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GERMAN ATV-DVWK

RULES AND STANDARDS

STANDARD
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

Planning and Construction of Wastewater


Pumping Stations

June 2000
ISBN 3-937758-45-3

Marketing: GFA Publishing Company of ATV-DVWK


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ATV-DVWK-A 134E

Preparation
This Standard has been elaborated by the ATV-DVWK Specialist Committee ES-3 “Wastewater Pumping
Stations” within the ATV-DVWK Main Committee ES “Drainage Systems”.

ATV-DVWK Specialist Committee ES-3 has the following members:

Dr.-Ing. Peter Evers, Essen


Dipl.-Ing. Heinz Haendel, München († 1997)
Dipl.-Ing. Peter H. Hanitsch, Frankfurt am Main (Vice Chairman)
Dipl.-Ing. Günther Koch, Stuttgart
Dipl.-Ing. Lutz Naupold, Bremen
Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang Tochtermann, Berlin (Chairman)
Dipl.-Ing. Manfred Tornow, Berlin
Dipl.-Ing. Bernd Zander, Braunschweig

In addition the following have collaborated:

Dipl.-Ing. Hansjoachim Mahret, Berlin


Dipl.-Ing. Dietrich Warnow, Berlin

Die Deutsche Bibliothek [The German Library] – CIP-Einheitsaufnahme

Standard.
A 134E. Planning and Construction of Wastewater Pumping Stations/[from the ATV Working Group]. –
2000
ISBN 3-937758-45-3

All rights, in particular those of translation into other languages, are reserved. No part of this Standard may
be reproduced in any form – by photocopy, microfilm or any other process – or transferred into a language
usable in machines, in particular data processing machines – without the written approval of the publisher.

© GFA-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Abwassertechnik e. V., Hennef 2000

Setting and printing (German original): DCM, Meckenheim

2 June 2000
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

Contents
Preparation...............................................................................................................................................2

User Notes................................................................................................................................................6

Foreword ..................................................................................................................................................6

1 Area of Application ..................................................................................................................6

2 Planning and Dimensioning..................................................................................................7


2.1 Type of Structure and Structural Dimensions of the Pumping Station ......................................7
2.2 Wastewater Inflow......................................................................................................................8
2.3 Ordinates and Pumping Heads..................................................................................................9
2.4 Pumping Task ............................................................................................................................9
2.5 Expansion Possibilities...............................................................................................................9
2.6 Minimum Completely Free Passage ..........................................................................................10
2.7 Flow Rate and Inside Diameter of the Pressure Main ...............................................................10
2.8 Number of Cycles of the Pumping Plant and Dimensioning of the Inlet Chamber ....................11
2.9 Digestion of the Wastewater ......................................................................................................11

3 Structural Engineering ..........................................................................................................11


3.1 Methods of Laying Foundations.................................................................................................11
3.2 Verification of Stability................................................................................................................11
3.3 Building Protective Measures ....................................................................................................12
3.4 Design of the Structure ..............................................................................................................12
3.4.1 Inlet Chamber.............................................................................................................................12
3.4.2 Machinery Room ........................................................................................................................12
3.4.3 Superstructure, Entrances .........................................................................................................12
3.4.4 Stairs, Ladders, Step Irons, Platforms .......................................................................................13
3.4.5 Heating/Heat Removal ...............................................................................................................13
3.4.6 Windows, Doors .........................................................................................................................13
3.4.7 Earthing ......................................................................................................................................13
3.4.8 Lightning Protection ...................................................................................................................13
3.4.9 External Design and Outside Facilities ......................................................................................14
3.4.10 Connection of Pipelines, Protective Pipes and Similar to the Building ......................................14

4 Mechanical Engineering .........................................................................................................14


4.1 Centrifugal Pumps......................................................................................................................14
4.1.1 Design of the Pumps..................................................................................................................14
4.1.2 Impeller Shapes and Completely Free Passage .......................................................................15
4.1.3 Notes on Design.........................................................................................................................16
4.1.4 Type of Mounting .......................................................................................................................17
4.1.4.1 Horizontally Mounted Pumps (Dry-well Installation) ..................................................................17
4.1.4.2 Vertically Mounted Pumps (Dry-well Installation) ......................................................................18

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ATV-DVWK-A 134E

4.1.4.3 Submerged Pumps (Wet-well Installation) ................................................................................ 18


4.2 Pump Drives .............................................................................................................................. 18
4.2.1 Electric Motors........................................................................................................................... 18
4.2.2 Combustion Engines ................................................................................................................. 20
4.3 Pipelines in the Pumping Station .............................................................................................. 20
4.4 Gate Valves ............................................................................................................................... 21
4.4.1 Gate Valves with Elastomer Coated Obturators ....................................................................... 23
4.4.2 Parallel Slide Gate Valves......................................................................................................... 23
4.4.3 Tapered Gate valves ................................................................................................................. 23
4.5 Non-return Valves ..................................................................................................................... 24
4.6 Pump Air Bleeding..................................................................................................................... 24
4.7 Admission Gate Valves ............................................................................................................. 24
4.8 Water Supply Facilities.............................................................................................................. 25
4.9 Washdown Facilities.................................................................................................................. 25
4.10 Machinery room Drainage ......................................................................................................... 25
4.11 Ventilation Facilities for Machinery Rooms ............................................................................... 26
4.12 Ventilation Facilities for Inlet Chambers................................................................................... 26
4.13 Lifting Gear ................................................................................................................................ 27

