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Relay Technical Information

Definition of Relay Terminology


COIL • Maximum Switching Voltage
The maximum open circuit voltage which
(also referred to as primary or input)
can safely be switched by the contacts.
• Nominal Coil Voltage (Rated Coil Volt- of a higher voltage may be tolerable, but
AC and DC voltage maximums will differ
age) this should not be assumed without first
in most cases.
A single value (or narrow range) of checking with the manufacturer.
• Maximum Switching Current
source voltage intended by design to be • Nominal Operating Current
The maximum current which can safely
applied to the coil or input. The value of current flow in the coil when
be switched by the contacts. AC and DC
• Pick-Up Voltage (Pull-In Voltage or nominal voltage is impressed on the coil
current maximums may differ.
Must Operate Voltage) • Nominal Operating Power
• Maximum Switching Power
As the voltage on an unoperated relay is The value of power used by the coil at
The upper limit of power which can be
increased, the value at or below which all nominal voltage. For DC coils expressed
switched by the contacts. Care should be
contacts must function (transfer). in watts; AC expressed as volt amperes.
taken not to exceed this value.
• Drop-Out Voltage (Release or Must Nominal Power (W or VA)
• Maximum Carrying Current
Release Voltage) = Nominal Voltage × Nominal Current.
The maximum current which after clos-
As the voltage on an operated relay is • Coil Resistance
ing or prior to opening, the contacts
decreased, the value at or above which This is the DC resistance of the coil in
can safely pass without being subject to
all contacts must revert to their unoperat- DC type relays for the temperature con-
temperature rise in excess of their
ed position. ditions listed in the catalog. (Note that for
design limit, or the design limit of other
• Maximum Continuous Voltage certain types of relays, the DC resistance
temperature sensitive components in the
The maximum voltage that can be may be for temperatures other than the
relay (coil, springs, insulation, etc.). This
applied continuously to the coil without standard 20°C 68°F.)
value is usually in excess of the maxi-
causing damage. Short duration spikes
mum switching current.
• Maximum Switching Capability
• Coil Designation
The minimum value of voltage and cur-
Single side stable type 2 coil latching type rent which can be reliably switched by
1 coil latching type
Non-polarized Polarized 4-terminal 3-terminal the contacts. These numbers will vary
from device type to device type. Factors
+ — + + — +
affecting minimums include contact
material, contact pressure, wipe, ambient
or + or —
conditions and type of relay enclosure
(sealed vs. non-sealed).
— + — — — + • Maximum Switching Capacity
This is listed in the data column for each
A black coil represents the energized Form A contacts are also called N.O. type of relay as the maximum value of
state. For latching relays, schematic dia- contacts or make contacts. the contact capacity and is an interrela-
grams generally show the coil in its reset Form B contacts are also called N.C. tionship of the maximum switching
state. Therefore, the coil symbol is also contacts or break contacts. power, maximum switching voltage, and
shown for the reset coil in its reset state. Form C contacts are also called maximum switching current. The switch-
changeover contacts or transfer con- ing current and switching voltage can be
tacts. obtained from this graph. For example, if
CONTACTS (secondary or output) the switching voltage is fixed in a certain
• Contact Forms • MBB Contacts application, the maximum switching cur-
Denotes the contact mechanism and Abbreviation for make-before-break con- rent can be obtained from the intersec-
number of contacts in the contact circuit. tacts. Contact mechanism where Form A tion between the voltage on the axis and
• Contact Symbols contacts (normally open contacts) close the maximum switching power.
before Form B contacts open (normally
Form A contacts closed contacts). Maximum Switching Capacity (DS relay)
(normally open contacts)
Example: Using DS relay at a switching
• Rated Switching Power
voltage of 60V DC, the maximum switch-
The design value in watts (DC) or volt
Form B contacts ing current is 1A.
(normally closed contacts) amperes (AC) which can safely be
Maximum switching capacity is given

Form C contacts
switched by the contacts. This value is
the product of switching voltage × switch-
ing current, and will be lower than the
(for a resistive load. Be sure to carefully
check the actual load before use.
)
(changeover contacts)
maximum voltage and maximum current
product.

9–1
Definition of Relay Terminology
• Breakdown Voltage (Hi-Pot or Dielec- tion of reverse coil voltage until the reclo-
tric Strength) sure of the reset contact.
1,000V The maximum voltage which can be tol- • Shock Resistance, Destructive
erated by the relay without damage for a The acceleration which can be withstood
specified period of time, usually mea- by the relay during shipping or installa-
DC voltage

100V Maximum sured at the same points as insulation tion without it suffering damage, and
switching resistance. Usually the stated value is in without causing a change in its operating
capacity
VAC (RMS) for one minute duration. characteristics. Usually expressed in
• Surge Withstand Voltage “G”s.
10V The ability of the device to withstand an • Shock Resistance, Functional
abnormal externally produced power The acceleration which can be tolerated
surge, as in a lightning strike, or other by the relay during service without caus-
10mV phenomenon. An impulse test waveform ing the closed contacts to open for more
10µA 100mA 1A
is usually specified, indicating rise time, than the specified time.
DC current
peak value and fall time. (Fig. 2) • Vibration Resistance, Destructive
The vibration which can be withstood by
• Contact Resistance the relay during shipping, installation or
This value is the combined resistance of use without it suffering damage, and
the resistance when the contacts are without causing a change in its operating
touching each other and the resistance characteristics. Expressed as an acceler-
of the terminals and contact spring. The 100 ation in G’s or displacement, and fre-
contact resistance is measured using the 90
quency range.
Surge voltage (%)

voltage-drop method as shown below. • Vibration Resistance, Functional


The measuring currents are designated Wave peak value The vibration which can be tolerated by
40
in Fig. 1. the relay during service, without causing
30 the closed contacts to open for more
than the specified time.
0
V 0 1.2 50 • Mechanical Life
Time(µs) The minimum number of times the relay
FIG. 2
can be operated under nominal condi-
Measured contact
tions (coil voltage, temperature, humidity,
R
Power • Operate Time (Pull-In or Pick-Up Time) etc.) with no load on the contacts.
A
source • Electrical Life
(AC or DC)
The elapsed time from the initial applica-
tion of power to the coil, until the closure The minimum number of times the relay
A : Ammeter V : Voltmeter R : Variable resister
of the normally open contacts. (With mul- can be operated under nominal condi-
tiple pole devices the time until the last tions with a specific load being switched
FIG. 1
contact closes.) This time does not by the contacts.
Test Currents include any bounce time. • Contact Bounce (Time)
Rated Contact Current or Test Current • Operate Bounce Time Generally expressed in time (msec.), this
Switching Current (A) (mA) refers to the intermittent switching phe-
The time period immediately following
Less than 0.01 1 operate time during which the contacts nomenon of the contacts which occurs
0.01 or more and less than 0.1 10 are still dynamic, and ending once all due to the collision between the movable
0.1 or more and less than 1 100 bounce has ceased. metal parts or contacts, when the relay is
1 or more 1,000 • Release Time (Drop-Out Time) operated or released.
The resistance can be measured with The elapsed time from the initial removal • Maximum Switching Frequency
reasonable accuracy on a YHP 4328A of coil power until the reclosure of the This refers to the maximum switching
milliohmmeter. normally closed contacts (last contact frequency which satisfies the mechanical
In general, for relays with a contact rat- with multi-pole) this time does not life or electrical life under repeated oper-
ing of 1A or more, measure using the include bounce. ations by applying a pulse train at the
voltage-drop method at 1A 6V DC. • Release Bounce Time rated voltage to the operating coil.
• Capacitance The time period immediately following • Life Curve
This value is measured between the ter- release time during which the contacts This is listed in the data column for each
minals at 1kHz and 20°C 68°F. are still dynamic, ending when all bounce type of relay. The life (number of opera-
has ceased. tions) can be estimated from the switch-
PERFORMANCE • Set Time ing voltage and switching current. For
• Insulation Resistance Term used to describe operate time of a example, for a DS relay operating at:
The resistance value between all mutual- bi-stable or latching relay. Switching voltage = 125V AC
ly isolated conducting sections of the • Reset Time Switching current = 0.6A
relay, i.e. between coil and contacts, Term used to describe release time of a The life expectancy is 300,000 opera-
across open contacts and between coil bi-stable or latching relay. With a w-coil tions. However, this value is for a resis-
or contacts to any core or frame at magnetic latching relay the time is from tive load. Be sure to carefully check the
ground potential. This value is usually the first application of power to the reset actual load before use.
expressed as “initial insulation resis- coil until the reclosure of the reset con-
tance” and may decrease with time, due tacts. With a single coil latching relay, the
to material degradation and the accumu- time is measured from the first applica-
lation of contaminants.
9–2
Definition of Relay Terminology
Life Curve HIGH FREQUENCY The smaller the magnitude, the better
the relay.
CHARACTERISTICS • V.S.W.R. (Voltage Standing Wave
1,000
• Isolation Ratio)
High frequency signals leak through the High frequency resonance is generated
30V DC resistance load stray capacitance across contacts even if from the interference between the
Life (×10 )
4

100 the contacts are separated. This leak is input signal and reflected (wave) signal.
called isolation . The symbol dB (decibel) V.S.W.R. refers to the ratio of the maxi-
is used to express the magnitude of the mum value to minimum value of the
125V AC resistance load
10 leak signal. This is expressed as the log- waveform. The V.S.W.R. is 1 when there
arithm of the magnitude ratio of the sig- is no reflected wave. It usually
nal generated by the leak with respect to becomes greater than 1.
the input signal. The larger the magni-
1 2 tude, the better the isolation. Notes:
Current (A) • Insertion Loss 1. Except where otherwise specified, the
At the high frequency region, signal dis- tests above are conducted under
turbance occurs from self-induction, standard temperature and humidity (5°C
resistance, and dielectric loss as well as to 35°C 41°F to 95°F, 60±15%).
from reflection due to impedance mis- 2. The coil impressed voltage in the
matching in circuits. Loss due to any of switching tests is a rectangular wave at
these types of disturbances is called the rated voltage.
insertion loss. Therefore, this refers to 3. The phase of the AC load operation is
the magnitude of loss of the input signal. random.

PROTECTIVE the relay from large particulate contami- process drives off residual volatiles in the
nation, and also may protect user per- plastics, insuring a contaminant free
CONSTRUCTION sonnel from a shock hazard. environment inside the sealed relay,
Several different degrees of protection • Flux-Resistant Type resulting in more stable contact resis-
are provided for different relay types, for In this type of construction, solder flux tance over life.
resistance to dust, flux, contaminating penetration is curtailed by either insert • Hermetic Seal
environments, automatic cleaning, etc. molding the terminals with the header, or The plastic sealed type is not a true her-
• Open Type by a simple sealing operation during metic seal, there is an exchange of gas
For reasons of cost, some devices are manufacturing. molecules through the plastic cover over
not provided with any enclosure. It is • Sealed Type time. The only true hermetic seals are
usually assumed that the end application This type of sealed relay totally excludes metal to metal and glass to metal as in
will be in an overall enclosure or protec- the ingress of contaminants by way of a the our DX relay. The entire device is
tive environment. sealing compound being applied to the purged with dry nitrogen gas prior to
• Dust Cover Type header/cover interface. The constituent sealing, improving reliability.
;;;;;;;;
Most standard relays are provided with a components are annealed for physical
dust cover of some type. This protects and chemical stability. This annealing

CONSTRUCTION AND CHARACTERISTIC ( : Yes, : No)


Automatic Automatic Harmful Gas
Type Construction Characteristics
Soldering Cleaning Resistance

Most basic construction where


Dust Cover Type the case and base (or body) are
;

fitted together.
Base

Terminals are sealed or molded


simultaneously. The joint
Flux-Resistant Type between the case and base is
higher than the surface of the
Base
PC board.
;

Terminals, case, and base are ∗ 1) ∗ 2)


Sealed Type
filled with sealing resin.
Sealing resin

Metal case
;

Metallic Hermetic Hermetically sealed with metal


Seal Type case and metal base. Terminals
are sealed with glass.
;

Glass Metal base

∗1) Cleaning solvent


∗2) Although absorption by plastic does occur, it is insignificant in actual practice.
Use the metallic hermetic seal type for explosion-proof requirements.

