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CHAPTER-4

MEASUREMENT WHILE DRILLING

1) INTRODUCTION TO MEASUREMENT WHILE DRILLING

Measurement While Drilling (MWD) refers to a technique of making down

hole

measurements

of

borehole

position,

tool

face

orientation,

formation

parameters and drilling information using sensors located in the bottom hole

assembly adjacent to the drill bit. These measurements are made during drilling

and can be recorded down hole and/or transmitted to surface.

MWD systems measure formation properties. (E.g. resistivity, natural gamma

ray, porosity), well bore geometry (inclination, azimuth), drilling system orientation

(tool face), and mechanical properties of the drilling process. Traditionally MWD

has fulfilled the role of providing well bore inclination and azimuth in order to

maintain directional control in real time. From the mid 1980s to the present time,

formation evaluation MWD has paralleled and surpassed other aspects of drilling

technology to the extent that it is now possible to replace very sophisticated wire

line logs with real-time and memory-stored measurements while drilling.

MWD can be defined as the evaluation of physical properties, usually

including pressure, temperature and well bore trajectory in three-dimensional

space, while extending a well bore. MWD is now standard practice in offshore

directional wells, where the tool cost is offset by rig time and well bore stability

considerations if other tools are used. The measurements are made down hole,

stored in solid-state memory for some time and later transmitted to the surface.

Data transmission methods vary from company to company, but usually involve

digitally encoding data and transmitting to the surface as pressure pulses in the

mud system. These pressures may be positive, negative or continuous sine waves.

Some MWD tools have the ability to store the measurements for later retrieval

with wire line or when the tool is tripped out of the hole if the data transmission

link fails. MWD tools, which measure formation parameters (resistivity, porosity,

sonic velocity, gamma ray), are referred to as logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools.

LWD tools use similar data storage and transmission systems, with some having

more solid-state memory to provide higher resolution logs after the tool is tripped

out than is possible with the relatively low bandwidth, mud-pulse data transmission

system.

Mud-pulse telemetry system to transmit the data (no wire line) is utilized by

Teleco MWD system. This system is composed of down hole assembly that contains

sensors and transmitters mounted on a non-magnetic drill collar (MWD collar) and

some equipments are located on the surface. A magnetometer is incorporated by a

sensor

in

order

to

measure

direction,

and

similarly

accelerometers

are

incorporated in order to measure the inclination and the tool face. Electrical power

for the down hole assembly is produced a mud-driven turbine in the transmitter.

After performing a survey, the sensor acquaints with the transmitter to encode

the directional data into a series of positive pressure pulses periodically moving a

valve that partially restricts mud flow. The rise in the pressure broadcasts upward

inside the drill string through the mud to the surface where it is perceived by a

pressure transducer in the standpipe. The existence or absence of a pulse in a

given time interval shapes a binary code which is deco in to a directional angle and

displayed on the surface equipment.

BENEFITS

Retrievable MWD System

The system is built on MWD System, which is strategically mounted above the

resistivity collar to ensure easy retrieval and less rig downtime.

Optimal Measurement Quality and Performance Reliability

Because Centerfire is built around a dual receiver/quadruple transmitter array, it

is able to achieve effective compensation. The array provides measurement

redundancy through two frequencies and two independent sets of transmitter-

receiver spacings. Centerfire’s vertical resolution, measurement range, and antenna

design also work to secure reliable performance.

Complemented by the Gamma Module

Gamma Module accompanies Centerfire to further enhance its formation evaluation

capabilities. This flexible instrument can be run above the resistivity extension, or

above it in the MWD tool string to promote easy retrieval, even in challenging down

hole conditions.

Greater Operator Flexibility

Add the formation evaluation to your toolkit and execute MWD projects that fit

your budget and schedule. Compatible with virtually all drilling operations

Improved Depths of Investigation

Centerfire enables as many as eight different depths of investigation. This

capacity provides more accurate measurements over a range of formations and

borehole fluid types.

Higher Operating Circumstances

The Centerfire Resistivity Extension can operate in temperatures up to 175°C,

pressures up to 20000psia, and flow rates up to 1,200 gpm.

Tripping Application

Able to run independently under its own battery power, Centerfire can record

measurements from wiper trips or tripping in and out of the hole.

Practical

Surface equipments of MWD necessitate only one field engineer and 4 square feet

of rig space. In addition, there is no RPM limitation and compatible with both

duplex and triplex pumps.