5 Electrical Engineering............................................................................................................ 27
5.1 External and Structural Prerequisites........................................................................................ 27
5.2 Energy Supply ........................................................................................................................... 28
5.2.1 Energy Supply with a Voltage up to 1000 V (Low Voltage) ...................................................... 28
5.2.2 Energy Supply with a Voltage over 1000 V (Medium High Voltage)......................................... 29
5.2.3 Measurement of Consumption .................................................................................................. 30
5.3 Switchboard Plant, Actuators and Appliances .......................................................................... 30
5.3.1 Main Drives................................................................................................................................ 30
5.3.2 Ancillary Drives.......................................................................................................................... 31
5.3.3 Ancillary Facilities...................................................................................................................... 31
5.3.4 Operating and Measuring System............................................................................................. 31
5.4 Emergency Power Supply ......................................................................................................... 31
5.5 Types of Protection and Regulations ........................................................................................ 32
5.5.1 Explosion Protection.................................................................................................................. 32
5.5.2 Protection against Accidental Contact ..................................................................................... 32

6 Measurement Engineering ..................................................................................................... 33


6.1 Level Measuring Systems ......................................................................................................... 33
6.2 Delivery Pressure Measuring Systems ..................................................................................... 33
6.3 Flow Measuring Systems .......................................................................................................... 33
6.4 Transmission of Measured Values............................................................................................ 33

7 Wastewater Pressure Pipelines ............................................................................................. 33


7.1 Pressure Pipelines .................................................................................................................... 33
7.2 Pipeline Routes ......................................................................................................................... 34
7.3 Dimensioning............................................................................................................................. 34
7.4 Stresses..................................................................................................................................... 35
7.5 Pipe Materials............................................................................................................................ 35
7.6 Corrosion and Corrosion Protection.......................................................................................... 35

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ATV-DVWK-A 134E

8 Commissioning ........................................................................................................................36
8.1 Pumping Station.........................................................................................................................36
8.2 Pressure Main ............................................................................................................................36

9 Information on Standard Specifications, Directives, Standards, Advisory Leaflets


(Selection).................................................................................................................................37
9.1 General Terms and Conditions for Engineering Services, (VOB)..............................................37
9.2 Standard Specifications .............................................................................................................37
9.2.1 Building Standards .....................................................................................................................38
9.2.2 Pipes and Fittings.......................................................................................................................38
9.2.3 Mechanical Engineering.............................................................................................................39
9.2.4 Measurement Technology..........................................................................................................39
9.2.5 Electrical Engineering ................................................................................................................40
9.3 Directives, Standards and Advisory Leaflets .............................................................................41
9.3.1 of the ATV ..................................................................................................................................41
9.3.2 of the DVGW ..............................................................................................................................41
9.3.3 des VDI.......................................................................................................................................41
9.3.4 of the VDMA [German Association of Mechanical Engineering Establishments] ......................42

10 Annexes ....................................................................................................................................42
Annex 1: Example of a pumping station with centrifugal pumps in horizontal, dry-well installation ........43
Annex 2: Basic circuit diagram ..................................................................................................................48

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ATV-DVWK-A 134E

however, exclude other delivery plant (see “Kom-


User Notes munale Abwasserpumpwerke” [Municipal waste-
water pumping stations], Vulkan-Verlag,). State-
This Standard is the result of honorary, technical- ments made here also apply equally for such
scientific/economic collaboration which has been pumping stations so far as they do not demand
achieved in accordance with the principles appli- other technical solutions. It would be beyond the
cable therefor (statutes, rules of procedure of the framework of the Standard to go into these in de-
ATV-DVWK and the Standard ATV-DVWK-A tail.
400E). For this, according to precedents, there ex-
Conveyor spirals with their completely different de-
ists an actual presumption that it is textually and
livery principle and thus also other structural con-
technically correct and also generally recognised.
cept are also dispensed with, although it is just
these which are relatively frequently employed to
The application of this Standard is open to every-
raise wastewater before the wastewater treatment
one. However, an obligation for application can
plant.
arise from legal or administrative regulations, a
contract or other legal reason. The special requirements affecting these are laid
down in Standard Specification DIN 1184 Part 4
This Standard is an important, however, not the “Pumping stations; Archimedean screw pumps; di-
sole source of information for correct solutions. rectives for planning”. Taking into account the
With its application no one avoids responsibility for wastewater-specific requirements (e.g. explosion
his own action or for the correct application in spe- protection) indicated in this Standard, these apply
cific cases; this applies in particular for the correct equally for wastewater pumping stations.
handling of the margins described in the Standard.
Facilities in the field of wastewater as a rule are
used for a long time. They must, in addition, have
Foreword a high availability for the protection of surface wa-
ters against pollution and for the securing of local
Standard Specification EN 752-6 “Drainage sys- hygiene. Great significance is given to ideas on
tems outside buildings”, Part 6 “Pumping stations”, quality. Cost reductions are possible. They may,
elaborated by its Technical Committee TC 165 however, not be at the expense of the environ-
“Wastewater Engineering”, has been issued by the ment.
European Committee for Standardisation (CEN). It With a comparison both investment costs as well
was to be adopted into the German Standards as as operating costs are always to be considered
DIN EN 752-6. Supplementary to this the earlier with the annual costs arising from both compo-
Standard ATV-A 134 “Planning and Construction nents.
of Wastewater Pumping Stations with Small In-
flows” has been revised and expanded by ATV
Specialist Committee 1.3 “Wastewater pumping
stations”, so that it can be applied, like the stan- 1 Area of Application
dard specification, for small and large wastewater
pumping stations including their pressure mains.
The pumping station, with the discharge of waste-
Standard ATV-DVWK-A 134E supplements water, has its particular significance in that,
Standard Specification EN 752-6 and provides through the avoidance of too deep a position, it
advanced information and proposals as to how, can improve the economic efficiency of a drainage
taking account of economic aspects, pumping system. It is extensively independent of topog-
stations can be planned and built. EN 1671 is to raphical conditions and makes it possible to feed
be applied for pumping stations with pressure effluents into receiving waters and sewers even at
drainage. high levels. Furthermore, using pumping stations,
wastewater can be conveyed for widely spread
It deals exclusively with the employment of cen- catchment areas to treatment facilities sited at
trifugal pumps for the conveyance of wastewater, suitable locations.
for which they are mainly employed. This does not,