9–3
Definition of Relay Terminology
• 2 Coil Latching Type
OPERATIONAL Relay with a latching construction com-
FUNCTION posed of 2 coils: set coil and reset coil.
• Single Side Stable Type The relay is set or reset by alternately
Relay which turns on when the coil is applying pulse signals of the same polar-
energized and turns off when deener- ity. (Fig. 5)
gized. (Fig. 3)
— —

+ +
+
Fig. 5 (Typical schematic for DS relay)

Fig. 3 (Typical schematic for DS relay)


• Operation Indication
• 1 Coil Latching Type Indicates the set and reset states either
Relay with a latching construction that electrically or mechanically for easy
can maintain the on or off state with a maintenance. An LED wired type (LED
pulse input. With one coil, the relay is set wired HC relay), lamp type (lamp wired
or reset by applying signals of opposite HP relay) are available. (Fig. 6)
polarities. (Fig. 4)

LED wired
— HC relay
Fig. 6

Fig. 4 (Typical schematic for DS relay)

TERMINAL CONFIGURATION
PC board
PC board through PC board clinching Quick connect
Type surface-mount Plug-in terminal Screw terminal
hole terminal terminal terminal
terminal

Typical relay
type

Terminal
configuration

TQ, TF, TN, TK, TX, TX-D TQ, TF, TN, TK, TX-SMD, TQ-SMD, K relay JC relay JH relay
TX-S relay, DS relay, TX, TX-D, TX-S relay relay, HC relay JR relay VC relay
Typical DS-BT relay, RP relay,
relay type RM relay, JS relay, JW
SMD type HP relay JA relay HE relay
relay, S relay, JQ relay, HE relay
PQ relay

MOUNTING METHOD
Terminal socket
;;
;;
Type Insertion mount Surface mount Socket mount TM type TMP type
mount

Mounting
configuration Terminal

Socket

TQ, TF, TN, TK, TX, TX-SMD,TQ-SMD, K relay HC relay HC relay JR relay
Typical relay TX-D, TX-S relay, relay, NC relay HP relay JR relay JC relay
DS relay, DS-BT relay,
type RP relay, RM relay, SMD type HC relay HG relay JC relay JM relay
S relay JT-N relay
Notes: 1. Sockets are available for certain PC board relays. (NR relay, S relay, ST relay, etc.)
2. M type (solder type) for direct screw mounting of case is also available. (K relay, HG relay)

9–4
General Application Guidelines
A relay may encounter a variety of ambi- ating conditions is necessary. Application
ent conditions during actual use resulting considerations should be reviewed and
in unexpected failure. Therefore, testing determined for proper use of the relay.
over a practical range under actual oper-

METHOD OF of use of the relay should be investigated In the table below, a summary has been
to determine whether they are matched made of the points of consideration for
DETERMINING to the environmental conditions, and at relay selection. It may be used as a ref-
SPECIFICATIONS the same time, the coil conditions, con- erence for investigation of items and
In order to use the relays properly, the tact conditions, and the ambient condi- points of caution.
characteristics of the selected relay tions for the relay that is actually used
should be well known, and the conditions must be sufficiently known in advance.

Specification item Consideration points regarding selection


a) Rating
b) Pick-up voltage (current)
c) Drop-out voltage (current)
d) Maximum continuous 1) Select relay with consideration for power source ripple.
Coil impressed voltage (current) 2) Give sufficient consideration to ambient temperature and for the coil temperature rise.
e) Coil resistance 3) When used in conjunction with semiconductors, additional attention to the application
f ) Impedance should be taken.
g) Temperature rise
h) Input frequency for AC type
a) Contact arrangement
b) Contact rating 1) It is desirable to use a standard product with more than the required number of contacts.
c) Contact material 2) It is beneficial to have the relay life balanced with the life of the device it is used in.
Contacts d) Life 3) Is the contact material matched to the type of load?
e) Contact pressure It is necessary to take care particularly with low level usage.
f ) Contact resistance
a) Operate time
b) Release time
Operate time 1) It is beneficial to have the bounce time short for sound circuits and similar applications.
c) Bounce time
d) Switching frequency
a) Vibration resistance
1) Give consideration to performance under vibration and shock in the use location.
Mechanical b) Shock resistance
2) In particular, when used in high temperature applications, relay with class B or class F coil
characteristics c) Ambient temperature
insulation may be required.
d) Life

a) Mounting method 1) Selection can be made for connection method with plug-in type, printed circuit board type,
b) Cover soldering, tab terminals, and screw fastening type.
Other items
c) Size 2) For use in an adverse atmosphere, sealed construction type should be selected.
3) Are there any special conditions?

BASICS ON RELAY
HANDLING
• To maintain initial performance, care • Care should be taken to observe cor- • Do not exceed the usable ambient tem-
should be taken to avoid dropping or hit- rect coil polarity (+, –) for polarized perature values listed in the catalog.
ting the relay. relays. • Use the flux-resistant type or sealed
• Under normal use, the relay is • Proper usage requires that the rated type if automatic soldering is to be used.
designed so that the case will not voltage be impressed on the coil. Use • Use alcohol based cleaning solvents
detach. To maintain initial performance, rectangular waves for DC coils and sine when cleaning is to be performed using a
the case should not be removed. Relay waves for AC coils. sealed type relay.
characteristics cannot be guaranteed if • Be sure the coil impressed voltage • Avoid ultrasonic cleaning of all types of
the case is removed. does not continuously exceed the maxi- relays.
• Use of the relay in an atmosphere at mum allowable voltage. • Avoid bending terminals, because it
standard temperature and humidity with • Absolutely avoid using switching volt- may cause malfunction.
minimal amounts of dust, SO2, H2S, or ages and currents that exceed the desig- • As a guide, use a Faston mounting
organic gases is recommended. nated values. pressure of 4 to 70N {4 to 7 kgf} for
Also note that use of silicon-based resins • The rated switching power and life are relays with tab terminals.
near the relay may result in contact fail- given only as guides. The physical phe- • For proper use, read the main text for
ure. For installation in adverse environ- nomena at the contacts and contact life details.
ments, one of the sealed types (plastic greatly vary depending on the type of
sealed type, etc.) should be considered. load and the operating conditions. There-
fore, be sure to carefully check the type
of load and operating conditions before
use.

9–5
General Application Guidelines
PROBLEM POINTS WITH REGARD TO USE
In the actual use of relays, various ambi- tests are necessary under the possible relay is a mass production item, and as a
ent conditions are encountered, and range of operation. For example, consid- matter of principle, it must be
because unforeseen events occur which eration must always be given to recognized that the relay is to be used to
can not be thought of on the drawing variation of performance when relay the extent of such variations without
board, with regard to such conditions, characteristics are being reviewed. The the need for adjustment.

RELAY COIL
• AC operation type necessary to consider the current value circuit is connected to the same line as
For the operation of AC relays, the power as 1.5 to 2 times the pick-up current. Also, motors, solenoids, transformers, and
source is almost always a commercial fre- because of the extensive use of relays as other loads, when these loads operate,
quency (50 or 60Hz) with standard volt- limit devices in place of meters for both the line voltage drops, and because of this
ages of 6, 12, 24, 48, 115, and 240V AC. voltage and current, and because of the the relay contacts suffer the effect of
Because of this, when the voltage is other gradual increase or decrease of current vibration and subsequent burn damage.
than the standard voltage, the product is a impressed on the coil causing possible In particular, if a small type transformer is
special order item, and the factors of delay in movement of the contacts, there used and its capacity has no margin of
price, delivery, and stability of characteris- is the possibility that the designated con- safety, when there is long wiring, or in the
tics may create conveniences. To the trol capacity may not be satisfied. Thus it case of household used or small sales
extent that it is possible, the standard volt- is necessary to exercise care. The DC shop use where the wiring is slender, it is
ages should be selected. type relay coil resistance varies due to necessary to take precautions because of
Also, in the AC type, shading coil resis- ambient temperature as well as to its own the normal voltage fluctuations combined
tance loss, magnetic circuit eddy current heat generation to the extent of about with these other factors. When trouble
loss, and hysteresis loss exit, and 0.4%/°C, and accordingly, if the tempera- develops, a survey of the voltage situation
because of lower coil efficiency, it is nor- ture increases, because of the increase in should be made using a synchroscope or
mal for the temperature rise to be greater pick-up and drop-out voltages, care is similar means, and the necessary
than that for the DC type. required. counter-measures should be taken, and
Furthermore, because humming occurs • Impressed voltage of AC coil together with this determine whether a
below the level of pick-up voltage (mini- In order to have stable operation of the special relay with suitable excitation char-
mum operating voltage), care is required relay, the impressed voltage should be acteristics should be used, or make a
with regard to power source voltage fluc- basically within the range of of the change in the DC circuit as shown in
tuations. rated voltage. However, it is necessary Fig. 2 in which a capacitor is inserted to
+10%
For example, in the case of motor starting, that the waveform of the voltage
–15% absorb the voltage fluctuations.
if the power source voltage drops, and impressed on the coil be a sine wave. In particular, when a magnetic switch is
during the humming of the relay, if it There is no problem if the power source is being used, because the load becomes
reverts to the restored condition, the con- commercially provided power, but when a like that of a motor, depending upon the
tacts suffer a burn damage and welding, stabilized AC power source is used, there application, separation of the operating
with the occurrence of a false operation is a waveform distortion due to that equip- circuit and power circuit should be tried
self-maintaining condition. ment, and there is the possibility of abnor- and investigated.
For the AC type, there is an inrush current mal overheating. By means of a shading
during the operation time (for the separat- coil for the AC coil, humming is stopped,
ed condition of the armature, the imped- but with a distorted waveform, that func-
ance is low and a current greater than tion is not displayed. Fig. 1 below shows
rated current flows; for the adhered condi- an example of waveform distortion.
tion of the armature, the impedance is If the power source for the relay operating
high and the rated value of current flows),
and because of this, for the case of sever- Fig. 1 Distortion in an AC stabilized power source
al relays being used in parallel connec-
tion, it is necessary to give consideration
to power consumption.
• DC operation type
For the operation of DC relays, standards
exist for power source voltage and
Sine wave Approximate keystone wave Waveform with a
current, with DC voltage standards set at this harmonic included
5, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 100V, but with regard
to current, the values as expressed in cat-
alogs in milliamperes of pick-up current. Fig. 2 Voltage fluctuation absorbing circuit using a condenser
However, because this value of pick-up
T
current is nothing more than a guarantee
Switch
of just barely moving the armature, the
variation in impressed voltage and resis- 100V AC

tance values, and the increase in coil 24V DC C R Relay coil


resistance due to temperature rise, must
be given consideration for the worst possi-
ble condition of relay operation, making it

9–6
General Application Guidelines
• Power source for DC input
As a power source for the DC type relay,
a battery or either a half wave or full wave ~
rectifier circuit with a smoothing capacitor
R Relay
is used. This characteristics with regard
to the excitation voltage of the relay will
Smoothing capacitor
change depending upon the type of
Ripple portion
power source, and because of this, in
order to display stable characteristics, the
most desirable method is perfect DC.
In the case of ripple included in the DC
DC portion
power source, particularly in the case of Emax. Emin. Emean.

half wave rectifier circuit with a smoothing


capacitor, if the capacity of the capacitor Emax.–Emin Emax. = Maximum value of ripple portion
Ripple percentage = ×100%
is too small, due to the influence of the Emean. Emin. = Minimum value of ripple portion
ripple, humming develops and an unsat- Fig. 3
Emean.= Average value of ripple portion
isfactory condition is produced. With the
actual circuit to be used, er, the pull-up force becomes somewhat addition of a smoothing capacitor, it can
it is absolutely necessary to confirm the weakened, and it is necessary to take be used. However, the ripple and the
characteristics. (Fig. 3) care since the resistance to vibration and characteristics must be investigated.
With regard to our T-Series (TQ, TF, TN, shock is reduced. Also ordinarily the fol- [3] For the hinge type relay, there are
TK, TX, TX-D, TX-S, TQ-SMD), NF,S, lowing must be given thought. types which cannot use the full wave rec-
HB, and NR relays, it is necessary to give [1] It is desirable to have less than a 5% tifier alone and other types which can use
consideration to the use of a power ripple for the reed type relay (including the full wave rectifier alone, and it is nec-
source with less than a 5% ripple, but for NR relay also). essary to discuss this with the maker to
the J series, NC, NT, and NL relays, there [2] For the hinge type relay, a half wave determine which is possible.
is no hindrance to the operation. Howev- rectifier only cannot be used, but with the