Advantageous to Drilling Contractor and Operator

MWD is handy for avoidance of drilling problems because wear and fatigue on drill

string components will be reduced and downtime caused by bottom hole assembly

(BHA) components failures (e.g., bits, mud motors, and MWD tools) is eliminated.

Improved rates of penetration ROP’s achieved by reduce in drill string friction

against

the

side

of

the

well

bore,

resulting

in

more

drilling

energy

being

transferred to the bit. Additional applications help the driller appropriately adjust

both weight-on-bit (WOB) and rotation speed for varying lithologies and optimize

the performance of bits and mud motors.

SURVEYING & TELECO SYSTEM

In order to perform a survey during rotary drilling the directional driller

have to stop the rotation for 1.5 minutes at the same time as maintaining mud

circulation.

On the condition that the danger of sticking exists, the drill string may possibly be

reciprocated. At some point in this period the sensor measures the inclination,

azimuth and tool facing. Subsequently, the data is simultaneously transmitted

throughout the next 2.5 minutes. As soon as mud motor drilling or jetting, the drill

string is not rotation and the TELECO system endow with an update of the

maintained. Both high side and magnetic tool facing are available.

The Teleco system is a wireless system, which utilizes mud-pulse telemetry

to transmit data. Using this system well bore information is brought to the surface

from the bottom of the well. This system is composed of a down hole assembly

containing a sensor and transmitter mounted in a nonmagnetic drill collar and

surface display equipment positioned on the drilling platform. The nonmagnetic drill

collar, which is a self-contained unit, stays in the drill string in close proximity to

the drill bit. The other component of TELECO system is the sensor.

It integrates a magnetometer to appraise direction and accelerometers to

quantify the inclination and the tool face. Electrical power for the down hole

assembly is supplied by a mud-driven turbine in the transmitter.

After carrying out a survey, the sensor exhibits the transmitter to predetermine

the directional data into a series of positive pressure pulses periodically moving a

valve that partially restricts mud flow. A pressure transducer in the standpipe

detects the raise in the pressure which proliferates upward inside the drill string

throughout the mud to the surface. The existence or nonexistence of a pulse in a

given time interval contributes to a binary code which is deco in to a directional

angle and displayed on the surface equipment.

MWD FORMATION EVALUATION

Formation evaluation jobs are world-widely carried out by MWD gamma ray

and resistivity logs to coin lenient or replace wire line logs. Nowadays, formation

evaluation, which is made use of by the geologists and log analysts, has turn out to

be a very cost-effective and important tool in petroleum industry.

A number of MWD packages are available for formation evaluation. Sensor

groupings

varying

from

a

multi-sensor

service

with

directional,

gamma

ray,

resistivity, and weight or torque at the bit to modular packages of only directional

or formation evaluation gamma ray and resistivity sensors. Data availability at the

surface can be either real time using mud pulse telemetry, or delayed using a

microprocessor to record data down hole for processing and plotting when the bit

is tripped out of the hole. Naturally, not all MWD retailers may offer each service

mentioned above. Generally, case histories and example are chosen to demonstrate

not only several applications of MWD to formation evaluation but also the new and

unproved measurements available.

Drilling process and the evaluation of a well are critically connected to each

other. At this point, MWD offers a link between them and helps to the dialogue

between the drilling engineer and the formation evaluation specialist in terms of

drilling

information

and

formation

data

collection.

This

type

of

execution

unsurprisingly creates an overall economy regarding good quality drilling and data

collection. To accomplish these goals, the formation evaluation specialist must be

capable of taking an active, informed role in the drilling process in the course of

MWD. MWD gamma ray logs are pretty much alike to their wire line counterparts.

Almost all service companies effectively diminish the same gamma ray log using

either Geiger-Mueller tubes or scintillation crystals as detectors. Gamma ray log

with very fine vertical resolution may be produced as a result of the slow’ logging

speed during MWD. This is owing to the statistical measurements and detecting

more

gamma

rays

per

foot

for

slow

drilling.