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ATV-DVWK-A 134E

Wastewater pumps, which are mainly installed in 2.1 Type of Structure and Structural
the tank facilities (see ATV-A 166 [Not available in Dimensions of the Pumping Station
English]), are also frequently employed for the sur-
face feeding and, in particular, for the emptying of The type of structure and the structural dimensions
stormwater tanks. The Standard applies analo- are determined by the pumping tasks (see Section
gously for these, however the technical require- 2.4), the type of pump installation (wet- or dry-well)
ments are to be matched to the tank-specific re- and corresponding with the equipping through the
quirements (e. g. impeller shape, completely free associated scope of ancillary facilities (transformer
passage, no continuous operation). room, switchboard plant, tank farm), other ancillary
facilities (fixed crane, heating and ventilation
Pumping stations are also suitable for control of plants, standby plant) as well as, if required, further
flow in larger networks. necessary ancillary rooms (stores, workshops) and
social rooms. The arrangement of the pumps in
It is emphasised, that this Standard is not to be dry-well installation (vertical or horizontal) has ef-
employed where special drainage methods are fects on the dimensions of the building.
used. These cases are dealt with in Standard ATV-
A 116E. As a rule, wastewater pumping stations are
equipped with centrifugal pumps. They are not

2 Planning and self-priming and therefore should be installed


sufficiently low so that the water flows in under
Dimensioning gravity in order to avoid being subject to ab-
normal occurrences. Fundamentally at least
two pumps should be installed.
The pumping station has to be so dimensioned
that, with the taking into account of sufficient Before the decision as to whether the pumps
reserves the same disposal security as with should be installed with wet- or dry-wells, the plan-
discharge under gravity is achieved. ner should clarify with later operation the differ-
ences in construction, equipping and, in particular,
The basic requirements to be placed on a operation of the pumping station.
wastewater pump are an automatic, fault-free
operation with which the unhygienic and haz- With wet-well installation safety against flooding
ardous maintenance tasks remain limited to a and lower investment costs are up against in-
minimum. creased unhygienic and in part hazardous mainte-
nance work with greater expense with personnel.
The initial considerations to be made for planning
and dimensioning, the relevant factors for the se- In addition, the decision has to be made whether
lection of terrain or location as well as the decisive the pumping station should be provided with a su-
criteria for the dimensioning and equipping of the perstructure (see Section 3.4.3).
pumping station are presented in detail in EN 752.
The following notes serve as supplement. In flood areas the superstructure must be so
designed that, with flooding, an endangering of
The layouts of the routes for the supply and the pumping station is excluded.
disposal pipelines and the method of their lay-
ing are to be agreed with the authorities repre- For smaller pumping stations there are also pre-
senting public interests. Rights of way for pe- fabricated stations as a complete design. They
destrians, vehicles and pipelines are, if must meet the requirements placed here.
necessary, to be agreed.

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ATV-DVWK-A 134E

Examples for the different types of construction are presented in Figs. 1 and 2 and in Appendix 1.

Fig. 1: Examples for types of pumping station construction with pumps in dry-well installation

Fig. 2: Examples of types of pumping station construction with pumps in wet-well installation

Before the decision is made on a solution, in 2.2 Wastewater Inflow


addition to the technical, environmentally rele-
vant, operational, personnel, social, energetic The daily inflow of wastewater has to be ascer-
and other criteria, the financial and economic tained for the determination of the size of the
effects of the possible variants must also be pumping station. It is influenced by:
taken into consideration. In addition to invest-
- the type of drainage method (combined or
ment costs it is essential that the operating and
separate),
capital costs are included in the consideration
- size and structure of the catchment area,
of economic efficiency.
- number of inhabitants,

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ATV-DVWK-A 134E

- number and type of connected industrial and 2.3 Ordinates and Pumping Heads
commercial concerns.
The ordinate of the invert of the inflow sewer, the
The inflow is presented in a hydrograph, which re- switch-on and switch-off ordinate of the pumps, the
flects the inflow of wastewater in the course of a outlet ordinate of the pumping destination and the
day (see Figs. 3 and 4). gradient of the terrain between pumping station
and the pumping destination are of considerable
significance in order to be able to dimension a
pumping station.

The pumping head, in addition to the pure static


heights, also includes the friction losses which are
determined depending on the speed of the medium
being pumped as well as the inside diameter and
length of the pressure main. In addition, with the
delivery by several pumping stations into a com-
mon pressure main, depending on the current op-
eration of the individual stations different pumping
heads arise which influence the arrangement of
the pumps (see Section 4.1.1).

Fig. 3: Examples of inflow hydrographs with


dry weather, mainly residential area
2.4 Pumping Task

As pumping task can be, for example, the function


as pump-over station (delivery of the wastewater
into another catchment area), connecting pump
station (delivery into a pressure main network to-
gether with other pumping stations), pumping sta-
tion ahead of a wastewater treatment plant, empty-
ing of stormwater tanks etc.