• Coil temperature rise • Pick-up voltage change due to coil have erroneous operation or abnormal
Proper usage requires that the rated volt- temperature rise (hot start) operation. To understand this condition
age be impressed on the coil. Note, how- In DC relays, after continuous passage while preparing sequence circuits, as
ever, that if a voltage greater than or of current in the coil, if the current is shown in Fig. 5, with 2 lines written as
equal to the maximum continuous turned OFF, then immediately turned ON the power source lines, the upper line is
impressed voltage is impressed on the again, due to the temperature rise in the always  + and the lower line  – (when the
coil, the coil may burn or its layers short coil, the pick-up voltage will become circuit is AC, the same thinking applies).
due to the temperature rise. Further- somewhat higher. Also, it will be the Accordingly the  + side is necessarily the
more, do not exceed the usable ambient same as using it in a higher temperature side for making contact connections
temperature range listed in the catalog. atmosphere. The resistance/temperature (contacts for relays, timers, limit switch-
• Temperature rise due to pulse relationship for copper wire is about es, etc.), and the – side is the load cir-
voltage 0.4% for 1°C, and with this ratio the coil cuit side (relay coil, timer coil, magnet
When a pulse voltage with ON time of resistance increases. That is, in order to coil, solenoid coil, motor, lamp, etc.).
less than 2 minutes is used, the coil tem- cause operation of the relay, the current Fig. 6 shows an example of stray cir-
perature rise bares no relationship to the necessary becomes higher than the pick- cuits. In Fig. 6 (a), with contacts A, B,
ON time. This varies with the ratio of ON up current, accompanying the rise in the and C closed, after relays R1, R2, and R3
time to OFF time, and compared with resistance value. operate, if contacts B and C open, there
continuous current passage, it is rather • Operate time is a series circuit through A, R1, R2, and
small. The various relays are essentially In the case of AC operation, there is R3, and the relays will hum and some-
the same in this respect. (Fig. 4) extensive variation in operate time times not be restored to the drop out
depending upon the point in the phase at condition.
Current passage time %
which the switch is turned ON for coil The connections shown in Fig. 6 (b) are
Temperature rise value is
excitation, and it is expressed as a cer- correctly made. In addition, with regard
For continuous passage tain range, but for miniature types it is for to the DC circuit, because it is simple by
100%
ON : OFF = 3 : 1 About 80% the most part 1/2 cycle (about 10msec.). means of a diode to prevent stray cir-
ON : OFF = 1 : 1 About 50% However, for the somewhat large type cuits, proper application should be made.
ON : OFF = 1 : 3 About 35% relay where bounce is large, the operate
time is 7 to 16msec., with release time in
the order of 9 to 18msec. Also, in the
Voltage

1:1
case of DC operation, to the extent of Upper side line
large coil input, the operating time is Contact circuit
rapid, but if it is too rapid, the “A” contact Power source lines
R Load circuit
bounce time is extended.
Lower side line
• Stray circuits (bypass circuits)
Time
In the case of sequence circuit construc- Fig. 5 Example of a vertically written
Fig. 4
tion, because of bypass flow or alternate sequence circuit
routing, it is necessary to take care not to

9–7
General Application Guidelines
• Erroneous operation due to inductive
interference
A B C D In situations where both control and load
wiring are in close proximity, thought
should be given to separating or shielding
R1 R2 R3 A B
the conductors in order to prevent false
relay operation. This becomes increas-
R1 R2 R3
C ingly important with long wiring runs, and
can be achieved by using separate con-
(a) Not a good example (b) Correct example duit for load and control conductors.
Inductive coupling can also be minimized
Fig. 6 Stray circuits
by maintaining a large physical separa-
tion of the load and control wiring.
• Gradual increase of coil impressed should be taken. • Influence of external magnetic fields
voltage and suicide circuit The circuit shown in Fig. 7 causes a tim- Many modern electro-mechanical relays
When the voltage impressed on the coil ing and sequential operation using a are of polarized, high sensitivity design.
is increased slowly, the relay transferring reed type relay, but this is not a good Care should be exercised in the place-
operation is unstable, the contact pres- example with mixture of gradual increase ment of these devices when strong,
sure drops, contact bounce increases, of impressed voltage for the coil and a external magnetic fields are present,
and an unstable condition of contact sucide circuit. In the timing portion for such as in proximity to power transform-
occurs. This method of applying voltage relay R1, when the timing times out, chat- ers or permanent magnets (speakers,
to the coil should not be used, and con- tering occurs causing trouble. In the ini- etc.).
sideration should be given to the method tial test (trial production), it shows favor- Operational characteristics may change
of impressing voltage on the coil (use of able operation, but as the number of under an external magnetic influence.
switching circuit). Also, in the case of operations increases, contact blackening • Long term current carrying
latching relays, using self contacts “B,” (carbonization) plus the chattering of the In applications which involve lengthy duty
the method of self coil circuit for com- relay creates instability in performance. cycles, the preferred configuration would
plete interruption is used, but because of be the use of the form B or N.C. contacts
the possibility of trouble developing, care for long term duty. In those instances
where the form A contact is held closed
Instability point
for extensive time periods, coil heating
Switch
R1 a R2 a will increase contact “T” rise and may
R1 b R2 b
result in shorter than optimum life. Alter-
X X
nately, latching types may be considered
SW for these applications, using a storage
E ON
capacitor to “Reset” the relay on power-
down.
C R1 e C R2 R1 b • Regarding electrolytic corrosion of
R1 a coils
R1: Reed relay C: Capacitor R1a: Form A of relay R1 In the case of comparatively high voltage
R2: Reed relay X: Variable resistance R1b: Form B of relay R1 coil circuits (in particular above 48 V DC),
(for time adjustment)
when such relays are used in high tem-
Fig. 7 A timing and sequential operation using a reed type relay perature and high humidity atmospheres
or with continuous passage of current,
the corrosion can be said to be the result
• Phase synchronization in AC load (incomplete release) due to contact
of the occurrence of electrolytic corrosion.
switching material transfer may occur. Therefore,
Because of the possibility of open circuits
If switching of the relay contacts is syn- check the relay while it is operating in the
occurring, attention should be given to
chronized with the phase of the AC actual system. However, if problems
the following points.
power, reduced electrical life, welded develop, control the relay using an
[1] The + side of the power source
contacts, or a locking phenomenon appropriate phase. (Fig. 8)
should be connected to the chassis.
(Refer to Fig. 9) (Common to all relays)
Load
[2] In the case where unavoidably the  –
Ry
side is grounded, or in the case where
Load grounding is not possible.
Vin.
voltage (1) Insert the contacts (or switch) in the
Vin. 
+ side of the power source, and connect
the start of the coil winding the 
– side.
(Refer to Fig. 10) (Common to all relays)
Fig. 8 (2) When a grounding is not required,
connect the ground terminal to the  +
side of the coil. (Refer to Fig. 11) (NF and
NR with ground terminal)
[3] When the  – side of the power source
is grounded, always avoid interting

9–8
General Application Guidelines
the contacts (and switches) in the – side. important role as a method for preventing ed, the iron core can be grounded directly
(Refer to Fig. 12) (Common to all relays) electrolytic corrosion. to the chassis, but in consideration of
[4] In the case of relays provided with a Note: The designation on the drawing electrolytic corrosion, it is more expedient
ground terminal, when the ground termi- indicates the insertion of insulation not to make the connection.
nal is not considered effective, not mak- between the iron core and the chassis. In
ing a connection to ground plays an relays where a ground terminal is provid-
Judgment: Good (Fig. 9) Judgment: Good (Fig. 10) Judgment: Good (Fig. 11) Judgment: No good (Fig. 12)

Switch Switch
Bobbin Bobbin Bobbin
End of coil winding + –
+

;;;;
– + – + +

;;;

;;;;
+ +
;;
– Relay coil Iron core Relay coil Iron core
+ Relay coil Iron core Relay coil Iron core
+ – –

R (Insulation Start of coil winding R (Insulation Bobbin R (Insulation
resistance) resistance) resistance)
Switch Switch

CONTACT
The contacts are the most important ele- waveforms at the time of application and abnormal wear, increase in contact
ments of relay construction. Contact release), the type of load, frequency resistance, and the various other dam-
performance conspicuously influenced of switching, ambient atmosphere, form ages which bring about unsuitable
by contact material, and voltage and of contact, contact switching speed, operation, the following items require full
current values applied to the contacts (in and of bounce. investigation.
particular, the voltage and current Because of contact transfer, welding,

1. Contact circuit voltage, current, and


load
[Voltage, AC and DC]
When there is inductance included in the direction of the current being fixed, the proper to think of current capacity as that
circuit, a rather high counter emf is gen- phenomenon of contact shift, as noted for 125V AC circuits.
erated as a contact circuit voltage, and separately below, occurs in relation to
since, to the extent of the value of that the contact wear. Ordinarily, the approxi- [Current]
voltage, the energy applied to the con- mate control capacity is mentioned in The current at both the closing and
tacts causes damage with consequent catalogues or similar data sheets, but opening time of the contact circuit exerts
wear of the contacts, and transfer of the this alone is not sufficient. With special important influence. For example, when
contacts, it is necessary to exercise care contact circuits, for the individual case, the load is either a motor or a lamp, to
with regard to control capacity. In the the maker either estimates from the past the extent of the inrush current at the
case of DC, there is no zero current point experience or makes test on each occa- time of closing the circuit, wear of the
such as there is with AC, and according- sion. Also, in catalogues and similar data contacts, and the amount of contact
ly, once a cathode arc has been generat- sheets, the control capacity that is men- transfer increase, and contact welding
ed, because it is difficult to quench that tioned is limited to resistive load, but and contact transfer make contact sepa-
arc, the extended time of the arc is a there is a broad meaning indicated for ration impossible.
major cause. In addition, due to the that class of relay, and ordinarily it is

9–9
General Application Guidelines
2. Characteristics of Common Contact Materials
Characteristics of contact materials are given below. Refer to the when selecting a relay.
Electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity are the highest of all metals. Exhibits low contact resistance,
Ag is inexpensive and widely used. A disadvantage is it easily develops a sulfide film in a sulfide atmosphere.
(silver) Care is required at low voltage and low current levels.
AgCd Exhibits the conductivity and low contact resistance of silver as well as excellent resistance to welding. Like
(silver-cadmium) silver, it easily develops a sulfide film in a sulfide atmosphere.

Hardness and melting point are high, arc resistance is excellent, and it is highly resistant to material transfer.
AgW
However, high contact pressure is required. Furthermore, contact resistance is relatively high and resistance
Contact (silver-tungsten)
to corrosion is poor. Also, there are constraints on processing and mounting to contact springs.
Material
AgNi
(silver-nickel) Equals the electrical conductivity of silver. Excellent arc resistance.

At standard temperature, good corrosion resistance and good sulfidation resistance. However, in dry circuits,
AgPd
organic gases adhere and it easily develops a polymer. Gold clad is used to prevent polymer buildup.
(silver-palladium)
Expensive.
PGS alloy
(platinum, gold,silver) Excellent corrosion resistance. Mainly used for low current circuits. (Au : Ag : Pt = 69 : 25 : 6)

Combines perfect corrosion resistance and hardness. As plated contacts, used for relatively light loads. In an
Rh plating
organic gas atmosphere, care is required as polymers may develop. Therefore, it is used in hermetic seal
(rhodium)
relays (reed relays, etc.) . Expensive.
Au with its excellent corrosion resistance is pressure welded onto a base metal. Special characteristics are
Au clad uniform thickness and the nonexistence of pinholes. Greatly effective especially for low level loads under
Surface (gold clad) relatively adverse atmospheres. Often difficult to implement clad contacts in existing relays due to design
Finish and installation.
Au plating Similar effect to Au cladding. Depending on the plating process used, supervision is important as there is the
(gold plating) possibility of pinholes and cracks. Relatively easy to implement gold plating in existing relays.
Au flash plating Purpose is to protect the contact base metal during storage of the switch or device with built-in switch.
(gold thin-film plating) However, a certain degree of contact stability can be obtained even when switching loads.

3. Contact Protection at the instant the inductive load is develop such as those shown in Fig. 14.
• Counter EMF switched off. The counter emf passes After a while, the uneven contacts lock
When switching inductive loads with a through the power supply line and reach- as if they were welded together. This
DC relay such as relay sequence cir- es both contacts. often occurs in circuits where sparks are
cuits, DC motors, DC clutches, and DC Generally, the critical dielectric break- produced at the moment the contacts
solenoids, it is always important to down voltage at standard temperature “make” such as when the DC current is
absorb surges (e.g. with a diode) to pro- and pressure in air is about 200 to 300 large for DC inductive or capacitive loads
tect the contacts. volts. Therefore, if the counter emf or when the inrush current is large (sev-
When these inductive loads are switched exceeds this, discharge occurs at the eral amperes or several tens of
off, a counter emf of several hundred to contacts to dissipate the energy (1/2Li2) amperes).
several thousand volts develops which stored in the coil. For this reason, it is Contact protection circuits and contact
can severely damage contacts and desirable to absorb the counter emf so materials resistant to material transfer
greatly shorten life. If the current in these that it is 200V or less. such as AgW or AgCu are used as coun-
loads is relatively small at around 1A or A memory oscilloscope, digital memory, termeasures. Generally, a concave for-
less, the counter emf will cause the igni- peak hold meter, etc., can be used to mation appears on the cathode and a
tion of a glow or arc discharge. The dis- measure the counter emf. However, convex formation appears on the anode.
charge decomposes organic matter con- since the waveform is extremely steep, For DC capacitive loads (several
tained in the air and causes black considerable discrepancies may result amperes to several tens of amperes), it
deposits (oxides, carbides) to develop on depending on the precision of the equip- is always necessary to conduct actual
the contacts. This may result in contact ment used. The table shows the counter confirmation tests.
failure. emf of various relays measured on a
In Fig. 13 (a), an emf (e = –L didt ) with a high precision peak hold meter.
steep waveform is generated across the Actual measurement of counter emf
coil with the polarity shown in Fig. 13 (b) on a peak hold meter
Nominal Coil Voltage
Relay Type 6V DC 12V DC 24V DC
ON OFF Meterial transfer of contacts
Peak voltage E NR relay
+ 0 (single side stable) 144V 165V 188V Fig. 14
– meter

Several hundred NF4 relay 410V 470V 510V
+ to several
E R e thousand volts
– • Material Transfer Phenomenon
+ di
e = –L dt Material transfer of contacts occurs when
(a) (b)
one contact melts or boils and the con-
tact material transfers to the other con-
Fig. 13 Example of counter emf and actual
measurement on a peak hold meter. tact. As the number of switching opera-
tions increases, uneven contact surfaces

9–10
General Application Guidelines
• Contact Protection Circuit emf to a low level. However, note that effect. Typical contact protection circuits
Use of contact protective devices or pro- incorrect use will result in an adverse are given in the table below.
tection circuits can suppress the counter ( : Good ×: No Good)
Application
Circuit Circuit Circuit
AC DC
If the load is a timer, leakage current flows
Contact
through the CR circuit causing faulty operation.

