalpy of water at the required temperature (kJ / kg)

hg = Enthalpy of steam supplying the control valve (kJ / kg)

Sizing a control valve for saturated steam

Where:

3.21.2 ms = Steam mass flowrate (kg /h)

K v = Valve coefficient required

P1 = Pressure upstream of the control valve (bar a)

P2 = Pressure downstream of the control valve (bar a)

( )

Sizing a control valve for liquid

3.21.3 Where:

V = Volumetric flowrate (m3 /h)

K v = Valve coefficient required

DP= Pressure drop across the valve (bar)

G = Relative density of fluid (water = 1)

3.22.1

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

Block 4: Flowmetering

Equation number Equation

dropping a sphere through a fluid

ρ

μ

Where:

4.1.1 µ = Absolute (or dynamic) viscosity (Pa s (1 cP = 10-3 Pa s))

Dr = Difference in density between the sphere and the liquid (kg / m3)

g = Acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m / s 2)

r = Radius of sphere (m)

u = ⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

μ

ν

ρ

4.1.2

Where:

v = Kinematic viscosity (centistokes)

µ = Dynamic viscosity (Pa s)

r = Density (kg / m3)

To determine the Reynolds number of a fluid in a circular pipe

ρ

Where:

4.1.3

R e = Reynolds number (dimensionless)

r = Density (kg /m3)

u = Mean velocity in the pipe (m /s)

D = Internal pipe diameter (m)

µ = Dynamic viscosity (Pa s)

To determine volumetric flowrate from velocity

=

4.1.4

Where:

qv = Volume flow (m3/s)

A = Cross sectional area of the pipe (m2)

u = Velocity (m / s)

To determine mass flowrate from volumetric flowrate

=

4.1.5

Where:

qm = Mass flow (kg / s)

qv = Volume flow (m3/s)

v g = Specific volume (m3/ kg)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

4.1.6 Where:

qm = Mass flow (kg / s)

A = Cross sectional area (m2)

u = Velocity (m /s)

v g = Specific volume (kg/m3)

4.2.1 =

+ + = + +

ρ ρ

Where:

4.2.2

P1 and P2 = Pressure at points within a system (Pa)

u1 and u2 = Velocities at corresponding points within a system (m /s)

h1 and h2 = Relative vertical heights within a system (m)

r = Density (kg / m3)

g = Gravitational constant (9.81 m /s²)

Bernoullis Equation multiplied throughout by r g

ρ ρ ρ ρ

4.2.3 Where:

P1 and P2 = Pressure at points within a system (Pa)

u1 and u2 = Velocities at corresponding points within a system (m /s)

h1 and h2 = Relative vertical heights within a system (m)

r = Density (kg / m3)

g = Gravitational constant (9.81 m /s²)

Bernoullis Equation with constant potential energy terms

ρ ρ

4.2.4

Where:

P1 and P2 = Pressure at points within a system (Pa)

u1 and u2 = Velocities at corresponding points within a system (m /s)

r = Density (kg / m3)

Bernoullis Equation with constant potential energy terms and

frictional losses

ρ ρ

4.2.5

Where:

P1 and P2 = Pressure at points within a system (Pa)

u1 and u2 = Velocities at corresponding points within a system (m /s)

r = Density (kg / m3)

hf = Friction loss (Pa)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

4.2.6 Where:

P1 = Upstream pressure (Pa)

P2 = Downstream pressure (Pa)

hf = Friction loss (Pa)

Potential energy

4.2.7 Where:

m = Mass of all the molecules above hole

g = Gravitational constant (9.81 m/s2)

h = Cumulative height of molecules above the hole

Kinetic energy

4.2.8

Where:

m = Mass of the object (kg)

u = Velocity of the object at any point (m/s)

Potential energy at Kinetic energy at

=

the start of process the end of process

4.2.9

Where:

m = Mass of the object (kg)

g = Gravitational constant (9.81 m/s2)

h = Height of the object above a reference point (m)