The effects of the delivery flows on the down-


stream drainage system (gravity or pressure main
system) with possible further connected systems
and the wastewater treatment systems, are to be
taken into account with the employment of waste-
Fig. 4: Examples of inflow hydrographs with water pumping stations. Here, not only hydraulic
dry weather, strong industrial influ- aspects such as, for example, discharge capacity
ence (overloading due to unfavourable layout of the
pipeline, height and/or dimension) play a role but
There can be considerable differences both in the also the actual status of the drains concerned, i.e.
characteristics and in the daily quantities between renovations are possibly to be undertaken.
working and non-working days. With rainfall one
has to reckon with an increased yield of wastewa-
ter (see ATV-A 118E). 2.5 Expansion Possibilities

The hydrograph is the basis for the arrangement of With planning it is to be considered whether, in the
the delivery plant (determination of the operating course of time, the required delivery flow has to be
points, selection of the type of pumps, decision on increased. If this is the case, then the possibility of
the employment of drives with one, several or vari- a later expansion must be taken into account. It
able rotational speeds). can, for example, be sufficient, taking into account

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ATV-DVWK-A 134E

the motor output, later to increase the revolutions erator and, if necessary, with the approval authori-
of the centrifugal pump which is driven via belt ties.
drives or to enlarge the impeller of the centrifugal
pump; under certain circumstances, however,
room for a larger or additional machine must also 2.7 Flow Rate and Inside Diameter of
be planned within the structure. Equally the laying the Pressure Main
of an additional pipeline can also be necessary
(see also Section 7.3). The following aspects are to be taken into account
with the determination of the flow rate in the main:

2.6 Minimum Completely Free Passage The lower limit of the flow rate should lie between
0.5 m/s with larger and 1.0 m/s with smaller total
Experience has shown that, with sewer networks, delivery times of the connected pumping stations.
a formation of textile balls cannot be excluded. Depending on the composition of the wastewater
Nevertheless, one can dispense with screens in so higher flow rates must be selected with longer
far as suitable types of pump and sufficient free downtimes.
cross-section are selected in the complete delivery
facility. A too low a flow rate leads to deposits and thus to
reductions of the cross-section so that the danger
In order to guarantee a secure delivery a com- of blockage increases.
pletely free passage of 100 mm both for the deliv-
ery installation as well as for fittings and the pres- The highest speed of the delivery flow is depend-
sure main are recommended. The use of specially ent on the nominal width. For a pipeline length of
developed, blockage-free impellers with a free up to ca. 500 m the following speeds should not be
cross-section of less than 100 mm (see Section 4) undercut:
and appropriate selection of the pipeline diameter
is to be examined. Inside diameter in mm 80 100 150 200
Speed in m/s 2.0 2.0 2.2 2.4
The pumps of smaller wastewater pumping sta- Delivery in l/s 10 16 40 75
tions therefore are not only to be dimensioned ac-
cording to inflows but insensitivity to blockage and Flow rates greater than 2.5 m/s should be avoided.
minimum speed are also relevant parameters. This
can, in relation to the wastewater inflow, lead to With pipelines of more than 500 m length appro-
over-dimensioning of the pumps. priately lower speeds are to be preferred to avoid
unacceptable pressure surges, for example with
An inside diameter of 80 mm for the pressure main pump failure. Investigation of pressure surge
should not be undercut. should be undertaken.

Smaller completely free passages combined with The optimum nominal width is to be determined
shredders and appropriate pipeline diameters through an efficiency calculation and this com-
should only be used in special cases, for example pared with the above guidance values.
for the disposal of waste from individual real estate,
when the connection to a central plant is sought for With the determination of the diameter of the pres-
water management, technical or economic reasons sure main attention is to be paid that the inside dia-
(see ATV-A 116E, ATV-A 200 [Not available in Eng- meter of a pipe can deviate considerably from the
lish]). Shredded materials can lead to increased de- nominal width depending on the material.
posits in sewers and pressure mains. Various prob-
lems can also occur in the wastewater treatment
plant with increased production of shredded mate-
rial. The employment of shredders should therefore
be clarified, already with the planning, with the op-

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ATV-DVWK-A 134E

2.8 Number of Cycles of the Pumping The type of subsoil and the groundwater conditions
Plant and Dimensioning of the Inlet are decisive contributory factors for determining
Chamber the type of construction work.

The available volume of the inlet chamber for the


employment of centrifugal pumps with fixed revolu- 3.1 Methods of Laying Foundations
tions results as follows between switch-on and
switch-off levels: Before start of construction, investigations of
the subsoil and existing underground buildings
are to be carried out. Firmly planned construc-
Q pm
tion projects of other parties in the vicinity
V = 0.9 must also be taken into consideration.
Z

V = volume in m3 As essential assessment criteria the following are


Qpm = mean pump delivery flow in l/s to be determined:
Z = number of cycles per hour
- type of soil (cohesive, non-cohesive, non-
A number of cycles of 15 per hour should not be plastic and similar in accordance with DIN
exceeded. 18196 and DIN 18300),
- soil structure (inclusions of all types),
The number of cycles is dependent on the stability - bearing capacity,
of the mechanical and electrical plant components, - settlement behaviour,
in particular the electric motors (see Section 5.3). - groundwater (rush, variations in level, utilisa-
tion or non-utilisation),
- surrounding buildings,
- load carrying traffic areas,
2.9 Digestion of the Wastewater
- aggressiveness of soil and groundwater,
- contaminated sites.
With comparatively small daily delivery quantities
and long pressure mains the retention time of the
According to the thus determined conditions vari-
wastewater in the pressure main is very large and
ous methods for the construction of the under-
therefore the danger of digestion of the wastewater
ground part are possible:
is present. There is strong odour development and
the aggressiveness of the wastewater increases. - sloped excavation,
The possible biogenic hydrogen sulphide corrosion - revetted excavation (e. g. Berlin lining),
has to be taken into account with the selection of - excavation with pile sheeting,
pipe material. - well-foundation (caisson),
- compressed air foundation work.
Detailed information for countermeasures is given
in Advisory Leaflet ATV-M 168 [Not available in
English]. 3.2 Verification of Stability

3 Structural Stability is to be verified for


the excavation and
Engineering
-
- the structure itself.