Inductive load
∗If used with AC voltage, be sure the impedance of the
load is sufficiently smaller than that of the CR circuit
r c ∗ As a guide in selecting r and c, r: 0.5 to 1Ω per 1V
contact voltage c: 0.5 to 1µF per 1A contact
current Values vary depending on the properties
of the load and variations in relay characteristics.
Capacitor c acts to suppress the discharge the
CR circuit If the load is a relay or solenoid, the release time moment the contacts open. Resistor r acts to
Contact lengthens. Effective when connected to both limit the current when the power is turned on the
contacts if the power supply voltage is 24 or 48V
Inductive load

next time. Test to confirm. Use a capacitor with a


r and the voltage across the load is 100 to 200V. breakdown voltage of 200 to 300V. Use AC type
capacitors (non-polarized) for AC circuits.
c

Contact The diode connected in parallel causes the Use a diode with a reverse breakdown voltage at
energy stored in the coil to flow to the coil in the least 10 times the circuit voltage and a forward
Inductive load

form of current and dissipates it as joule heat at current at least as large as the load current.
Diode circuit Diode × the resistance component of the inductive load. In electronic circuits where the circuit voltages
This circuit further delays the release time are not so high, a diode can be used with a
compared to the CR circuit. (2 to 5 times the reverse breakdown voltage of about 2 to 3 times
release time listed in the catalog) the power supply voltage.

Contact
Inductive load

Diode and Effective when the release time in the diode Use a zener diode with a zener voltage about the
zener diode ×
circuit is too long. same as the power supply voltage.
circuit

Contact Using the stable voltage characteristics of the


varistor, this circuit prevents excessively high
Inductive load

voltages from being applied across the contacts.


Varistor circuit Varistor This circuit also slightly delays the release time.
Effective when connected to both contacts if the
power supply voltage is 24 or 48V and the voltage
across the load is 100 to 200V.

• Avoid using the protection circuits Fig. 15 Contact Contact


shown in the figures on the right.
Although DC inductive loads are usually Power C
Load

Power

Load
more difficult to switch than resistive No good supply No good supply C

loads, use of the proper protection circuit


will raise the characteristics to that for
Although extremely effective in arc suppression as the Although extremely effective in arc suppression as the
resistive loads. (Fig. 15) contacts open, the contacts are susceptible to welding since contacts open, the contacts are susceptible to welding since
energy is stored in C when the contacts open and discharge charging current flows to C when the contacts close.
current flows from C when the contacts close.

• Mounting the Protective Device with a case, the case must be removed Type of load Inrush current
In the actual circuit, it is necessary to or air holes drilled in the case. A similar Resistive load Steady state current
locate the protective device (diode, resis- phenomenon occurs in the presence of 10 to 20 times the
tor, capacitor, varistor, etc.) in the imme- Solenoid load
ammonia-based gas. Therefore, care is steady state current
diate vicinity of the load or contact. If required in circuits where sparks are 5 to 10 times the
Motor load steady state current
located too far away, the effectiveness of generated at a high frequency.
the protective device may diminish. As a • Type of Load and Inrush Current Incandescent lamp load
10 to 15 times the
steady state current
guide, the distance should be within The type of load and its inrush current
50cm. characteristics, together with the switch- Approx. 3 times the
Mercury lamp load steady state current
• Abnormal Corrosion During High ing frequency are important factors
1 to 3 times the
Frequency Switching of DC Loads which cause contact welding. Particularly Sodium vapor lamp load steady state current
(spark generation) for loads with inrush currents, measure 20 to 40 times the
If, for example, a DC valve or clutch is the steady state current and inrush cur- Capacitive load steady state current
switched at a high frequency, a blue- rent and select a relay which provides an 5 to 15 times the
Transformer load steady state current
green corrosion may develop. This ample margin of safety. The table on the
occurs from the reaction with nitrogen in right shows the relationship between typ-
the air when sparks (arc discharge) are ical loads and their inrush currents.
generated during switching. For relays

9–11
General Application Guidelines
Load Inrush Current Wave and Time
(1) Incandescent Lamp Load (2) Mercury Lamp Load i/io = 3 times (3) Fluorescent Lamp Load
i/io = 5 to 10 times
Contacts L

i io C i io

i io
(for high power factor type)

3 to
10 seconds
5 minutes
Incandescent lamp or less
The discharge tube, transformer, choke coil,
capacitor, etc., are combined in common
discharge lamp circuits. Note that the inrush
current may be 20 to 40 times, especially if
Approx. 1/3 second the power supply impedance is low in the
Inrush current/rated current high power factor type.
=i/io = 10 to 15 times

(4) Motor Load (5) Solenoid Load (6) Electromagnetic Contact Load (7) Capacitive Load
i/io = 5 to 10 times i/io = 10 to 20 times i/io = 3 to 10 times i/io = 20 to 40 times

i io i io i io

i io

0.07
to 0.1 second
0.2 to 0.5 second 1 to 2 cycles
(1/60 to 1/30 seconds)
Conditions become harsher if plugging
or inching is performed since state
transitions are repeated.

1/2 to 2 cycles (1/120 to 1/30 seconds)

• When Using Long Wires Equivalent circuit


+
If long wires (100 to 300m) are to be
used in a relay contact circuit, inrush cur-
Contacts
rent may become a problem due to the
stray capacitance existing between Added resistor Wire
Stray capacitance
of wire
wires. Add a resistor (approx. 10 to 50Ω) 10 to 50Ω (100 to 300m)
in series with the contacts. (Fig. 16)

Fig. 16

• Phase Synchronization in Switching


AC Loads
If switching of the relay contacts is syn-
chronized with the phase of the AC Ry Load
Load
power, reduced electrical life, welded voltage
Load
contacts, or a locking phenomenon Vin
voltage
(incomplete release) due to contact Vin
material transfer may occur. Therefore,
check the relay while it is operating in the
actual system. However, if problems Fig. 17
develop, control the relay using an
appropriate phase. (Fig. 17)

4. Cautions on Use Related to Contacts


• Connection of load and contacts
Connect the load to one side of the power
supply as shown in Fig. 18 (a). Connect Ry
the contacts to the other side. This pre- E (a) E (b)
vents high voltages from developing Ry
Ry Ry
between contacts. If contacts are con-
nected to both side of the power supply
as shown in (b), there is a risk of shorting
the power supply when relatively close Fig. 18 (a) Good example (b) Bad example
contacts short.

9–12
General Application Guidelines
• Dummy Resistor
Since voltage levels at the contacts used add a dummy resistor in parallel with the (0.1V or less, 0.2mA or less). Contact
in low current circuits (dry circuits) are load to intentionally raise the load current material and, of course, use of bifurcated
low, poor conduction is often the result. reaching the contacts. Care is required contacts must also be taken into consid-
One method to increase reliability is to especially for low-level switching circuits eration.

• Avoid Circuits Where Shorts Occur Between Form A and B Contacts (Fig. 19)
1) The clearance between form A and B
contacts in compact control components R1

Commercial AC power

Home AC generator
is small. The occurrence of shorts due to R1
N.C. N.O. Push-botton
arcing must be assumed. COM
switch

Load
2) Even if the three N.C., and COM con- M

Load
tacts are connected so that they short, a R R Relay coil
circuit must never be designed to allow R2
the possibility of burning or generating R2

an overcurrent. 1) R1, R2 : Contacts for R 2) 3) R1, R2 : Contacts for R


R : Double pole relay R : Double pole relay
3) A forward and reverse motor rotation
circuit using switching of form A and B Fig. 19 Bad example of form A and B use
contacts must never be designed.

• Shorts Between Different Electrodes


Although there is a tendency to select between electrodes in a multi-pole relay, be examined and sufficient margin of
miniature control components because especially when switching two different safety must be provided especially in
of the trend toward miniaturizing electri- power supply circuits. This is not a prob- creepage between electrodes, space dis-
cal control units, care must be taken lem that can be determined from tance, presence of barrier, etc.
when selecting the type of relay in cir- sequence circuit diagrams. The construc-
cuits where different voltages are applied tion of the control component itself must

LATCHING RELAYS If set coils or reset coils are to be con- Use a diode having an ample margin of
• Latching relays are shipped from the nected together in parallel, connect a safety for repeated DC reverse voltage
factory in the reset state. A shock to the diode in series to each coil. Fig. 20 (a) and peak reverse voltage applications
relay during shipping or installation may (b) Also, if the set coil of a relay and the and having an average rectified current
cause it to change to the set state. reset coil of another relay are connected greater than or equal to the coil current.
Therefore, it is recommended that the in parallel, connect a diode to the coils in
relay be used in a circuit which initializes series. (c) • Avoid applications in which conditions
the relay to the required state (set or include frequent surges to the power
reset) whenever the power is turned on. If the set coil or reset coil is to be con- supply.
• Avoid impressing voltages to the set nected in parallel with an inductive load • Avoid using the following circuit since
coil and reset coil at the same time. (e.g. another electromagnetic relay coil, self-excitation at the contacts will inhibit
• Connect a diode as shown since latch- motor, transformer, etc.), connect a diode the normal keep state. (Fig. 21)
ing may be compromised when the relay to the set coil or reset coil in series. (d)
is used in the following circuits.

(a) Parallel connection of set coils (b) Parallel connection of set coils
RLb RLa
(+) (+)

S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3
Load

RL
RL : Latching relay
Reset Reset RLa : Form A contacts of RL
coil Reset coil coil Reset coil RLb : Form B contacts of RL

Set coil Set coil Set coil Set coil


Bad example
Fig. 21
(–) (–)
Diode connection Diode connection Diode connection Diode connection • Four-Terminal Latching Relay
(c) Parallel connection of set coils and reset coils (d) Circuit with inductive load in parallel In the 2 coil latching type circuit in Fig.
with the set coil or reset coil
(+) (+) 22, one terminal at one end of the set
S1 S2 S3 coil and one terminal at one end of the
S
reset coil are connected in common and
voltages of the same polarity are applied
Reset
Reset coil
AC
Motor to the other side for the set and reset
coil or DC
Common relay operations. In this type of circuit, short 2
M coil
Set coil Set coil Set or
reset coil terminals of the relay as noted in the
next table. This helps to keep the insula-
(–) (–) tion high between the two winding.
Diode connection Diode connection Diode connection
Fig. 20