Lithologies

that

contain

high

concentrations of potassium, such as illite and feldspathic sands can be counted

another characteristic of MWD gamma ray log. The thick steel drill collar

attenuates radiation from uranium and thorium more than it does the radiation

emitted from potassium. This might be the reason for the potassium prejudice. NL

scales its gamma ray log in Apparent API (AAPI) units in view of the fact that the

API gamma ray unit is not applicable to MWD,

The EWR is an induction-type resistivity sensor which operates at two

megahertz. It is described by a diameter of investigation of from 30 to 50 inches

depending upon formation resistivity, and by a very sham vertical resolution,

technically six inches. The EWR is compatible to operate in any type of drilling

fluid, together with oil base mud and air. This sensor is more or less insensitive to

borehole effects for hole size of 14 ¾ inches or less, and mud salinities lower than

60,000 parts per million (ppm) sodium chloride.

A direct measurement of Rt can habitually be caused by the depth of

investigation of the EWR sensor, which is coupled with the typically shallow

invasion prior to the measurement. In view of the fact that it is often contrasted,

the good vertical resolution of the EWR log is also remarkably evident in the

example logs.

MWD DESIGN & TOOLS

It is hard to believe that MWD has come such a long way over the last

decade. In the 1980s, MWD measurements were restricted to simple resistivity

curves and gamma ray logs used more for correlation than formation evaluation.

Gradually sophisticated resistivity, density and neutron porosity logs have been

added to MWD arsenal. With the advent of high deviation, horizontal and now slim

multilateral wells, MWD measurements often provide only evaluating reservoirs.

The quality and the diversity of MWD tools have quickly continued to meet this

demand. Today, applications not only include petrophysical analysis, but also

geosteering and geological interpretation from MWD imaging.

geosteering and geological interpretation from MWD imaging. Telemetry Module (TM) The telemetry module communicates with

Telemetry Module (TM)

The telemetry module communicates with other modules, gathering data from the

gamma and directional modules, formatted formatting it for transmission, and

storing it. The TM also conditions the electric power from the pulser/ generator

for use by the other modules.

Gamma Module (GM)

GM is a high-efficiency scintillation detector for use with wire line and MWD tools.

Detecting natural gamma radiation down hole while drilling is essential to enable

geologists to establish and verify formation “markers,” or boundaries between

classes of formations, both in the first well and in subsequent wells drilled in the

same reservoir. The unit is composed of two subassemblies: a detector assembly

and a high voltage power supply. When power is applied, the output is an inverted

pulse train, the repetition rate of which is proportional to the amount of detected

natural gamma radiation.

to the amount of detected natural gamma radiation. Flexible Dynamic Sleeve (FDS) ensures that

Flexible

Dynamic

Sleeve

(FDS)

ensures

that

the

accuracy

and

stability

of

the

gamma

sensor

is

maximized. The FDS surrounds and

protects

both

the

module’s

scintillation and over all assembly, absorbing external shock and vibration while

maintaining concentric position within the pressure housing. By diminishing the

scintillation assembly’s exposure to vibration, a known factor of interference in

gamma readings, the vibration-induced counts can be reduced an average of 98%.

Vibration is further minimized through our proprietary Photomultiplier Tube (PMT)

support system. Using radial springs, a custom resonant frequency is tuned to

significantly minimize movement.

Centerfire Resistivity (CR)

To complement our fleet of MWD Systems, CR has recently introduced the latest

in propagation wave resistivity systems. The Centerfire Resistivity Extension has

successfully completed full-system testing of more than 500 drilling hours and

more than 1,200 circulating hours. MWD System,

used

in conjunction with

Centerfire, is mounted above the resistivity collar for easy retrieval and data

transmission to the surface. Available in outside tool diameters of 4.75, 6.75 and

8.25 inches, the system is flexible and can be used in a wide range of hole sizes.

Centerfire is designed to deliver the performance advantages you demand.

Pulser/Generator

The pulser module generates electrical power and restricts drilling mud flow to

create a pressure pulse that can be detected

at

the surface. It is

always

connected to the TM and is unique among the modules in this aspect. The pulser

contains turbine blades that are driven by the flowing mud to turn a generator and

a small hydraulic pump. The hydraulic pump is used to operate a poppet valve that

blocks the flow of mud in the drill string, thereby creating a pressure pulse. The

TM controls the pulser operations and encodes data into the pulses that are

received and decoded at the surface using a pressure transducer and computer.

Battery Module (BM)

The battery module provides power to the tool when there is no flow of drilling

fluid to operate the generator, using high temperature lithium batteries.