Pumping stations, elevators and pumping points With this it can be necessary to carry out verifica-
are structures which consist of an underground tion for the construction state (e.g. safety against
part and, as far as possible, an over ground part. buoyancy) and for the finished state separately.
Prefabricated shafts are also used for the The concrete must be impermeable to water in
construction of smaller wastewater pumping accordance with DIN 1045 and show high resis-
stations. tance against chemical attack through the em-

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ATV-DVWK-A 134E

ployment of cements with high resistance to 3.4 Design of the Structure


sulphate in accordance with DIN 1164, Part 1.
Assumptions about loads are to be made in ac- (For this see Annex 1)
cordance with DIN 1055. To limit the width of
cracks and for improved crack distribution a Fundamentally attention is to be paid to suffi-
method of conservation of crack limitation is to be cient entrances secure against flooding and
planned. The concrete covering in the under- free space around the operational installations
ground part should be at least 4 cm. which have to be served, maintained and/or re-
paired.
For safety against buoyancy, calculations must
be carried out with the factor µ = 1.1, whereby
the highest possible level of the groundwater 3.4.1 Inlet Chamber
or the high water level is to be taken into ac-
count. Here the soil friction or the weight of the Inlets in the inlet chamber are to be so designed
demountable assemblies my not be taken into ac- that the following are avoided:
count. Verification of water pressure is to be car- - entry of air into the pumps,
ried out for both internal and external water pres- - stripping of gases,
sure. - accumulations of solids on installations and
- unfavourable streaming of the pumps.
The highest possible water level in the inlet
chamber must be assumed to be the upper sur- The inlet chamber is to be so designed that no
face of the ground. dead space results and depositing is avoided
(slope ≥ 60°). With the employment of concrete
As one has to reckon with wastewater with ag- this is to be compacted carefully and covered with
gressive substances the values in DIN 4030 are a compound screed using cement with a high re-
to be observed for the evaluation of the level of sistance to sulphide and is to be smoothed. In
attack. special cases an additional acid resistant coating
or a ceramic sheeting can be sensible. Enclosed
As a rule the upper limiting values are to be taken inlet chambers must be equipped with an effec-
into account in order to make allowance for a pos- tive ventilation (see Section 4.12). With regard to
sible unfavourable change of the composition of inlet chamber space see Section 2.8.
the wastewater (for some considerable time one
has ascertained damage to existing buildings
which can be traced back to a change in composi- 3.4.2 Machinery Room
tion of the wastewater). Therefore, in accordance
with the provisions of DIN 1045 on concrete cov- The dimensions of the room result from the dimen-
ers, the water-cement ratio, concrete texture and sions of the machines, the free space around the
similar are to be taken into account. machines and the space requirement for stairs. For
the pumps, assembly holes are to be arranged in
the roof above them. The floor is to be made as far
3.3 Building Protective Measures as possible anti-skid. A pump well (see Section
4.10) for draining the pump room is to be planned.
The best protective effect is achieved through the See Section 4.11 with regard to ventilation.
quality of the material itself. With very aggressive
water or soil characteristics or the danger of bio-
genic hydrogen sulphide corrosion additional pro- 3.4.3 Superstructure, Entrances
tective measures in the form of coats of paint,
coatings or sheathing can be necessary. The superstructure with entrances must be se-
cure against flooding. It enables the accom-
modation of:

12 June 2000
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

- electrical plant, tion, vertical ladders are to be equipped with a pro-


- standby equipment, tective rail or other safety device. With particularly
- stationary ventilation plant, deep inlet chambers it is recommended that an in-
- spare parts, termediate platform be installed. As for handrails,
- non-stationary operational equipment, corrosion resistant steel Material No. 1.4571 is
- social facilities equally suitable.
and guarantees at all times a weather-independent
and secure access to the pumps and inlet cham-
ber.
3.4.5 Heating/Heat Removal

All rooms are to be maintained frost-free. The


Requirement for space for the energy supply plant
heat emitted by the electrical plant and equipment
(see Section 5.2) is to be taken into account.
is to be included with the calculation of the heat
requirement. In special cases a heat removal can
The inlet chamber and the associated ventilator
be necessary (see also Section 5.3.1).
room must be accessible from outside and
their doors must be capable of being opened
outwards only. Access from the pump room is
not permitted. 3.4.6 Windows, Doors

Only the switch room and the toilets are to be ac- Windows and doors are to be designed as far as
cessible via the pump room. A crane rail or possible secure against break-in and damage.
shackle, dimensioned for the largest assembly Windows can be dispensed with if sufficient aera-
part, is to be provided in the ceiling. With larger tion and ventilation as well as lighting of the rooms
pumping stations a crane system can also be nec- can be provided alternatively.
essary (see Section 4.13).

All rooms are to be so equipped that they require 3.4.7 Earthing


little maintenance and servicing.
The earthing device is to be so dimensioned
that, in the case of a fault, the currents to earth
3.4.4 Stairs, Ladders, Step Irons, do not exceed the earth potential of 50 V with
alternating current and 120 V with direct cur-
Platforms
rent. In order to achieve the necessary resis-
tance, foundation earth connectors are to be
Pump rooms which are not at ground level should
laid in buildings and, if required, additionally
be provided with stairs. Steep and spiral stairways
lattice networks are to be laid in open ground.
should be avoided, i.e. they are an alternative only
VDE [Association of German Electrical Engi-
with tight space conditions.
neers] regulations are to be observed (see Sec-
tion 5.5).
The stairs are to be designed according to the re-
commendations of the agency responsible for ac-
cident insurance. Climbing ladders and climbing
irons are to be installed in exceptional cases only. 3.4.8 Lightning Protection
Above 5 m total length they are basically to be
provided with a system to prevent falling. Above For the protection of people and plant pumping
the entrance points with ladders are to be provided station buildings must be provided with a
with insertible or extendable stay bars of at least lightning protection system. Here, in accordance
1 m in length or handholds. with the ABB [German Committee for Lightning
Conductor Construction], the metallic construction
Vertical ladders in the inlet chamber should not be components of roofs and facades can be included
permanently mounted below the water level, but in the lightning protection system both for collector
should be foldable or removable. They may not be devices and for conducting, if these are reliably
made of aluminium. In the place of a back protec- connected to this. The conductors of the lightning

June 2000 13
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

protection system are to be connected with the


earthing system via “spacers” (see Section 5.5). 4 Mechanical
For further prevention of damage through the ef-
Engineering
fects of a lightning strike the lightning protection
system should be installed in accordance with the
Standard Specification DIN IEC 61024-1-2, VDE 4.1 Centrifugal Pumps
0185 Part 102 (see Annex 2).