Velocity of liquid through an orifice

4.2.10

Where:

u = Velocity (m / s)

g = Gravitational constant (9.81 m/s2)

h = Pressure head (m)

Volumetric flowrate of liquid through an orifice

=

Where:

4.2.11 qv = Volumetric flowrate (m3/s)

C = Coefficient of discharge (dimensionless)

A = Area of orifice (m2)

g = Gravitational constant (9.8 m/s2)

h = Differential pressure (m)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

of pressure drop

4.2.12

∝ Δ

Where:

qv = Volumetric flowrate (m3 / s)

Dp= Pressure drop (m)

The liquid velocity measured by a Pitot tube

Δ

=

4.2.13 ρ

Where:

u1 = The fluid velocity in the pipe

DP= Static pressure - dynamic pressure

r = The fluid density

4.3.1 =

To determine the vortex shedding frequency around a bluff body

4.3.2 Where:

f = Shedding frequency (Hz)

Sr = Strouhal number (dimensionless)

u = Mean pipe flow velocity (m/s)

d = Bluff body diameter (m)

The volumetric flowrate from the shedding frequency

=

4.3.3

Where:

qv = Volumetric flowrate (m3/s)

A = Cross sectional area of the orifice (m2)

f = Shedding frequency (Hz)

k = A constant for all fluids for a given design of meter

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

not pressure compensated

⎡⎛ ρ⎞ ⎤

= ⎢⎜ ⎟ − ⎥

⎣⎝ ρ ⎠ ⎦

4.4.1

Where:

e = Flow error expressed as a percentage of the actual flow

Specified r = Density of steam at the specified steam line pressure

Actual r = Density of steam at the actual line pressure

Percentage error when using a pressure difference meter which is

not pressure compensate

⎛ ⎞

) = ⎜ − ⎟

⎝ ⎠

4.4.2

Where:

e = Percentage flow error

Actual r = Density of steam at actual pressure (kg /m3)

Specified r = Density of steam at specified pressure (kg /m3)

To determine the density of steam with known dryness fraction

ρ =

ν

4.4.3 Where:

r = Density of steam with dryness fraction c

n g = Specific volume of dry steam

c = Dryness fraction

Approximation of relationship between indicated and actual

flowrate with a deviation in dryness fraction

4.4.4

calibrated for saturated steam

4.4.5 =

⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤

⎜ ⎟⎥

⎣⎢ ⎝ ⎠⎦

Equation number Equation

There are no equations in Block 5

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

Equation number Equation

(A x ΔP) + Friction allowance = F

6.1.1 Where:

A = Valve seating area (m2)

ΔP = Differential pressure (kPa)

F = Closing force required (kN)

6.3.1 Where:

K v = Flow of liquid that will create a pressure drop of 1 bar (m³/ h bar)

V = Flowrate (m³/h)

G = Relative density /specific gravity of the liquid (dimensionless).

DP = Pressure drop across the valve (bar)

Volumetric flow of water through a valve

=

6.3.2 Where:

V = Flowrate (m³ /h)

K v = Flow of liquid to create a pressure drop of 1 bar (m³ /h bar)

DP = Pressure drop across a valve (bar)

The flow of liquid through a constant bore pipe relative to

pressure loss

6.3.3

Where:

V1 = Flowrate at pressure loss P1

V2 = Flowrate at pressure loss P2

Valve authority

Δ

Δ + Δ

6.3.4 Where:

N = Valve authority

DP 1 = Pressure drop across a fully open control valve

DP 2 = Pressure drop across the remainder of the circuit

DP1 + DP2 = Pressure drop across the whole circuit

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

γ

γ

⎛ ⎞

⎜γ ⎟

6.4.1 ⎝ ⎠

Where:

g = Isentropic exponent of the steam or gas

Speed of sound in steam

γ

Where:

6.4.2 C = Speed of sound in steam (m / s)

31.6 = Constant of proportionality

g = Steam isentropic exponent (1.135 : saturated, 1.3 : superheated)

R = 0.461 5 the gas constant for steam (kJ / kg)

T = Absolute steam temperature (K)

Steam flow through a valve under critical flow conditions

6.4.3 Where:

ms = Mass flow through a valve (kg/h)

K v = Valve capacity (m3/h bar)

P1 = Upstream pressure (bar a)

τ

6.5.1 Where:

V = Volumetric flow through the valve at lift H

e = Exponential constant 2.7183

x = (ln t) H (where: In = Natural logarithm)

t = Valve rangeability

H = Valve lift (0 = closed, 1 = fully open)

V max = Maximum volumetric flow through the valve

Required capacity of a water control valve

6.5.2 Where:

Kvr = The actual valve capacity required by the installation (m³/h bar)

V = Flowrate through the valve (m3/h)

DP = The differential pressure across the valve (bar)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

of relative flow

⎡ τ ⎤

⎢ ⎥

= ⎣ ⎦

τ

6.5.3 Where:

H% = Percentage lift

In = Natural logarithm

V = Flow through the valve at lift H (m3/h)

t = Valve rangeability

V max = Maximum flow through the valve at full lift (m3/h)

Percentage lift of an equal percentage valve in terms of relative Kv

⎡ τ⎤

⎢⎣ ⎥⎦

=

τ

6.5.4 Where:

H% = Percentage lift

In = Natural logarithm

K vr = Required capacity at lift H (m3/h bar)

t = Valve rangeability

Kvs = Valve capacity full open (m3/h bar)

The required capacity for a steam valve under sub-sonic flow

6.5.5 Where:

K vr = Required capacity at lift H (m3/h bar)

ms = Steam mass flowrate (kg/h)

P1 = Upstream pressure (bar a)

P2 = Downstream pressure (bar a)

x = (P1 - P2) / P1

Equation number Equation

π

Δ

7.1.1

Where:

d = Diameter of valve orifice (mm)

DP = Differential pressure (bar)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

Equation number Equation

Equation number Equation

= π

9.1.1

Where:

d = The area of the inlet port at its narrowest point

Curtain area of a safety valve

= π

9.1.2 Where:

d1 = Minimum area of opening between the valve and seat

L = Maximum lift from seat to valve

housing vented via the discharge vent pipe

9.2.1 Where:

PV = Fluid inlet pressure

AN = Nozzle area

FS = Spring force

PB = Backpressure

Required opening force for a safety valve with the spring

housing vented to atmosphere

9.2.2 Where:

PV = Fluid inlet pressure

AN = Nozzle area

FS = Spring force

PB = Backpressure

A D = Disc area

Required opening force for a safety valve with the spring housing

vented via the discharge vent pipe and taking into effect the

build-up backpressure

9.2.3 Where:

PS = Set pressure of safety valves

AN = Nozzle area

FS = Spring force

PB = Backpressure

PO = Overpressure

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

9.2.4 Where:

PV = Fluid inlet pressure

AN = Nozzle area

FS = Spring force

9.3.1 Where:

CDSP = Cold differential set pressure

RISP = Required installed set pressure

CBP = Constant backpressure

Coefficient of discharge

9.4.1

Where:

K d = Coefficient of discharge

Critical pressure ratio

( )( )

9.4.2 Where:

PB = Critical backpressure (bar a)

P1 = Actual relieving pressure (bar a)

k = Isentropic coefficient of the gas or vapour at the relieving conditions

AD-Merkblatt valves - Minimum flow area for steam

χ

α

9.4.3 Where:

AO = Minimum cross sectional flow area (mm2)

c = Pressure medium coefficient

m = Mass flow to be discharged (kg / h)

a W = Outflow coefficient

PR = Absolute relieving pressure (bar a)

AD-Merkblatt valves - Minimum flow area for dry gases and air

Ψ α

Where:

AO = Minimum cross sectional flow area (mm2)

9.4.4 m = Mass flow to be discharged (kg / h)

Y = Outflow function

a W = Outflow coefficient

PR = Absolute relieving pressure (bar a)

T = Inlet temperature (K)

M = Molar mass (kg / kmol)

Z = Compressibility factor

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

α ρ

Where:

9.4.5 AO = Minimum cross sectional flow area (mm2)

m = Mass flow to be discharged (kg / h)

a W = Outflow coefficient

r = Density (kg / m3)

DP = PR - PB

PR = Absolute relieving pressure (bar a)

PB = Absolute backpressure (bar a)

Compressibility factor for compressible steam and dry gases

ν

Where:

9.4.6 Z = Compressibility factor

PR = Safety valve relieving pressure (bar a)

M = Molar mass (kg / kmol)

n = Specific volume (m3/kg)

R u = Universal gas constant (8 314 Nm / kmol K)

T = Actual relieving temperature (K)

Proportion of vapour in two phase discharge

9.4.7 Where:

n = The proportion of discharge fluid which is vapour

hf1 = Enthalpy of liquid before the valve (kJ / kg)

hf2 = Enthalpy of liquid after the valve (kJ / kg)

hfg2 = Enthalpy of evaporation after the valve (kJ / kg)

ASME (API RP 520) valves - Minimum flow area for steam

9.4.8 Where:

AO = Required effective discharge area (in2)

m = Required mass flow through the valve (lb / h)

PR = Upstream relieving pressure (psi a)

K d = Effective coefficient of discharge

K SH = Superheat correction factor

ASME (API RP 520) valves - Minimum flow area for dry gases and air

Where:

AO = Required effective discharge area (in2)

V = Required volume flow through the valve (ft3 / min)

9.4.9 T = Relieving temperature (°R)

Z = Compressibility factor

G = Specific gravity of the air or gas

Cg = Nozzle gas constant

K d = Effective coefficient of discharge

PR = Upstream relieving pressure (bar a)

K B = Backpressure correction factor for gas and vapour

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

Where:

AO = Required effective discharge area (mm2)

9.4.10 V1 = Required volume flow through the valve (U.S. gal / min)

K d = Effective coefficient of discharge

K µ = Viscosity factor

K W = Backpressure correction factor for liquids

G = Specific gravity of the liquid

PR = Upstream relieving pressure (bar a)

PB = Backpressure (psi a)

ASME (API RP 520) valves - Nozzle gas constant

( )

9.4.11

( )

Where:

C g = Nozzle gas constant

k = Isentropic coefficient of the gas or vapour at the relieving conditions

ASME (API RP 520) valves - Backpressure correction factor

9.4.12 Where:

K B = Backpressure correction factor

C1 = Capacity of valve with backpressure applied

C2 = Capacity of valve when discharging to atmosphere

ASME (API RP 520) valves - Bellows balanced valves

9.4.13

Where:

PB = Backpressure (psi g)

PS = Set pressure (psi g)

ASME (API RP 520) valves - Conventional valves

9.4.14

Where:

PB = Backpressure (psi g)

PR = Relieving pressure (psi g)

ASME (API RP 520) valves - Reynolds number: Metric units

9.4.15 Where:

R e = Reynolds number

m = Mass flow to be discharged (kg / h)

µ = Dynamic viscosity (Pa s)

AO = Discharge area (mm2)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

9.4.16 Where:

Re = Reynolds number

G = Specific gravity

V = Volume flow to be discharged (U.S. gal / min)

µ = Dynamic viscosity (cP)

AO = Discharge area (in2)

BS 6759 valves - Minimum orifice area for steam

Where:

9.4.17 AO = Flow area (mm2)

m = Mass flow to be discharged (kg / h)

PR = Absolute relieving pressure (bar a)

K dr = Derated coefficient of discharge

K SH = Superheat correction factor

BS 6759 valves - Minimum orifice area for air

Where:

9.4.18

AO = Flow area (mm2)

V = Volumetric flow to be discharged (l / s)

PR = Absolute relieving pressure (bar a)

K dr = Derated coefficient of discharge

T = Inlet temperature (K)

BS 6759 valves - Minimum orifice area for dry gases

Where:

AO = Flow area (mm2)

9.4.19 m = Mass flow to be discharged (kg / h)

PR = Absolute relieving pressure (bar a)

Cg = Nozzle gas constant

K dr = Derated coefficient of discharge

Z = Compressibility factor

T = Inlet temperature (K)

M = Molar mass (molecular weight) (kg / kmol)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

$2

.GU . P ρ '3

Where:

9.4.20 AO = Flow area (mm2)

m = Mass flow to be discharged (kg / h)

K dr = Derated coefficient of discharge

K µ = Viscosity correction factor

r = Density (kg / m3)

DP = PR - PB

PR = Absolute relieving pressure (bar a)

PB = Absolute backpressure (bar a)

BS 6759 valves - Minimum orifice area for hot water

$2 3

5 .GU

9.4.21 Where:

AO = Flow area (mm2)

Q = Hot water heating capacity (kW)

PR = Absolute relieving pressure (bar a)

K dr = Derated coefficient of discharge

BS 6759 valves - Nozzle gas constant

( N )

N

( )

&J N

9.4.22 N

Where:

k = Isentropic coefficient of gas or vapour

EN ISO 4126 valves - Minimum orifice area for steam, air and

dry gas at critical flow

$

&.GU 3νR

9.4.23 Where:

A = Flow area (not curtain area) (mm2)

m = Mass flowrate (kg / h)

C = Function of the isentropic exponent

K dr = Certified derated coefficient of discharge

P o = Relieving pressure (bar a)

n = Specific volume at relieving pressure and temperature (m³/kg)

EN ISO 4126 valves - Minimum orifice area for wet steam

at critical flow

$

&.GU ν3[R

9.4.24 Where:

A = Flow area (not curtain area) (mm2)

m = Mass flowrate (kg / h)

C = Function of the isentropic exponent

K dr = Certified derated coefficient of discharge

P o = Relieving pressure (bar a)

n = Specific volume at relieving pressure and temperature (m³/kg)

x = Dryness fraction of wet steam

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

EN ISO 4126 valves - Minimum orifice area for air and dry gas

at sub-critical flow

$

&.GU .E 3νR

9.4.25 Where:

A = Flow area (not curtain area) (mm2)

m = Mass flowrate (kg / h)

C = Function of the isentropic exponent

K dr = Certified derated coefficient of discharge

K b = Theoretical correction factor for sub-critical flow

P o = Relieving pressure (bar a)

n = Specific volume at relieving pressure and temperature (m³/kg)

EN ISO 4126 valves - Minimum orifice area for liquids

$

.GU .Y 3R 3

ν

E

Where:

9.4.26 A = Flow area (not curtain area) (mm2)

m = Mass flowrate (kg / h)

K dr = Certified derated coefficient of discharge

K v = Viscosity correction factor

P o = Relieving pressure (bar a)

Pb = Backpressure (bar a)

n = Specific volume at relieving pressure and temperature (m³/kg)

G

/H YJ

3

9.5.1 Where:

d = Pipe diameter (mm)

Le = Equivalent length of pipe (m)

m = Discharge capacity (kg / h)

⎛ 6DIHW\ YDOYH ⎞ ⎛ 5H TXLUHGSHUFHQWDJH ⎞

P = ⎜ ⎟ [ ⎜

⎜ VHW SUHVVXUH ED U J ⎟ ⎜ SUHVVXUHGURS ⎟⎟

⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

vg = Specific volume of steam at the pressure (P) (m / kg) 3

) N7

N0

$3

Where:

9.5.2 F = Reaction force at the point of discharge to atmosphere (newtons)

m = Discharge mass flowrate (kg / s)

k = Isentropic coefficient of the fluid

T = Fluid temperature (K)

M = Molar mass of the fluid (kg / kmol)

A = Area of the outlet at the point of discharge (mm2)

P = Static pressure at the outlet at the point of discharge (bar g)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

Where:

LP = Sound power level in dB (A)

9.5.3 m = Mass flow (kg / h)

u = Speed of sound in an ideal gas (m / s),

k = Isentropic coefficient of the gas

R u = Universal gas constant (8 314 J / kmol K)

T = Absolute gas temperature at the safety valve outlet (K)

M = Molar mass (kg / kmol)

Sound pressure level at the safety valve outlet

− π

9.5.4 Where:

L = Sound pressure level in dB (A)

LP = Sound power level in dB (A)

R = Distance from the source (m)

Equation number Equation

due to frictional resistance

10.2.1 Where:

hf = Head loss to friction (m)

f = Friction factor (dimensionless)

L = Length (m)

u = Flow velocity (m /s)

g = Gravitational constant (9.81 m /s²)

D = Pipe diameter (m)

The Imperial based DArcy equation for determining pressure

drop due to frictional resistance

Where:

10.2.2 hf = Head loss to friction (m)

f = Friction factor (dimensionless)

L = Length (m)

u = Flow velocity (m /s)

g = Gravitational constant (9.81 m /s²)

D = Pipe diameter (m)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

⎛ ⎞

= − ⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

10.2.3 Where:

f = Friction factor (Relates to the SI Moody chart)

kS = Absolute pipe roughness (m)

D = Pipe bore (m)

Re = Reynolds number (dimensionless)

SI based friction factors - f

≈

10.2.4

Where:

f = Friction factor

Re = Reynolds number

Imperial based friction factors - f

≈

10.2.5

Where:

f = Friction factor

Re = Reynolds number

Reynolds number

Where:

Re = Reynolds number

10.2.6 r = Density of water (kg /m3)

u = Velocity of water (m /s)

D = Pipe diameter (m)

m = Dynamic viscosity of water (kg /m s)

Relative pipe roughness

10.2.7

( )

Where:

ks = Pipe roughness (m)

D = Pipe bore (m)

Pressure factor

=

10.2.8 Where:

F = Pressure factor

P1 = Factor based on the inlet pressure

P2 = Factor based on the pressure at a distance of L metres of pipe

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

( ) ( )

10.2.9 Where:

P1 = Upstream pressure (bar a)

P2 = Downstream pressure (bar a)

L = Length of pipe (m)

m = Mass flowrate (kg /h)

D = Pipe diameter (mm)

Pressure drop formula 2 (Maximum pipe length: 200 metres)

ν

Δ

10.2.10 Where:

ΔP = Pressure drop (bar)

L = Length of pipe (m)

n g = Specific volume of steam (m³ /kg)

m = Mass flowrate (kg /h)

D = Pipe diameter (mm)

( ) Δ α

10.4.1 Where:

L = Length of pipe between anchors (m)

ΔT = Temperature difference between ambient temperature

and operating temperatures (°C)

α = Expansion coefficient (mm /m °C x 10-3)

Equation number Equation

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

Equation number Equation

⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

12.2.1 Where:

DP = Pressure drop across the valve (bar)

G = Specific gravity of the liquid (non-dimensional)

V = Flowrate of liquid (m³ / h)

Kv = Valve flow coefficient (m³/h bar)

ρ

12.3.1 Where:

Vw = Equivalent water volume flowrate (m³ / h)

r = Density of the liquid (kg / m³)

V = Volume flowrate of liquid (m³ / h)

Converting water mass flow to volumetric flow

=

12.3.2 Where:

V = Volume flowrate (m³ / h)

m = Mass flowrate (kg / h)

n = Specific volume (m³ / kg)

= +

12.4.1 Where:

c = Length of particle (mm)

a = Length of mesh hole (mm)

b = Width of mesh hole (mm)

