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Aim : To design an optical data communication network which uses Offset Quadrature

Phase Shift Keying modulation technique.

oftSware used : Optisystem

Components used:

1) Psuedo Random Bit Sequence Generator

2) RZ Pulse Generator

3) Fork 1x2

4) Oscilloscope Visualiser

5) RF Spectrum Analyser

6) OQPSK Modulator

7) Quadrature De-modulator

8) M-ary Threshold Detector

9) Eye Diagram Analyzer

10) PSK Sequence Decoder

Components Description and their Specifications:

PRBS Generator :

In this project, the data is in the form of digital data i.e 0’s & 1’s. Hence in order to
generate a digital sequence we do need a data generating source, hence we use a digital data
source generating a random binary sequence known as pseudo random binary sequence
generator. The bit sequence is designed to approximate the characteristics of random data.

Bit rate = 30375000 bits/sec

Order = 8

RZ Pulse Generator : Generates a Return to Zero (RZ) coded signal. It uses RZ line coding
technique to generate electrical signal using binary pulses as it’s input.

Duty cycle is 0.5 bits. Rise time and Fall time both are equal to 0.05 bits.

Sample rate = 1.94 GHz


Fork 1x2 : Here in this project , the bit sequence is to be given to RZ pulse generator and
OQPSK modulator. Fork 1x2 copies the input signal into two output signals. This tool allows
us to duplicate component output ports.

Oscilloscope Visualizer: This visualizer allows us to calculate and display electrical signals in
the time domain. It can display the signal amplitude and autocorrelation.

RF Spectrum Analyser : This visualizer allows us to calculate and display electrical signals in
the frequency domain. It can display the signal intensity, power spectral density and phase.
Power is measured in dBm and Resolution Bandwidth is 10 MHz.

OQPSK Modulator : Encodes and modulates a binary signal to an electrical signal using
offset quadrature phase shift keying modulation (OQPSK)

Operating Frequency = 550 MHz

Amplitude = 1

Phase Offset = 45 deg

Sample rate = 1.94GHz

Quadrature De-Modulator : This is used for demodulating the quadrature(I and Q)


components of the electrical signals.This component implements an analog demodulator
using a carrier generator for Q and I quadrature components. It comprises of a low pass
filter of cosine roll-off type.

Operating Frequency = 550 MHz

LPF cut-off freq. = 15 MHz

Roll-off factor = 0.2

M-ary Threshold Detector : It decodes the multi-level pulses of electrical signal to M-ary
signal output. It compares the electrical signal at a user-defined decision instant with the
threshold levels. This comparison generates an index which is used to generate the output
amplitude.

Reference Bit Rate = 1.51875e+007 (bit rate/2)

Delay Compensation = 0 sec


Threshold Amplitudes = -0.5 and 0.5

Decision instants = 0.75 bits.

Eye Diagram Analyser :

In telecommunication, an eye diagram, is an oscilloscope display in which a digital


data signal from a receiver is repetitively sampled and applied to the vertical input, while the
data rate is used to trigger the horizontal sweep. It is so called because, for several types of
coding, the pattern looks like a series of eyes between a pair of rails. This analyser can
calculate different metrics from the eye diagram, such as Q factor, eye opening, eye closure,
extinction ratio, eye height, mask violation ratio, etc.

PSK Sequence Decoder : It generates the binary sequence according to the phase variations in
the M-ary (I and Q) signals.

Bits per symbol =2

Phase offset = 45 deg

Problem statement :

Offset QPSK avoids non-linear refraction effects, reduces the intensity


variations, limits the penalty due to non-linear phase modulation in the channel results in
enabling higher launch power and increase in the received signal power.

Theory:

Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying is a linear modulation, is a variation of the


Quadrature Phase Shift keying ,in which the Inphase and Quadrature Binary components are
shifted by a half symbol duration so that any one component is phase shifted at a time ,which
makes this a Constant envelope modulation.OQPSK is aalso called staggered Quadrature
Phase Shift Keying (SQPSK).
As only one component is phase shifted at a time overall phase shift is not more than 90 o.
This is shown with the help of Constellation diagram. At any symbol change only one axis is
changed either I or Q but not both. If the signal was in the right upper quadrant then the next
signal can go either to the left upper quadrant or right lower quadrant but not left lower
quadrant.

Figure Showing The phase shifts of OQPSK signal, all are 900 phase shifts only.
Constellation diagram of OQPSK

When OQPSK is compared with QPSK, in QPSk Phase shift of components can take place at
a time and also the maximum occurable phase shift is 180 deg , these larger transitions can
become source of trouble for amplifiers.

In Linear channel its bit error ratye is same as QPSK but in non linear channels
the bit error rate is reduced when its operating close to the saturation point of the
transmitting amplifier. In wireless systems it is used to achieve lower cost and Higher
efficiency in the transmit power amplifier.

In TDMA satellite communication system suitable for both Basic and Primary ISDN
services OQPSK modulation technique is used to provide the services economically
and efficiently.

Schematic:
Schematic of the OQPSK Transmitter and Receiver (Optisystem)

Future Extensions:

This OQPSK can be extended for improving the spectral efficiency by reducing the
side lobes of the signal spectrum it is known as HSRC OQPSK.

For High speed data communication it uses two orthogonal half-symbol-rate-


carrier(HSRC) signals Which reduces the bandwidth required when compared to
conventional NRZ modulation.