4.1.1 Design of the Pumps


3.4.9 External Design and Outside Fa-
cilities Section 2 “Planning and Dimensioning” is relevant
for the design of the pumps. The delivery head is
The route to the pumping station is to be matched made up of:
suitably in width and surfacing to the local re-
- the difference in height (Hgeo) between the
quirements.
highest point in the pressure side of the system
and the water level in the inlet chamber,
The superstructure is to be matched in size and
- the admission pressure (Hadm), e. g. through
form and in the materials employed, for example
conveyance in an already otherwise streamed
for the outer façade, with the surroundings.
pressure pipeline, and
Planted strips several metres wide have proved
- the pressure loss (Hloss) in the pipes and fit-
their usefulness as visual and emission protection
tings.
(see Annex 1). With a view to later maintenance of
the outside facilities, attention is to be paid in the
Due to changes in level in the outlet and in the inlet
planning that these cause the lowest possible ex-
chamber as well as a varying admission pressure
pense.
there results a range of the pipeline characteristic
curves in accordance with Fig. 5.
With sensitive locations it is recommended that ar-
chitects and landscape gardeners are already in-
The operating range of the pump lies between the
volved with the planning.
intersection point of the throttle curve with the
highest and lowest pipe characteristic curve. In the
case of a compound or parallel operation, attention
3.4.10 Connection of Pipelines, Protective is to be paid for an as steep as possible throttle
Pipes and Similar to the Building curve with the selection of the pump.

Every rigid pipeline laid underground, which is


fixed between two points with different subsi-
dence characteristics must be connected flexi-
bly. This applies, for example, for inflow sewers
which run from the inlet structure to the pumping
station.

Pipe fairleads through walls and roofs are to be


suitably sealed.

Fig. 5: Pumping diagram centrifugal pump

14 June 2000
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

The matching of a changed inflow can be under- - efficiency as a rule less than with multi-port
taken through the modification of the revolutions non-clog impellers,
and, in addition, through change of the impeller di- - hydraulic out-of-balance, which can only be
ameter. extensively compensated, and this at great ex-
pense, related to a defined operation point. A
With all pumps the cavitation behaviour should be rate of rotation above 1450 min-1 should be
examined in order to avoid cavitation, noises, er- avoided, with large impellers a rate of rotation
ratic running and material wear. of 1000 min-1 should not be exceeded.

A measure for the cavitation behaviour is the


NPSH value (net positive suction head), i.e. the net
energy head (= absolute energy head less the va-
porisation pressure head) in the entry cross-
section of the pump impeller. The NPSH value of
the plant (NPSHP) is compared with the NPSH
value of the pump (NPSHR). In every case the
drop must be NPSHP > NPSHR.

The NPSHR value must be given by the pump


manufacturer. The ratio

NPSHP
≥1.3
NPSHR
Fig. 6: Single port non-clog impeller

should be sought for security against cavitation The multi-port non-clog impeller (see Fig. 7) is, as
with water pumps. a rule, a two or three port non-clog impeller. In
comparison with the single port non-clog impeller it
Further details can be taken from DIN 24260, Part is characterised by the following features:
1 “Centrifugal pumps and centrifugal pump sys-
- greater delivery heads are achieved.
tems” [Not available in English].
- a static and dynamic balancing is relatively
simple to carry out. Higher rates of rotation,
and due to this, greater delivery heads are also
4.1.2 Impeller Shapes and Completely possible.
Free Passage - variable speed operation is without problem.
- noise- and vibration-free running is easier to
For the conveyance of untreated wastewater with achieve.
coarse and fibrous constituents specially shaped
impellers are employed (see Figs. 6 to 9) which, to
a great extent, prevent blockages and the forma- It is, however, more susceptible to blockage than
tion of clogs. the single port non-clog impeller as, with the same
delivery flow, the completely free passage of the
The non-clog impeller is employed as single and impeller channels are smaller.
multi-port non-clog impeller.

The single port non-clog impeller (see Fig. 6) has


the following characteristics:
- constant completely free passage from the en-
trance to the intake to the exit to the pressure
pipe corresponding to the completely free pas-
sage of the impeller,

June 2000 15
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

Fig. 9: Non-chokable impeller


Fig. 7: Multi-port non-clog impeller
All given impeller shapes are, in principle, suitable
The spiral non-clog impeller (see Fig. 8) is a semi- for employment in screenless pumping stations,
axial single-vane impeller with helicoidal or screw under the assumption that the requirements of
formed inlet component. It runs very quietly and Section 2.6 are met. They are employed normally
therefore is employed with rotational speeds of up to the following pressure values in the point of
3000 min-1. operation:
- single-port non-clog impeller up to 4 bar,
- spiral non-clog impeller up to 6 bar,
- multi-port non-clog impeller up to 10 bar,
- non-chokable impeller up to 10 bar.

The rate of flow in the impeller channels should, as


far as possible, not undercut 2 m/s as otherwise
the danger of pump blockage is very great.