Pressure drop across a steam valve

⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤

⎢ ⎛ ⎞

⎜⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎥

⎢ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎥⎦

⎣

12.4.2 Where:

DP = Pressure drop across the valve (bar)

P1 = Upstream pressure (bar a)

ms = Mass flowrate through the valve (kg / h)

Kv = Valve flow coefficient (m³ / h bar)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

Equation number Equation

Δ

13.2.1 Where:

A = Area of heating surface (m²)

Q = Mean heat transfer rate (W)

U = Heat transfer coefficient (W / m² °C)

DT M = Mean temperature difference.

The heat exchanger temperature design constant

13.2.2 Where:

TDC = Temperature design constant of the heat exchanger

Ts = Steam temperature (°C)

T1 = Secondary fluid inlet temperature (°C)

T2 = Secondary fluid outlet temperature (°C)

The steam temperature at any load

13.2.3 Where:

TDC = Temperature design constant of the heat exchanger

Ts = Steam temperature (°C)

T1 = Secondary fluid inlet temperature (°C)

T2 = Secondary fluid outlet temperature (°C)

The secondary fluid inlet temperature at any load

[ ]

13.2.4 Where:

TDC = Temperature design constant of the heat exchanger

Ts = Steam temperature (°C)

T1 = Secondary fluid inlet temperature (°C)

T2 = Secondary fluid outlet temperature (°C)

The secondary fluid outlet temperature at any load

⎡ ⎤

⎢⎣ ⎥⎦

13.2.5 Where:

TDC = Temperature design constant of the heat exchanger

Ts = Steam temperature (°C)

T1 = Secondary fluid inlet temperature (°C)

T2 = Secondary fluid outlet temperature (°C)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

and secondary fluids

13.3.1 Where:

DT M = Mean temperature difference (°C)

Q = Mean heat transfer rate (W)

U = Heat transfer coefficient (W / m² °C)

A = Heating area (m²)

[ ]

13.4.1 Where:

Tx = The secondary inlet temperature at any load factor x (°C)

T1 = The secondary inlet temperature at full-load (°C)

T2 = The secondary outlet temperature at full-load (°C)

x = The load factor

13.5.1 Where:

A = The steam temperature in the steam space at full-load (°C)

B = The secondary fluid outlet temperature (°C)

D = The backpressure equivalent saturated steam temperature (°C)

⎛ + ⎞

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

⎛ + ⎞

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

13.6.1 Where:

A = Steam temperature at full-load (°C)

B = Secondary fluid outlet temperature at full-load (°C)

C = Secondary fluid inlet temperature at full-load (°C)

D = Equivalent backpressure steam temperature (°C)

Block 16 Equations Equations Module 16.1

Equation number Equation

14.1.1 Where:

X = Expected improvement in condensate return expressed as a

percentage

A = Cost of fuel to provide 1 GJ of energy

B = Energy required per kilogram of make-up water to reach

condensate temperature (kJ/kg).

C = Average boiler evaporation rate (kg / h)

D = Operational hours per year (h / year)

E = Boiler efficiency (%)

Cost of water saved by returning condensate

⎛ ⎞

14.1.2 ⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

Cost of effluent saved by returning condensate

14.1.3 ⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

Where:

14.4.1 h d = Total delivery head

hs = Static head (pressure required to raise the water to the

desired level)

hf = Friction head (pressure required to move the water through

the pipes)

h p = Backpressure (pressure in the condensate system)

Calculate condensate velocity in a pipe

14.4.2

[ ]

Equation number Equation

15.1.1 Where:

mcw = Mass flowrate of cooling water (kg / h)

ms = Mass flowrate of superheated steam (kg / h)

hs = Enthalpy at superheat condition (kJ / kg)

h d = Enthalpy at desuperheated condition (kJ / kg)

hcw = Enthalpy of cooling water at inlet connection (kJ / kg)

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