Rugged Surface Components (RSC)

A pressure transducer on the standpipe detects the mud pulses and converts them

to electrical signals on the surface. A PC translate s these signals, then spreads

the information to the driller’s readout on the ii floor. Additionally, the PC also

monitors the condition of the instrument probe and the system’s electrical

connections and power. Minimizing the potential problems of mud additives can be

discussed among the mud engineer, company representative, and MWD operator. If

the viscosity building materials are added too quickly, this situation can congeal and

plug tool internals. Moreover, the chemicals added to cause the mud to “air-tip” can

interfere with data transmissions.

Directional Module (DM)

The

directional

module

uses

magnetometers and accelerometers to

measure the compass direction of the

bottom-hole assembly and the angle of

the

hole.

These

data,

along

with

depth,

are

used

to

calculate

the

trajectory of the well.

Proven Sensors

to calculate the trajectory of the well. Proven Sensors The solid-state, tri-axial probe is adapted from
to calculate the trajectory of the well. Proven Sensors The solid-state, tri-axial probe is adapted from
to calculate the trajectory of the well. Proven Sensors The solid-state, tri-axial probe is adapted from

The solid-state, tri-axial probe is adapted from Eastman Whipstock’s proven

Directional

Orientation

Tool.

MWD

tool’s

three

accelerometers

and

three

magnetometers offer sensor resolution of ±0.10 of inclination and ±0.10 of azimuth,

respectively. The 1 ¾ in probe seats in a mule shoe assembly, which is housed in a

protective barrel, is run immediately below a standard nonmagnetic drill collar.

Utilizing standard non-magnetic drill collars simplifies make-up, reduces tool costs,

and makes MWD tool easier to transport. Therefore, MWD tool‘s design allows

optimum sensor spacing within the non-magnetic collars to minimize magnetic

interference.

Mud System Modifications

As it has been discussed in previous sections, MWD tools detect pulses or waves by

means of a pressure transducer mounted on the standpipe. First, the pulses are

converted to electrical signals by the transducer, and then they are transmitted to

the system computer for decoding. Most excellent results are achieved when the

transducer is attached directly to the standpipe.

5) CASE STUDIES & INNOVATIONS IN MWD

1983

NL Industries introduced LWD tool to tackle induction type of environments. The

EWR Electromagnetics Wave Resistivity tool has a 2-MHz transmitter and two

receivers. The high frequency makes it an electromagnetic wave propagation tool

rather than an induction tool. Induction tools measure the difference in magnetic

field between the two receivers that is caused by induced information eddy

currents. Propagation tools, however, measure amplitude and phase differences

between the receivers. All measurements can be transformed into resistivity

readings. However, the EWR tool uses only phase shift.

readings. However, the EWR tool uses only phase shift. 1987 Laterologs have their roots in a

1987

Laterologs have their roots in a tool called the short normal, one of the earliest

wire line logging tools. Its principles were adapted by many MWD companies in the

early 1980s to provide a simple resistivity log for correlation. The idea is fairly

straight forward: Force current from a source electrode to a return electrode

trough the formation; measure the current and the voltage drop between the

electrodes and Ohm’s law to derive formation resistivity, R t . Exploration on the

hort normal is the laterolog technique is commonly used in wire line logging.

Exploration Logging introduced a laterolog resistivity tool in 1987 based on the

laterolog tool of the early 1950s.

Exploration Logging introduced a laterolog resistivity tool in 1987 based on the laterolog tool of the

1990

New Generation of MWD Tools, Measurements at the Bit

1990 New Generation of MWD Tools, Measurements at the Bit
2001 Special Enhancements Expansion of our LWD and MWD global job capacity Added directional drilling

2001

Special Enhancements

Expansion of our LWD and MWD global job capacity

Added directional drilling services to PathFinder’s operations in North America

Commercial release of the Drilling Formation Tester (DFT) tool which provides

formation pressure data while drilling

Commercial release of our Gravity MWD service which minimizes the adverse

impact of magnetic interference while conducting directional surveying.

Increased our drilling motor fleet by over 30% since mid-2001

Doubled our drilling motor manufacturing capacity

Expanded the geographic reach of our rental tooloperations through a new

integrated operating facility in South Texas

Added new and patented drilling fluid products

Increased geographic coverage of our drilling fluids distribution, warehousing,

and transportation services

Nearly doubled our coiled tubing revenue capacity and increased our geographic

reach into the

Texas marketplace

Increased our cased-hole wire line revenue capacity by over 30%

Commercial release of the Sensor Spool used to detect the precise location of

pipe tool joints andconnections during tripping, snubbing or removal of pipe

through the well bore

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