4.1.3 Notes on Design

With a dry-well wastewater pump (see Fig. 10) suf-


Fig. 8: Spiral non-clog impeller
ficiently large cleaning ports are provided on the in-
take and outlet to the pressure pipe so that block-
The non-chokable impeller (see Fig. 9) effects the
ages can be removed from inside the pumps
transport medium indirectly only. With the convey-
manually. With smaller pumps the size of the
ance of wastewater it can be employed with rota-
cleaning ports should approach the nominal width
tional speeds up to 3000 min-1. The characteristic
of the pumps. With larger pumps they should be
curve is usually flatter and the efficiency lower than
180 to 200 mm.
with the other impellers.

16 June 2000
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

Fig. 10: Cross-section of a horizontally mounted centrifugal pump

Longer downtimes and possibilities of repair are 4.1.4 Type of Mounting


achieved through an exchangeable obturator in the
area of the suction mouth of the pump casing and With the installation of the pumps a differentiation
a locking ring on the reverse side of the impeller. In must be made between horizontal and vertical
principle, with large pumps, they should be pro- pumps. Submersible motor-driven pumps can also
vided. With these an exchangeable obturator is be employed in dry-well installation and thus, with
recommended also on the pressure side, i.e. on suitable arrangement of the electrical connections,
the bearing side of the pump casing. ensure the pumping of wastewater even with flood-
ing of the pump room. With its employment in dry-
Attention is to be paid that every impeller is pro- well installation the question of heatremoval from
vided with vanes on the back or pressure side of the motor is to be clarified with the pump manufac-
the impeller disk. turer.

The sealing of the pump in the area of the shaft


can be achieved using gland or axial face seals. If 4.1.4.1 Horizontally Mounted Pumps
a gland seal is used then attention is to be paid (Dry-well Installation)
that the shaft protective covering is highly wear re-
sistant and packings are easy to exchange without In the horizontal layout (see Fig. 11) there is the
greater dismantling. space saving design of the pump with saddle
mounted motorist which, moreover, offers even
Assessment criteria with the employment of axial more advantages.
face seals, also with pumps with submersible mo- In this way, with the drive of the pump via v-belts,
tor, are a short separation between impeller and an easy matching to a possibly changed inflow is
first bearing and the employment of specially possible by changing the transmission ratio; moni-
formed axial face seals which, in particular, do not toring and certain repairs on the pump are signifi-
allow wastewater to penetrate to the contact pres- cantly more simple.
sure rings of the seals (danger of contamination).
A transmitter which signals a possible entry of wa- The pump should have a base frame. The bracket
ter into the sealing oil which lubricates and cools for the mounting of the electric motor is to secured
the axial face seal as well as preventing immediate with bolts so that it is removable.
entry of water into the machinery room, should be
installed.

June 2000 17
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

The vertical type of installation (see Fig. 12) offers


a greater security against flooding through the high
mounting of the electrical motor.

The connection between pump and motor is


always to be elastic for the acceptance of ad-
justment tolerances and for the damping of vi-
bration and impact.

4.1.4.3 Submerged Pumps (Wet-well


Installation)

Fig. 11: Dry-well and horizontally mounted If a submersible motor-driven pump in wet-well in-
centrifugal pump with fitted motor stallation (see Fig. 13) is employed, then attention
is to be given to certain peculiarities. Inlet cham-
To tension the v-belts the motor must be mounted bers are explosion endangered zones. In accor-
so that it is adjustable. Through the compact con- dance with the regulations of the [German] Asso-
struction the unit is substantial insensitive to vibra- ciation for Social Insurance against Occupational
tion. The installation of a pump with motor in Accidents (VBG) pump casings and components,
modular construction is also possible. in contact with water, made from aluminium alloys
in explosion endangered plant components of
wastewater treatment plants of Zones 0 and 1 are
4.1.4.2 Vertically Mounted Pumps (Dry- not permitted. Fundamentally the motor must be
well Installation) protected against explosion in accordance with
VDE 0170/0171, and that is, as a rule, in E Ex dll
BT3. cleaning ports on the casing are ruled out.
Every wet-well installed pump should be capable
of being installed and removed without emptying
the inlet chamber and without tightening or loosen-
ing of bolts on their pressure joints. The mounting
parts required for this are subjected to corrosive at-
tack to a particularly high degree. They should be
made from stainless steel Material No. 1.4571; this
also applies to nuts, bolts and washers.

4.2 Pump Drives

Electric motors are almost exclusively employed


for driving the pumps. However, for reasons of dis-
posal security, an uncertain energy supply or to
cover peaks it can be necessary to employ another
type of drive, for example, combustion engines.

4.2.1 Electric Motors

For centrifugal pumps the electric motors should


be designed (see Section 5.3.1) for the limiting
power requirement of the specified operating
Fig. 12: Dry-well and vertically installed cen- range. The same applies for the coupling between
trifugal pump
pump and motor. Where an increasing wastewater

18 June 2000
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

production is to be expected it is, however, sensi- requirement for this is additionally to be taken into
ble possibly to design the motor and the coupling account.
more robustly, in any case, however, the associ-
ated electrical parts of the plant, in accordance Power requirement of Reserve capacity of the
with the expansion capacity of the pump. the pump in kW driving motor
up to 7.5 ca. 50%
The following reserve capacities should be pro-
vided as a minimum with regard to a sufficient en- 7.5 – 20 ca. 25%
gine power to avoid blocking of the impeller: 20 -50 ca. 15%
over 50 ca. 10%
With pressure mains with elevator effect and such
which, with every start-up, have to be completely
or in part primed, the increased necessary power

Fig. 13: Section of a wet-well and vertically installed submerged motor pump

It is to be examined whether special measures If, in addition to a smooth start and coast down,
are necessary for the protection of the pressure the revolutions are also variable then the em-
mains against possible pressure surges (see ployment of a static frequency converter is rec-
Section 2.7) or in order to avoid inadmissibly high ommend. Using this, submersible motors and ex-
currents at make of the pump motors. plosion protected motors can be operated with
variable revolutions. The possible change of
To these belongs the so-called smooth starter for revolutions is to be clarified with the pump manu-
cage rotor motors. It prevents undesired load facturer. Here the flow rate in the impeller channels
peaks for pumps and motors. is to be noted (see Section 4.1.2).