9–13
General Application Guidelines
silicon to adhere to the contacts and may perature. Use within the range indicated
Set switch Reset coil result in contact failure. in the graph below.
In this case, use a substitute that is not 2) Condensation
Set coil Reset switch
silicon-based. Condensation forms when there is a sud-
3. Vibration and Shock den change in temperature under high
If a relay and magnetic switch are temperature, high humidity conditions
Fig. 22 mounted next to each other on a single Condensation will cause deterioration of
plate, the relay contacts may separate the relay insulation.
Relay Type Terminal Nos.
momentarily from the shock produced 3) Freezing
DX 5 & 11
when the magnetic switch is operated Condensation or other moisture may
NR 3&6
and result in faulty operation. freeze on the relay when the tempera-
DR 3&6
Countermeasures include mounting tures is lower than 0°C 32°F. This causes
1c —
them on separate plates, using a rubber problems such as sticking of movable
DS 2c 15 & 16
sheet to absorb the shock, and changing parts or operational time lags.
4c ∗ the direction of the shock to a perpendic- 4) Low temperature, low humidity envi-
NL 4&5 ular angle. ronments
Flat 3&4 4. Influence of External Magnetic The plastic becomes brittle if the relay is
NC
Slim 3&4 Fields exposesd to a low temperature, low
ST ∗ Permanent magnets are used in reed humidity environment for long periods of
SP 2&4 relays and polarized relays (including NR time.
Notes:
1. *DS4c and ST relays are constructed so that the set coil and relays), and their movable parts are con-
reset coil are separated for high insulation resistance. structed of ferrous materials. For this ENVIRONMENTALLY
2. DSP, RG, TQ, TQ-SMD, TF, TN, TX series, DF, and S relays
are not applicable due to polarity. reason, when a magnet or permanent SEALED TYPE RELAYS
magnet in any other large relay, trans- Sealed type relays such as the plastic
HANDLING CAUTIONS former, or speaker is located nearby, the sealed type are available. They are
FOR TUBE PACKAGING relay characteristics may change and effective when problems arise during PC
Some types of relays are supplied in faulty operations may result. The influ- board mounting (e.g. automatic soldering
tube packaging. If you remove any relays ence depends on the strength of the and cleaning). They also, of course, fea-
from the tube packaging, be sure to slide magnetic field and it should be checked ture excellent corrosion resistance. Note
the stop plug at one end to hold the at the installation. the cautions below regarding the fea-
remaining relays firmly together so they 5. Usage, storage, and transport con- tures and use of environmentally sealed
would not move in the tube. Failing to do ditions type relays to avoid problems when
this may lead to the appearance and/or 1) During usage, storage, or transporta- using them in applications.
performance being damaged. tion, avoid locations subject to direct 1. Operating Environment
sunlight and maintain normal tempera- Plastic sealed type relays are especially
ture, humidity, and pressure conditions. not suited for use in environments which
Slide in the plug.
The allowable specifications for environ- require airtight relays. Although there is
ments suitable for usage, storage, and no problem if they are used at sea level,
Stop plug transportation are given below. avoid atmospheric pressures beyond
• Temperature: The allowable tempera- 96±10kPa. Also avoid using them in an
ture range differs for each relay, so refer atmosphere containing flammable or
to the relay’s individual specifications. In explosive gases. Use the metallic her-
addition, when transporting or storing metic seal types for these applications.
relays while they are tube packaged, 2. Operating Environment of Sealed
there are cases when the temperature Type Relays (generation of NOX)
AMBIENT may differ from the allowable range. In Environmentally sealed type relays
this situation, be sure to consult the indi- include the metallic hermetic seal type
ENVIRONMENT vidual specifications. relay and the plastic sealed type relay.
1. Ambient Temperature and Atmos- • Humidity: 5 to 85% R.H. When a plastic sealed type relay is used
phere in an atmosphere high in humidity to
Humidity, %R.H.
Be sure the ambient temperature at the
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switch a load which easily produces an


installation does not exceed the value arc, the NOX created by the arc and the
85
listed in the catalog. Furthermore, envi- water absorbed from outside the relay
ronmentally sealed types (plastic sealed Tolerance range
combine to produce nitric acid. This cor-
type, metallic hermetic seal type) should rodes the internal metal parts and
be considered for applications in an adversely affects operation.
(Avoid freezing when (Avoid
atmosphere with dust, sulfur gases (SO2, used at temperatures condensation when Avoid use at an ambient humidity of
lower than 0°C32°F) used at temperatures
H2S), or organic gases. higher than 0°C32°F) 85%RH or higher (at 20°C 68°F). If use
2. Silicon Atmosphere 5
at high humidity is unavoidable, consult
Silicon-based substances (silicon rubber, –40 0 +70
–40 +32 +158 us.
silicon oil, silicon-based coating material, Temperature, °C °F

silicon caulking compound, etc.) emit • Pressure: 86 to 106 kPa


volatile silicon gas. Note that when sili- The humidity range varies with the tem-
con is used near relay, switching the con- perature. Use within the range indicated
tacts in the presence of its gas causes in the graph below.

9–14
General Application Guidelines
PROCESSING CONSID- patible with mist dip or wave soldering pro- Mounting the relay so the surfaces of its
cedures. Some state-of-the-art relays are contacts (fixed contacts or movable con-
ERATIONS suitable for various reflow processes, tacts) are vertical prevents dirt and dust
1. Handling such as I.R. or vapor phase maximum as well as scattered contact material
State of the art relays are precision soldering temperatures and times will (produced due to large loads from which
mechanical devices and as such are vary from relay type to relay type, and arcs are generated) and powdered metal
sensitive to abusive handling practices. should not be exceeded. The use of an from adhering to them.
Every attempt is made during their man- I.R. reflow process with a relay not Furthermore, it is not desirable to switch
ufacture to preclude any anomalies. specifically designed to withstand the both a large load and a low level load
Relays are packed in variety of ways to process, will in all probability degrade the with a single relay. The scattered contact
best protect them during shipment and relay and cause performance problems. material produced when switching the
subsequent handling. These include the A safe practice would be to review the large load adheres to the contacts when
use of “Egg Crate” type inserts which thermal profile of the process on a case switching the low level load and may
support the relay and prevent damage to by case basis with our sales office. cause contact failure. Therefore, avoid
the terminals, foam trays which prevent 4. Cleaning mounting the relay with its low level load
shock damage, and tubes similar to Any cleaning process which involves contacts located below the large load
those used by semiconductor manu-fac- potential contamination of an unsealed contacts.
turers for machine dispensing and relay should be avoided. Sealed devices • Adjacent Mounting
assembly. During incoming inspection can be immersion cleaned in a suitable When many relays are mounted close
and subsequent customer handling oper- solvent (see solvent compatibility chart). together, abnormally high temperatures
ations, care should be taken so as not to Cleaning in a ultrasonic bath should also may result from the combined heat gen-
degrade the device which has been sup- be avoided. A harmonic of the bath fre- erated. Mount relays with sufficient spac-
plied in prime condition. Some key areas quency may be induced in the contacts ing between them to prevent heat
of concern: causing friction welding and subsequent buildup.
 Terminals should not be handled in contact sticking. Relays with a removable This also applies when a large number of
order to prevent contamination of the “vent” tab should be vented after cooling boards mounted with relays are installed
surface finish. This could lead to solder- to room temperature following cleaning as in a card rack. Be sure the ambient
ability problems. and drying. temperature of the relay does not exceed
 Terminal layout and P.C. board hole the value listed in the catalog.
pattern should match. any misalignment
caused by mis-registered P.C. board
MOUNTING CONSIDER- • Influence of Adjacent Mounting of
Polarized Relays
holes can lead to severe stress on the ATIONS When polarized relays are mounted close
relay, compromising performance and • Top View and Bottom View together, their characteristics change.
reliability (seal integrity). Relays used for PC boards, especially Since the affect of adjacent mounting dif-
 The storage temperature specification the flat type relays, have their top or bot- fers according to the type of relay, refer
should be observed. tom surface indicated in the terminal to the data for the particular type.
 Relays should be stored and handled wiring diagrams. • Tab Terminals
in a suitably clean area. Relay with termi- As a guide, use a quick connect mounting
2. Fluxing nals viewed from pressure of 40 to 70N {4 to 7 kgf} for
Depending upon the type of relay the bottom (termi- relays with tab terminals.
involved, fluxing procedures should be nals cannot be
researched carefully. An unsealed relay seen from the top)
is prone to internal flux contamination
METHOD OF
Relay with termi-
which can compromise contact perfor- nals viewed from
MOUNTING
mance, and ideally should be hand sol- the top (all termi- • The direction of mounting is not
dered. “Flux-resistant” relays are avail- nals can be seen specifically designated, but to the extent
able which will prevent flux migration from the top) possible, the direction of contact movement
through the terminal-header interface. Note during PC should be such that vibration and shock
These and “sealed” relays are compatible board pattern will not be applied.
with mist foam or spray fluxing operations, design (NL, NC) When a terminal socket is used
however “Flux-esistant” types are not • After drilling the mounting holes, the ter-
totally sealed which precludes washing minal socket should be mounted making
operations, and makes a non-active flux • Mounting Direction certain the mounting screws are not loose.
almost a necessity. Mounting direction is important for opti- DIN standard sockets are available for
Pre-heating the board assembly prior to mum relay characteristics. one-touch mounting on DIN rail of 35mm
soldering “Flux-resistant” types will dry • Shock Resistance 1.378 inch width.
the flux and further help to prevent flux It is ideal to mount the relay so that the
being driven into the relay during the sol- movement of the contacts and movable
dering operation. parts is perpendicular to the direction of
3. Soldering vibration or shock. Especially note that
As with fluxing, automated soldering the vibration and shock resistance of
processes can, unless controlled careful- Form B contacts while the coil is not
ly, compromise the performance of excited is greatly affected by the mount-
unsealed relays. ing direction of the relay.
Flux-resistant and sealed types are com- • Contact Reliability Fig. 23

9–15
General Application Guidelines
When reversible terminal sockets are • When the terminal board uses screw turn of coated wire is wrapped together
used fastening connections, either pressure with the stripped conductor. The later
• The reversible terminal sockets (HC, terminals or other means should be used type of winding is suitable for wire diam-
HL socket) are for one-touch mounting. to make secure fastening of the wire. eters of 0.32 mm .013 inch or less.
(A panel thickness of 1 to 2mm .039 to  Unwrapping a Wire
.079 inch should be used.) (Fig. 23) • Connections to Wrapping Socket When unwinding a wire from a wrapping
• The socket should be pushed through  Applicable Wire Type terminal, use a commercially available
the opening in the mounting panel until Solid wires with diameters of 0.26 to 0.65 unwrapping tool.
the projections on the side of the mount- mm .010 to .026 inch are applicable to  For wrapping conditions, bits and
ing bracket extend out over the back sur- wrapping terminals (0.5 mm .020 inch sleeves, refer to table.
face. (Fig. 24) type is standard). Tinned copper wires  The chassis cutout is identical to that
are the most suitable for this purpose. for the existing HC socket. The HC sock-
Solid bare copper, brass, or nickel wires et mounting track and hold down clip can
can also be used. Never use stranded also be used.
wires for wrapping sockets.  Relay Types Applicable to Wrapping
 Winding a Wire Socket (with hold down clip)
A wire may be would on a wrapping ter- The HC wrapping socket with hold down
minal in two ways: i.e. only the stripped clip can be used for the standard-type
Fig. 24 conductor is would, or a single HC relays, HC relays with LED indication
and HC latching relays.
• When all four of the projections are visi- When using the standard wrapping sock-
ble from the back side of the mounting et for the HC relays with LED indication
panel, the mounting is completed and or HC latching relays, use the special
the socket is fastened. hold down clip supplied with the socket
• To remove the socket, the projections Conductor winding (see table).
on the side of the mounting bracket should
be pushed inward and at the same time
the body of the socket should be pushed
lightly from the back side. The socket
can then be removed from the panel.
• The socket should be inserted through Coated wire winding
the opening in the mounting panel so
that the terminal wiring side is toward the • Wire Wrapping Condition, Bits and Sleeves
back side. The mounting panel can be
Wire size Stripping Typical Pulling
used for 10 units, but it can be cut for Item dia. length Wrapping type wrapping strength Bit type Sleeve
(mm inch) (mm inch) turns (kgf) time
use with less than that number. (Fig. 25)
0.26 40 to 41 Coated wire winding 36-A 5-B
9 0.5 to 2
.010 1.575 to 1.614 Coated wire winding 37-A 5-B
Conductor winding 3-A 1-B
Coated wire winding 21-A 1-B
0.4 43 to 44 8 3 to 5
.016 1.693 to 1.732 Conductor winding 25-A 22-B
Conductor winding 34-A 5-B
Fig. 25
Coated wire winding 43-A 1-B
Conductor winding 1-A 1-B
REGARDING CONNEC- Coated wire winding 22-A 2-B

TION OF LEAD WIRES Conditions


0.5 36 to 37
Conductor winding 26-A 22-B
6 3 to 6
.020 1.417 to 1.457 Conductor winding 33-A 1-B
Conductor winding 34-A 5-B
• When making the connections, depend-
Conductor winding 40-A 1-B
ing upon the size of load, the wire cross-
section should be at least as large as the Coated wire winding 45-A 20-B
values shown in the table below. Conductor winding 2-A 2-B
Coated wire winding 23-A 20-B
Permissible current Cross-section (mm2) 0.65 41 to 42 6 4 to 10
2 0.2 .026 1.614 to 1.654 Conductor winding 40-A 1-B
Conductor winding 44-A 2-B
3 0.3
Coated wire winding 46-A 20-B
5 0.5
7.5 0.75 • Wrapping Sockets and Applicable Relay Types
12.5 1.25 Socket type Applicable relays
Standard HC relays (including amber type)
15 2 Standard wrapping socket HC relays with LED indication (use accessory hold down clip)
20 2 HC latching relays (use accessory hold down clip)
30 3.5 HC relays with LED indication
Wrapping socket with hold down clip HC latching relays

9–16
General Application Guidelines
CAUTIONS FOR USE—Check List
Check Item
1. Is the correct rated voltage applied?
2. Is the applied coil voltage within the allowable continuous voltage limit?
3. Is the ripple in the coil voltage within the allowable level?
4. For voltage applied to a polarized coil, is polarity observed?
5. When hot start is required, is the increase in coil resistance resulting from coil temperature rise taken into account in set-
Coil Drive Input ting coil voltage?
6. Is the coil voltage free from momentary drop caused by load current? (Pay special attention for self-holding relays.)
7. Is supply voltage fluctuation taken into account when setting the rated coil voltage?
8. The relay status may become unstable if the coil voltage (current) is gradually increased or decreased. Was the relay test-
ed in a real circuit or with a real load?
1. Is the load rated within the contact ratings?
2. Does the load exceed the contacts' minimum switching capacity?
3. Special attention is required for contact welding when the load is a lamp, motor, solenoid, or electromagnetic contractor.
Was the relay tested with a real load?
4. A DC load may cause contact lock-up due to large contact transfer. Was the relay tested with a real load?
5. For an inductive load, is a surge absorber used across the contacts?
6. When an inductive load causes heavy arc discharge across the relay contacts, the contacts may be corroded by chemical
Load reaction with nitrogen in the atmosphere. Was the relay tested with a real load?
7. Platinum contacts may generate brown powder due to a catalyzer effect or vibration energy. Was the relay tested with a
(Relay contacts) real load?
8. Is the contact switching frequency below the specification?
9. When there are more than two sets of contacts (2T) in a relay, metallic powder shed from one set of contacts may cause a
contact failure on the other set (particularly for light loads). Was the relay tested in a real circuit?
10. A delay capacitor used across relay contacts may cause contact welding. Was the relay tested with a real load?
11. For an AC relay, a large contact bounce may cause contact welding. Was the relay tested in a real circuit or with a real
load?
12. A high voltage may be induced across et transformer load. Was the relay tested with a real load?

1. Does circuit design take into account electrolytic corrosion of the coil?
2. Are transistors and other circuit components protected rom counter electromotive force that develops across the relay coil?
3. Is the circuit designed so the relay coil is left deenergized while the relay is inactive for long period of time?
4. Is the relay operated within the ratings approved by the relevant international standard (if compliance is required)?
5. Is the circuit protected from malfunction when the relay's activation and/or deactivation time varies considerably?
6. Is the circuit protected from malfunctions that might result from relay contact bounce?
7. Is the circuit protected from malfunction when a high-sensitivity self-holding relay, such as NR type, is to be used?
8. When there are two or more sets of contacts (2T) in a relay, arc discharges from load switching may cause short circuits
Circuit Design across the two or more sets of contacts. Is the circuit designed to suppress such arc discharges?
9. Item 8 above also requires special attention when loads are supplied from separate power sources.
10. Does the post-installation insulation distance comply with the requirement of the relevant international standard or the
Electrical Appliance and Material Control Law?
11. Is the circuit protected from malfunction when the relay is to be driven by transistors?
12. When the SCR is used for on/off control, the relay activation tends to synchronize with the line frequency, resulting in an
extremely shortened life. Was the relay tested in a real circuit or with a real load?
13.Does the PC board design take into account use of on-board relay?
14.RF signals may leak across relay's open contacts. Check for adequate contact isolation and use RF relays as needed.
1. Is the ambient temperature in the allowable operating temperature range?
2. Is relative humidity below 85 percent?
3. Is the operating atmosphere free from organic and sulfide gases?
4. Is the operating atmosphere free from silicon gas? Depending on the load type, silicon gas may cause a black substance
to from on the contacts, leading to contact failure.
Operating 5. Is the operating atmosphere free from excessive airborne dust?
6. Is the relay protected from oil and water splashes?
Environment 7. Is the relay protected from vibration and impact which may cause poor contact with the socket?
8. Is ambient vibration and impact below the level allowable for the relay?
9. Is the relay free from mechanical resonance after it is installed in position?
10. Is the relay's internal pressure equivalent to the ambient atmospheric pressure (760 mmHg±20%)?
11. Is insulation coating applied to the relay along with the PC board? Depending on the load type, a black substance may
form to cause contact failure.
1. Is the relay protected from solder chips and flux when it is manually soldered?
2. Are preparations for flux application and automatic soldering complete?
3. Is the PC board cleaning process designed to minimize adverse affects to the relays?
4. Are adequate separations provided between polarized or reed relays to prevent magnetic coupling?
5. Are the relay terminals free from stress in the socket?
6. Polarized relay’s characteristics may be affected by strong external magnetic field. Are the relays installed away from such
fields?
Installation and 7. If very long leads (100 to 300 meters) are used to connect the load, the stray capacity existing across the leads may
Connection cause a surge current. Was the relay tested with a real load?
8. Unless otherwise specified, all relay terminals should be soldered a 250°C 482°F within 5 sec. or at 350°C 662°F within 3
sec.
9. A badly warped PC board can cause stress to the relay terminals which may lead to degraded relay characteristics.
10. Glass shot should not be used to clean the PC board of solder flux. This may cause relay malfunction due to glass powder
becoming lodged in the relay's internal structure.
11. Relays should always be used with their plastic shields installed, or degraded relay performance may result.
12. Do not cut away any relay terminal as the stress may cause degraded relay performance.

9–17
Reliability
• What is Reliability?
1. Reliability in a Narrow Sense of the bility of repairable products is recognized 3. Intrinsic Reliability and Reliability of
Term In the industrial world, reliability is as “reliability in a broad sense of the UseReliability is “built” into products. This
an index of how long a particular product term. ”For repairable products, their ser- is referred to as intrinsic reliability which
serves without failure. viceability or maintainability is another consists mainly of reliability in the narrow
2. Reliability in a Board Sense of the problem. In addition, reliability of product sense.Product reliability at the user's site
Term Every product has a finite service design is becoming a serious concern for is called “reliability of use,” which consists
lifetime. This means that no product can the manufacturing industry. In short, reli- mainly of reliability in the broad sense. In
continue normal service infinitely. When ability has three senses: i.e. reliability of the relay industry, reliability of use has a
a product has broken down, the user the product itself, serviceability of the significance in aspects of servicing.
may throw it away or repair it. The relia- product, and reliability of product design.

1. Reliability (narrow sense), durability


Long life time: MTTF, B10, R(T),
Low failure rate: Lamda (λ), MTBF
Reliability 2. Maintainability
(broad sense) Availability
MTTR
Preventive maintenance, predicted
maintenance
3. Design reliability
Human factor, redundancy,
fool-proof, fail-safe

• Reliability Measures
The following list contains some of the 1. Degree of Reliability 4. Failure Rate
most popular reliability measures: Degree of reliability represents percent- Failure rate includes mean failure rate
age ratio of reliability. For example, if and momentary failure rate.
Sample
Reliability measure representation none of 10 light bulbs has failed for 100 Mean failure rate is defined as follows:
hours, the degree of reliability defined in,
Degree of reliability R(T) 99.9%
100 hours of time is 10/10 = 100%. If Mean failure rate = Total failure
MTBF 100 hours only three bulbs remained alive, the count/total operating hours
MTTF 100 hours degree of reliability is 3/10 = 30%.
;;; ; ;

Failure rate λ 20 fit, 1%/hour The JIS Z8115 standard defines the In general, failure rate refers to momen-
Safe life B10 50 hours degree of reliability as follows: tary failure rate. This represents the
The probability at which a system, equip- probability at which a system, equip-
ment, or part provides the specified func- ment, or part, which has continued nor-
;;;

tions over the intended duration under mal operation to a certain point of time,
;

the specified conditions. becomes faulty in the subsequent speci-


f(t) 2. MTBF fied time period.
MTBF is an acronym of mean time Failure rate is often represented in the
between failures. It indicates the mean unit of percent/hours. For parts with low
time period in which a system, equip- failure rates, “failure unit (Fit) = 109/hour”
ment, or part operates normally between is often used instead of failure rate.
T Time
(a) R(T) two incidences of repair. MTBF only Percent/count is normally used for
applies to repairable products. relays.
MTTF MTBF tells how long a product can be 5. Safe Life
used without the need for repair. Safe life is an inverse of degree of relia-
Sometimes MTBF is used to represent bility. It is given as value B which makes
the service lifetime before failure. the following equation true:
3. MTTF
MTTF is an acronym of mean time to fail- 1– R(B) = t%
ure. It indicates the mean time period
until a product becomes faulty MTTF In general, “B[1 – R(B)] = 10%” is more
(b) MTTF normally applies to unrepairable prod- often used. In some cases this repre-
ucts such as parts and materials. sents a more practical value of reliability
The relay is one of such objective of than MTTF.
MTTF.

10%
;

B10
(c) Safe life

9–18
Reliability
• Failure (III) Wear-out failure period Weibull distribution can be adopted to
 What is Failure? In the final stage of the product's service the actual failure rate distribution if the
Failure is defined as a state of system, lifetime comes the wear-out failure peri- three variables above are estimated.
equipment, or component in which part od, in which the life of the product

;;;;
of all of its functions are impaired or lost. expires due to wear of fatigue.

Failure rate
 Bathtub Curve Preventive maintenance is effective for

;
Product’s failure rate throughout its life- this type of failure. The timing of a relay’s m

time is depicted as a bathtub curve, as wear-out failure can be predicted with a


shown below. Failure rate is high at the certain accuracy from the past record of 63%

beginning and end of its service lifetime. uses. The use of a relay is intended only

;
(I) Initial failure period in the accidental failure period, and this
γ Time
The high failure rate in the initial failure period virtually represents the service
α
period is derived from latent design lifetime of the relay.
errors, process errors, and many other  Weibull AnalysisWeibull analysis is
causes. Initial failures are screened at often used for classifying a product's fail- The Weibull probability chart is a simpler
manufacturer's site through burn-in ure patterns and to determine its lifetime. alternative of complex calculation formu-
process. This process is called debug- Weibull distribution is expressed by the las. The chart provides the following
ging, performing aging or screening. following equation: advantages:
(II) Accidental failure period (1) The Weibull distribution has the clos-
The initial failure period is followed by a est proximity to the actual failure rate dis-
long period with low, stable failure rate. tribution.
m
(χ–γ)
f (x) = m (2) The Weibull probability chart is easy
m –1
In this period, called accidental failure α (χ–γ) e – α
period, failures occurs at random along where to use.
the time axis. While zero accidental fail- m: figure parameter (3) Different types of failures can be
ure rate is desirable, this is actually not α: Measurement parameter identified on the chart.
practical in the real world. γ: Position parameter
The following describes the correlation
with the bathtub curve. The value of the
parameter “m” represents the type of the
failure.
(1) When m < 1: Initial failures
Failure rate

(I) ( II ) ( III ) (2) When m = 1: Accidental failures


(3) When m > 1: Wear-out failures

m>1
m<1
m=1

Time

9–19
Applications of Relays in Electronic Circuits
RELAY DRIVE BY MEANS OF A TRANSISTOR
• Connection method
The voltage impressed on the relay is
always full rated voltage, and in the OFF R
Ry
time, the voltage is completely zero for
Tr
avoidance of trouble in use. (Fig. 1) Tr
R1 Tr

Ry
R2 Ry

(Good) Collector connection (Care) Emitter connection (Care) Parallel connection


With this most common When the circumstances When the power consumed
connection, opertion is stable. make the use of this by the complete circuit
connection unavoidable, if becomes large, consideration
the voltage is not completely of the relay voltage is
impressed on the relay, the necessary.
transistor does not conduct
completely and operation is
uncertain.
Fig. 1

• Countermeasures for surge voltage of relay control transistor


If the coil current is suddenly interrupted, the counter emf.
a sudden high voltage pulse is devel- As suitable ratings for this diode, the cur-
oped in the coil. If this voltage exceeds rent should be equivalent to the average Diode
the voltage resistance of the transistor, rectified current to the coil, and the Ry
the transistor will be degraded, and this inverse blocking voltage should be about
will lead to damage. It is absolutely nec- 3 times the value of the power source
essary to connect a diode in the circuit voltage. (Fig. 2)
as a means of preventing damage from Tr

Fig. 2 Take care of ASO.

• Snap action Non-pulse signal Pulse signal (square wave)


(Characteristic of relay with voltage rise
and fall of voltage)
IB
Unlike the characteristic when voltage is Ry
impressed slowly on the relay coil, this is
the case where it is necessary to
impress the rated voltage in a short time Tr Ic
and also to drop the voltage in a short IB
IC
time. (Fig. 3)
ON
Ry
Fig. 3 OFF
(No Good) Without snap action (Good) Snap action

• Schmitt circuit (Snap action circuit)


(Wave rectifying circuit)
When the input signal does not produce conducting and at point P when T1 is
a snap action, ordinarily a Schmitt trigger conducting creates hysteresis in the
circuit is used to produce safe snap detection capability of Schmitt circuit, R1 Ry
action. and care must be taken in setting the
Characteristic points values. Signal
R3 R2
1. The common emitter resistor RE must 3. When there is chattering in the input Tr1 Tr2

have a value sufficiently small compared signal because of waveform oscillation, P


with the resistance of the relay coil. (The an RC time constant circuit should be
voltage impressed on the relay must not inserted in the stage before the Schmitt RE
be greater than the excitation voltage.) trigger circuit. (However, the response
2. Due to the relay coil current, the differ- speed drops.) (Fig. 4)
ence in the voltage at point P when T2 is

9–20
Applications of Relays in Electronic Circuits
• Avoid Darlington circuit connec-
tions.
(High amplification) Ry Ry
This circuit is a trap into which it is easy
to fall when dealing with high circuit tech-
nology. This does not mean that it is
immediately connected to the defect, but Tr1
Tr1
VCESAT =
it is linked to troubles that occur after Tr2 About 0.7V
VCESAT =
Tr2 About 0.1V
long periods of use and with many units
in operation. (Fig. 5)
GND

(No good) Darlington connection (Good) Emitter connection


(• Due to excessive consumption of power, (T2 conducts completely.)
heat is generated.) (T1 is sufficient for signal use.)
Fig. 5 (• A strong T1, is necessary.)

• Residual Coil Voltage


In switching applications where a semi- compared to that for AC coil, and also Fig. 6 Connection to the next stage through
conductor (transistor, UJT, etc.) is con- there is a tendency to increase the life by collector
nected to the coil, a residual voltage is lowering the drop-out voltage.
retained at the relay coil which may When the signal from the transistor’s col-
cause incomplete restoration and faulty lector is taken and used to drive another Ry
IO
operation. By using DC coils, there may circuit as shown in the figure on the right,
be a reduction in; the danger of incom- a minute dark current flows to the relay
plete restoration, the contact pressure, even if the transistor is off. This may T1 T2

and the vibration resistance. This is cause the problems


because the drop-out voltage is 10% or described above. (Fig. 6)
more of the rated voltage, a low value
IO: dark current (No good)

RELAY DRIVE BY MEANS OF SCR


• Ordinary drive method • Caution points regarding ON/OFF control circuits
For SCR drive, it is necessary to take (When used for temperature or similar peak values and it can occur only at zero
particular care with regard to gate sensi- control circuits) phase values as a phenomenon this type
tivity and erroneous operation due to When the relay contacts close simultane- of control. (Depending upon the sensitivity
noise. (Fig. 7) ously with an AC single phase power and response speed of the relay)
source, because the electrical life of the 4. Accordingly, either an extremely long
contacts suffers extreme shortening, care life or an extremely short life results
is necessary. (Fig. 8) with wide variation, and it is necessary to
Ry R 1. When the relay is turned ON and OFF take care with the initial device quality
using a SCR, the SCR serves as a half check.
S wave power source as it is, and there are
IGT C ample cases where the SCR is easily Fig. 8
restored.
2. In this manner the relay operation and Ry

RGK restoration timing are easily synchronized


IGT : There is no problem even with more than 3 times
with the power source frequency, and the
S Ry
the rated current. timing of the load switching also is easily
Heater

RGK : 1K ohms must be connected.


R,C : This is for prevention of isolation point error due to synchronized.
a sudden rise in the power source or to noise. 3. When the load for the temperature con-
(dv/dt countermeasure)
trol is a high current load such as a
Fig. 7
heater, the switching can occur only at

RELAY DRIVE FROM EXTERNAL CONTACTS


Relays for PC board use have high sen- (However, it is not possible to use only a
sitivity and high speed response charac- condenser. A resistor should also be External contact
teristics, and because they respond suffi- used with the capacitor.)
ciently to chattering and bouncing, it is
necessary to take care in their drive. Ry R
When the frequency of use is low, with
the delay in response time caused by a C
condenser, it is possible to absorb the Fig. 9
chattering and bouncing. (Fig. 9)

9–21
Applications of Relays in Electronic Circuits
LED SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTIONS
1. In series with relay 2. R in parallel with LED 3. In parallel connection with relay

R2
Ry Ry

Ry

LED R1

Power consumption: Power consumption: Power consumption:


In common with relay (Good) In common with relay (Good) Current limiting resistor R2 (Care)
Defective LED: Defective LED: Defective LED:
Relay does not operate (No good) Relay operate (No good) Relay operate stable (Good)
Low voltage circuit: Low voltage circuit: Low voltage circuit: (Good)
With LED, 1.5V down (No good) With LED, 1.5V down (No good) No. of parts: R2 (Care)
No. of parts: (Good) No. of parts: R1 (Care)

ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT DRIVE BY MEANS OF A RELAY


• Chatterless electronic circuit
Notes: 1. The A, B, and C lines should be made as short as possible.
Even though a chatterless characteristic 2. It is necessary that there be no noise from the coil section induced into the contact section.
is a feature of relays, this is to the fullest A
Ry
extent a chatterless electrical circuits,
much the same as a mercury relay. To
meet the requirement for such circuits as N.O.
the input to a binary counter, there is an
electronic chatterless method in which
chattering is absolutely not permissible. N.C.

Even if chattering develops on one side,


either the N.O. side contacts or the N.C. C
Binary
B Counter
side contacts, the flip flop does not
reverse, and the counter circuit can be R-S-F.F

fed pulsed without a miss. (However,


bouncing from the N.O. side to N.C. side Fig. 10
must be absolutely avoided.) (Fig. 10)

• Triac drive
When an electronic circuit using a direct tic is necessary, a solid state relay (SSR)
drive from a triac, the electronic circuit should be used. (Fig. 11)
will not be isolated from the power cir-
cuit, and because of this, troubles due to L
erroneous operation and damage can
develop easily. The introduction of a Ry
relay drive is the most economical and
most effective solution. (Photo coupler
and pulse transformer circuits are com-
plicated.)
When a zero cross switching characteris-
Fig. 11

ASSURANCE OF POWER SOURCE FOR RELAY AND ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT


• Constant Voltage circuit and PC
board pattern Ry
Ordinarily, it is extremely undesirable to
C
have ripple and voltage variation in an
electronic circuit power source. This is
naturally true also for relay power
sources but not to the same extent as for Regular circuit (Example)
Relay power supply
the electronic circuit. Accordingly, it is
Regular circuit

desirable to have a constant voltage cir- Regulated power supply or voltage stabilizer.
cuit for dedicated use of the electronic C Electronic circuit
circuit with a sufficient margin of current.
Roughly speaking, this is also good for
the relay, but from a practical Fig. 12

9–22
Applications of Relays in Electronic Circuits
viewpoint, the relay should be operated the manner in which the PC board pat- just a matter of technique that is neces-
within the standards set for ripple and tern is designed, the ON/OFF operation sary.
voltage variation. Similarly, in the circuit of the relay coil, lamp, etc., will exert no
diagram shown in Fig. 12, but means of influence on the electronic circuit. This is
• Prevention of Voltage Drop Due to
Rush Current
In the circuit shown in Fig. 13 (a), rush Ry
current flows from the lamp or capacitor.
C
The instant the contacts close, the volt-
age drops and the relay releases or chat-
(a)
ters. Lamp

In this case it is necessary to raise the


transformer’s capacity or add a smooth- Ry

ing circuit.
C
(b) shows an example of the modified
circuit. (c) shows a battery-powered ver- C
(b)
sion. Lamp

Ry

Battery

M Motor
C
(c)

Fig. 13

PC BOARD DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


• Pattern Layout for Relays Relay coil Ry
Since relays affect electronic circuits by (No good) A
(Good) A2
Ry

generating noise, the following points


Diode bridge

Diode bridge

should be noted.
Keep relays away from semiconductor CO A1
Co
devices. Design the pattern traces for
B1
shortest lengths. Place the surge Constant
arrester (diode, etc.) near the relay coil. B
voltage Electronic Constant Electronic
Tr circuit
circuit B2 Tr voltage
Avoid routing pattern traces susceptible Relay currents and electronic circuit •Relay coil currents consist only of A1, and B1.
to noise (such as for audio signals) currents flow together through A and B. •Electronic circuit currents consist only of
Fig. 14 A2 and B2. A simple design consideration can
underneath the relay coil section. Avoid change the safety of the operation.
through-holes in places which cannot be
seen from the top (e.g. at the base of the ken seal. Even for the same circuit, pat- tions of the relay coil and lamp on
relay). Solder flowing up through such a tern design considerations which mini- other electronic circuits are necessary.
hole may cause damage such as a bro- mize the influence of the on/off opera- (Fig. 14)

• When it is necessary to use hand • When the printed circuit board itself is used as a connector
soldering for one part of a component [1] The edge should be beveled. (This [2] When only a single side is used as
after dip soldering has been done prevents peeling of the foil when the the connector blade, if there is distortion
By providing a narrow slot in the circular board is inserted into its socket.) in the circuit board, contact will be defec-
part of the foil pattern, the slot will pre- tive. Care should be taken. (Fig. 16)
vent the hole from being plugged with
solder. (Fig. 15) Through
hole

0.3 to 0.5mm
Fig. 15 .012 to .020 inch
Bevel of radius
Fig. 16 (Care) (Good) (Good) Contact on both surfaces

9–23
Applications of Relays in Electronic Circuits
PC BOARD REFERENCE DATA
(This data has been derived from samples of our company’s
Fig. 17 Fig. 18
products. When carrying out circuit design for the printed circuit
board, this data will be found very useful as a reference.) 10 10
Copper foil Copper foil
• Conductor width 9 0.0018mm 9 .035mm 60°C 140°F
.0007 inch .001 inch
The allowable current for the conductor 8 8
40°C 104°F
was determined from the safety aspect 7 7

Current, A
60°C 140°F

Current, A
ane the effect on the performance of the 6 6
20°C 68°F
conductor due to the rise in saturation 5 40°C 104°F 5
temperature when current is flowing. 4 4
10°C 50°F
20°C 68°F
(The narrwer the conductor width and 3 3
10°C 50°F
the thinner the copper foil, the larger the 2 2
temperature rise.) For example, too high 1 1
a rise in temperature causes degradation 0 0
0 0.2 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 0 0.2 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
of the characteristic and color changes of 0 .008 .020 .039 .059 .079 .098 .118 0 .008 .020 .039 .059 .079 .098 .118
the laminate. Ingeneral, the allowable Conductor width, mm inch Conductor width, mm inch

current capacity of the conductor is


Fig. 19 Fig. 20
determined so that the rise is tempera- Copper foil thick
14 40
ture is less than 10 degrees C. It is nec- Copper foil
13 .070mm .070
60°C 140°F .003
essary to design the conductor width 12 .003 inch 35

from this allowable conductor current 11

Destruction current, A
40°C 104°F 30
10 .035
capacity. Fig. 17, Fig. 18, Fig. 19 show 9 .001
Current, A

25
the relationship between the current and 8
20°C 68°F
7 20
the conductor width for each rise in tem- .018
6
perature for different copper foils. It is 10°C 50°F .0007
5 15
also necessary to give consideration to 4
10
3
preventing abnormal currents from 2 5
exceeding the destruction current of the 1
conductor. Fig. 21 shows the relationship 0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
between the conductor width and the 0 .020 .039 .059 .079 .098 .118 0 .020 .039 .059 .079 .098 .118
Conductor width, mm inch Conductor width, mm inch
destruction current.
Fig. 21

200 Copper foil width=0.5 .020


.035mm 1.0 .039
100 .001 inch

50 2.0 .079
Resistance, mΩ

30
3.0 .118
20

10
5
3

0.5 1 2 3 5 10 20 30 50 100 200


.197 .394 .7871.1811.969 3.937 7.874 11.811 19.685 39.37 78.74
Conductor lenth (cm inch)

• Hole and land diameter Remarks


1. The hole diameter is made 0.2 to 0.5mm larger than the
The hold diameter and land are made lead diameter. However, if the jet method (wave type, jet type)
with the hole slightly larger than the lead of soldering is used, because of the fear of solder passing
through to the component side, it is more suitable to make the
wire so that the component may be
hold diameter equal to the lead diameter +0.2mm.
inserted easily. Also, when soldering, the 2. The land diameter should be 2 to 3 times the hold diame-
solder will build up in an eyelet condition, ter.
3. Do not put more than 1 lead in one hole.
increasing the mounting strength.
The standard dimensions for the hold
diameter and land are shown in the table
below.
Standard dimensions for hole and
land diameter mm inch

Standard hole Land


Tolerance
diameter diameter
0.8 .031 2.0 to 3.0
1.0 .039 ±0.1 .079 to .118
1.2 .047 ±.039
3.5 to 4.5
1.6 .063 .138 to .177

9–24
Applications of Relays in Electronic Circuits
• Expansion and shrinkage of copper- Fig. 22
clad laminates
Example : As shwon is the drawing below, the 150mm
Because copperclad laminates have a 5.906 inch direction is taken as the longitudinal
longitudinal and lateral direction, the direction.

manner of punching fabrication and lay- Longitudinal


150 5.906
out must be observed with care. The
expansion and shrinkage in the longitudi-
nal direction due to heat is 1/15 to 1/2 70 Longitudinal
2.756 direction
that in the lateral, and accordingly, after
the punching fabrication, the distortion in
the longitudinal direction will be 1/15 to Also, as shown in the drawing below, when the pattern
1/2 that of the lateral direction. The has a connector section, the direction is taken as shown
mechanical strength in the longitudinal by the arrow in the longitudinal direction

direction is 10 to 15% greater than that in


the lateral direction. Because of this dif-
ference between the longitudinal and lat-
eral directions, when products having Longitudinal
long configurations are to be fabricated, direction

the lengthwise direction of the configura-


tion should be made in the longitudinal
direction, and PC boards having a con-
nector section should be made with the
connector along the longitudinal side.
(Fig. 22)

• Space between conductors


6.0
Fig. 23 shows the relationship between
the spacing between conductors and the 5.0
destruction voltage. This destruction volt-
Destruction Voltage (kV)

age is not the destruction voltage of the 4.0


PCB; it is the flash over voltage (insula-
tion breakdown voltage of the space 3.0

between circuits.) Coating the surface of


2.0
the conductor with an insulating resin
such as a solder resist increases the 1.0
flash over voltage, but because of the pin
holes of the solder resist, it is necessary 0
0 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
to consider the conductor destruction 0 .008 .020 .039 .079 .118 .157
Conductor width mm inch
voltage without the solder resist. In fact,
Fig. 23
it is necessary to add an ample safety
factor when determining the spacing
Table 1. Example of conductor
between conductors. Table 1 shows an spacing design
example of a design for the spacing
Maximum DC and AC
between conductors. (Taken from the JIS VoltageBetween Minimum Conductor
C5010 standards.) However, when the Conductors(V) Spacing (mm)
product is covered by the electrical prod- 0 to 50 0.381
ucts control law, UL standards or other
51 to 150 0.635
safety standards, it is necessary to con-
151 to 300 1.27
form to the regulations.
301 to 500 2.54
Calculated at
500 to more
1011508 mm/V

9–25
Relay Soldering and Cleaning Guidelines
• Avoid bending the terminals to make
1. Mounting of Relay the relay self-clinching. Relay perfor-
mance cannot be guaranteed if the ter-
minals are bent. Self-clinching terminal
types are available depending on the
type of relay.
• Correctly drill the PC board according
to the given PC board pattern illustration.
• Stick packaging for automatic mounting
is available depending on the type of
relay. Bad example

• Adjust the position of the PC board so


2. Flux Application that flux does not overflow onto the top
of it. This must be observed especially
for dust-cover type relays.
• Use rosin-based non-corrosive flux.
• If the PC board is pressed down into a
flux-soaked sponge as shown on the
right, the flux can easily penetrate a
dust-cover type relay. Never use this
method. Note that if the PC board is
pressed down hard enough, flux may Bad example
even penetrate a flux-resistant type relay.

• Be sure to preheat before using auto-


3. Preheating matic soldering. For dust-cover type
relays and flux-resistant type relays, pre-
heating acts to prevent the penetration of
flux into the relay when soldering. Sol-
derability also improves.
• Preheat according to the following con-
ditions.
Temperature 100°C 212°F or less
Time Within approx. 1 minute

• Note that long exposure to high tempera-


tures (e.g. due to a malfunctioning unit) may
affect relay characteristics.

Automatic Soldering Hand Soldering


4. Soldering
• Flow solder is the optimum method • Keep the tip of the soldering iron
for soldering. clean.
• Adjust the level of solder so that it Soldering Iron 30W to 60W
does not overflow onto the top of the Iron Tip
PC board. Approx. 300°C 572°F
Temperature
• Unless otherwise specified, solder Soldering Time Within approx. 3 seconds
under the following conditions
JIS Z3282
depending on the type of relay. Solder H60 or H63
Solder
Approx. 250°C 482°F
Temperature
Soldering Time Within approx. 5 seconds
JIS Z3282
Solder H60 or H63

9–26
Relay Soldering and Cleaning Guidelines
Automatic Soldering Hand Soldering
5. Cooling
• Immediate air cooling is recommend
to prevent deterioration of the relay
and surrounding parts due of soldering
heat.
• Although the environmentally sealed
type relay (plastic sealed type, etc.) can
be cleaned, avoid immersing the relay
into cold liquid (such as cleaning
solvent) immediately after soldering.
Doing so may deteriorate the sealing
performance.

• Do not clean dust-cover type relays and are chemical resistant. Select the suit-
6. Cleaning flux-resistant type relays by immersion. able relay or solvent by referring to the
Even if only the bottom surface of the PC cleaning solvent compatibility chart
board is cleaned (e.g. with a brush), below.
careless cleaning may cause cleaning • Cleaning with the boiling method is rec-
solvent to penetrate the relay. ommended. Avoid ultrasonic cleaning on
• Plastic sealed type relays can be relays. Use of ultrasonic cleaning may
cleaned by immersion. Use alcohol- cause breaks in the coil or slight sticking
based cleaning solvents. Use of other of the contacts due to ultrasonic energy.
cleaning solvents (e.g. Trichlene,
chloroethene, thinner, benzyl alcohol)
may damage the relay case. However,
some types of relays use materials which

• If the PC board is to be coated to pre- after coating.


7. Coating vent the insulation of the PC board from • Depending on the type, some coating
deteriorating due to corrosive gases and materials may have an adverse affect on
high temperatures, note the following. relays. Furthermore, solvents (e.g. xylene,
• Do not coat dust-cover type relays and toluene, MEK, I.P.A.) may damage the
flux-resistant type relays, since the coat- case or chemically dissolve the epoxy and
ing material may penetrate the relay and break the seal. Select coating materials
cause contact failure. Or, mount the relay carefully.
Type Suitability for Relays Features
•Good electrical insulation.
Epoxy-base Good •Although slightly difficult to apply, does not affect relay contacts.
•Good electrical insulation, easy to apply.
Urethane-base Care •Solvent may damage case. Check before use.
•Good electrical insulation, easy to apply.
•Silicon gas becomes the cause of contact failure.
Silicon-base Care •Do not use on dust-cover type relays and flux-resistant type
relays. Can be used on only metallic hermetic sealed type relays.

• If the relay and all components (e.g. ICs) are to be coated, be sure to carefully check
the flexibility of the coating material. The solder may peel off from thermal stress.

• Cleaning Solvent Compatibility Chart ( : Yes, : No)


Relay Type Plastic seal type Amber relay
Plastic seal relays Amber relays
NR

HD

NL amber

NK amber

S amber

NC amber

HC amber

other than those other than Metallic hermetic


products listed to those products sealed type
the left. listed to the
Cleaning Solvent left
•I.I.I. Trichloroethane (Chlorothene)
Cleaning •Trichloroethylene (Trichlene)
solvent •Perchloroethylene
•Methylene chloride
•Indusco 624, 1000
Aqueous •Hollis 310
•Lonco Terg
•IPA
Alcohol-base •Ethanol
•Thiner
Others •Gasoline

9–27
SMT Soldering Guidelines
CAUTIONS FOR SURFACE MOUNT RELAY INSTALLATION
To meet the market demand for downsiz- Mounting technology. To meet this need, tion to prevent malfunction and incorrect
ing to smaller, lighter, and thinner prod- we offer a line of surface mount relays. operation.
ucts, PC boards also need to proceed The following describes some cautions
From Insertion Mounting to Surface required for surface mount relay installa-
• What is a Surface Mount Relay? We applied the experience gained from relays compatible with surface mount
1. From IMT to SMT our advanced relay technologies to pro- technologies such as IRS and VPS.
Conventional insertion mount technology duce high-performance electromagnetic
(IMT) with some 30 years of history is
• Insertion Mount Technology (IMT)
now being replaced with surface mount
technology (SMT). Components’ leads are inserted

;;
Solid-state components such as resis- into lead holes drilled into the PC
Relay Resistor
Insertion Mounting board and are soldered to copper
tors, ICs, and diodes can withstand high pads on the other side of the
Technology: IMT
heat stresses from reflow soldering board using flow-soldering techni- PC board
because they use no mechanical parts. ques.

;
In contrast, the conventional electro- Components are placed on copper
mechanical relays consisting of solenoid Surface Mount pads precoated with paste solder Relay Clip resistance
coils, spring, and armatures are very and the board assembly is heated
Technology (SMT)
sensitive to thermal stress from reflow to solder the components on the PC board IC
pads (reflow soldering).
soldering.

2. Features and Effects


Features
•Allows high density mounting
•Components can be in-
stalled on both sides of a
board
•Ceramic PC boards can be
used
•Compatible with automatic
placement by robots
System
Effects

downsizing

•Drilling for lead holes is not


required
Overall
cost reduc-
• TQ Relay (Surface Mount Type)

Case

Armature block
; Low volatility gas liquid crystal resin case

High impact resistant flexible hinge spring

Coil sealed formation body


(High heat resistance, high insulation, low volatility gas)

•Compact system designs are tion


Permanent magnet, laser welding connection of iron core.
possible due to high density
mounting
Warped cross-section iron core
Body block
•High heat resistance High - EIAJ standard conformant
- High wthstand voltage between contacts
•Anti-gas measures reliability
;;;

The surface mount relay is manufactured


with the following advanced technologies:
• Heat-resistance encapsulation technique
• Gas analysis
• Reliability assessment
• Precision molding technique for heat-resis-
tant materials

3. Examples of SMT Applications


The following describes some examples of typical SMT applications:
(1) Infrared Reflow Soldering (IRS) (2) Vapor Phase Soldering (VPS) (3) Belt conveyer reflow furnace
IRS is the most popular reflow soldering With VPS technology, PCB assemblies As PCB assemblies are transferred on a
technology now available for surface are carried through a special inactive sol- thin, heat-resistant belt conveyer, they
mounting. It uses a sheath heater or vent, such as Fluorinate FC-70, that has are soldered by the heat from hotplates
infrared lamp as its heat source. PC been heated to a vapor state. As the sat- placed begeath the conveyer belt.
board assemblies are continuously sol- urated vapor condenses on the PC (4) Double Wave Soldering (DWS)
dered as they are transferred through a board surface, the resulting evaporation Components are glued to the PC board
tunnel furnace comprised of a preheat- heat provides the energy for reflow sol- surface. The board assembly is trans-
ing, heating, and cooling-states. dering. ferred through a molten solder fountain
(with the component side facing down),
Preheat Heating Cooling Cooling coil
and the components are soldered to the
stage stage stage
board.
Saturated vapor (5) Other Technologies
Other reflow soldering technologies
Heater include those utilizing lasers, hot air, and
pulse heaters.

9–28
SMT Soldering Guidelines
• Cautions for installation
• Mounting pads on PC boards must be Screen Printing
1. Paste Soldering
designed to absorb placement errors Squeegee
Paste solder
while taking account of solderability and (for screen printing)
insulation. Refer to the suggested Mask
Pad
mounting pad layout in the application
data for the required relay product. PC board
• Paste solder may be applied on the Solder Dispenser
Air
board with screen printing or dispenser Syringe
techniques. For either method, the paste Paste solder
(for dispenser)
solder must be coated to appropriate Needle
thickness and shapes to achieve good Pad
PC board
solder wetting and adequate insulation.

• For small, lightweight components • Our SMT relays are supplied in stick
2. Relay Installation
Such as chip components, a self-align- packaging compatible with automatic
ment effect can be expected if small placement processes. We also offer tape
placement errors exist. However, this packaging at customer request.
effect is not as expected for electro- Holding Pressure
mechanical components such as relays, Direction A: Less than 4.903 N (less than 500 gf)
Direction B: Less than 9.807 N (less than 1,000 gf)
and they require precise positioning on Direction C: Less than 9.807 N (less than 1,000 gf)
their soldering pads. A C B
• If SMT relays sustain excessive

;;;;;
mechanical stress from the placement

;
machine's pickup head, their perfor-
mance cannot be guaranteed.

• Reflow soldering under inadequate sol- (2) VPS technique


3. Reflow
dering conditions may result in unreliable T3
relay performance or even physical dam- T2
age to the relay (even if the relay is of
T1
surface mount type with high heat resis-
tance).
Example of Recommended Soldering t1 t2
Condition for Surface Mount Relays. T1 = 90 to 100°C 194 to 212°F t1 = 90 to 120°C
(1) IRS technique T2 = 180 to 200°C 356 to 392°F t2 = Less than 60 sec.
T3 = Less than 215°C 419°F

T3 (3) Manual soldering


T2 Soldering iron tip temperature: 280 to
T1 300°C 536 to 572°F
Soldering iron wattage: 30 to 60 watts
Soldering time: Less than 5 sec.
t1 t2 (4) Others
T1 = 155 to 165°C 311 to 329°F
T2 = 180 to 200°C 356 to 392°F
t1 = Less than 120 sec.
t2 = Less than 30 sec.
When a soldering technique other than
T3 = Less than 245°C 473°F above is to be used (hot air, hotplate,
• It is recommended that the soldered laser, or pulse heater technique), careful-
pad be immediately cooled to prevent ly investigate the suitability of the tech-
thermal damage to the relay and its nique.
associated components. Notes:
1. The soldering temperature profile indicates the
• While surface mount relays are solvent
pad temperature. In some cases, the ambient tem-
washable, do not immerse the relay in perature may be greatly increased. Check for the
cold cleaning solvent immediately after specific mounting condition.
soldering. 2. The preheating conditions for the VPS technique
are identical to those for the IRS technique.

• The surface mount relays are solvent


4. Cleaning
washable. Use alcohol or an equivalent
solvent for cleaning.
• Boiled cleaning is approved for surface
mount relays. Ultrasonic cleaning may
cause coil damage or light contact stick-
ing.

9–29