It should be equipped with the reverse function, With the employment of a static frequency con-
i.e. a smooth coast down. verter, due to the increased heat loss, the motor
should have a reserve capacity of 10 to 15 %.
With low revolutions an external ventilation of the

June 2000 19
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

motor can be necessary. In order to protect it on the position of the installation room and the
from inadmissible heating the windings should be usage identification of the area in the land devel-
monitored using thermofeelers, i.e. so-called opment plan in which the pumping station lies
positors. The measures to be taken include:
- structure-borne damping machine mountings,
- structure-borne and airborne noise damping
4.2.2 Combustion Engines designs in the exhaust discharge system,
- airborne noise inhibiting structures in the inlet
As a rule, diesel motors with a nominal speed of
and outlet air lines,
1500 min-1 are employed as combustion engines.
- airborne noise damping outfitting of walls,
Their speed is adjustable but, for economic run-
ceilings and doors.
ning the adjustable speed range used should not
go below 75 % of the nominal speed, this means
The exhaust lines are to be insulated using an
that, under certain circumstances, a mechanical
appropriate material which guarantees a surface
intermediate gear becomes necessary.
temperature of the finished insulation of ≤ 70°C.

For low capacities motor and gearbox often form


It is to be clarified with the approval authorities
one unit which is connected with the pump by
which limiting values of atmospheric pollution in
means of an elastic coupling.
the diesel exhaust gas must be met. It is possible
that soot filters or catalytic exhaust gas cleaners
With diesel engines of higher performance, gear-
could be required.
box and pump are to be connected using an elas-
tic coupling. The connection between diesel en-
The diesel engine plant must satisfy the pro-
gine and gearbox should be via a universal joint
visions of the valid ordinances of the [Ger-
shaft. It can counterbalance axle variations
man] Technical Instructions Air (TA Luft) and
which, after longer periods of time, cannot be ex-
Noise (TA Lärm) of the Federal German Im-
cluded with respectively separate foundations.
mission Protection Law.

A reverse rotation of the diesel engine is to be


Fuel storage is also to be planned for energy sup-
prevented under all circumstances!
ply of the diesel motor. It should consist of
storage tanks and a service tank. The service
Mainly water-cooled diesel engines with internal
tank should be arranged at a sufficient height so
and external cooling water circuits are employed.
that the fuel flows to the diesel engine.
Oil coolers for gearboxes of higher performance
are to be included in the cooling system.
For a secure operation of diesel engine plants a
certain number of operational monitoring mes-
To remove the radiated heat of the diesel engines
sages are unavoidable. To these belong:
and to introduce sufficient combustion air the
rooms in which they are installed are to be pro- - fuel tank overfilled,
vided with air inlet and outlet openings for outside - lack of fuel,
air. With diesel engines of higher performance - cooling water temperature too high,
and/or smaller rooms inlet and outlet air blowers - lack of cooling water,
can additionally be necessary. - lubricating oil pressure too low or lack of lu-
bricating oil (emergency shutdown!).
Precautionary measures for winter operation are
to be taken
4.3 Pipelines in the Pumping Station
Diesel plants create high noise levels; this
means that structural measures are to be
For the proper operation of dry-well installed
taken in the interest of the operating staff and
pumps the suction (inlet) pipeline must al-
the environment. The approval authorities will,
ways be laid inclined upwards to the pump.
under certain circumstances, issue requirements.
The nominal width of the suction pipeline should
The scope of the measures to be taken depends

20 June 2000
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

be at least the diameter of the intake mouth of the Using steel as the pipe material for pressure
pump and be not less than 100 mm. A check mains within the pumping station, for reasons of
valve and, following this, a gate valve are to corrosion, this should be thick-walled. Then an in-
be provided, looking in the direction of flow, ternal wall corrosion protection can be dispensed
on the pressure side of the pump. with. With wet-well installation of pumps and
where later renovations are possible under diffi-
Similarly, with a dry-well installed pump, a cult conditions only, the employment of Material
gate valve should always be inserted in the No. 1.4571 is recommended.
suction line. Only in this way is it ensured that,
with the removal of a blockage or repair of a Pipeline fixtures should be arranged with short
pump or of a check valve, that pumping operation separation and be made particularly stable. With
does not have to be interrupted. longer pipelines they should be displaceable axi-
ally (heat expansion). The pipelines must, in addi-
The integration of the pump pressure mains tion, always be so anchored that they transfer no
must always be horizontally into the main forces to the pump.
pipeline (see Fig. 14), as otherwise the vertical
pipeline becomes clogged. For perfect assembly, i.e. for stress-free connec-
tion, for the balancing of length tolerances and to
avoid damage to seals, depending on the re-
quirements, loose or fixed detachable fittings or
compensators should be incorporated in the pipe-
lines. Detachable fittings can, however, also be
avoided through suitable arrangement of the
pipeline, so that pipe elbows with flanges can
take over their task.

All painting is to be carried out with the observa-


tion of Advisory Leaflet ATV-M 263 (Not available
in English).

Larger wall fairleads are, if absolute sealing is re-


quired (e.g. against groundwater), to be carried
out as wall flanged pipes with one or more wall
flanges. In principle these are to be built-in from
the start as, with later installation sealing problems
Fig. 14: Integration of the pump pressure
can occur.
main

A pressure pipe emergency connection should be


4.4 Gate Valves
provided for a transportable pump for the case of
pump room flooding or of total pump failure. The
With gate valves it is differentiated between mod-
emergency connection should be provided flood-
els with internal and external spindle threads (see
ing- and frost-free in at least DN 100 and as
Fig. 15).
short, vertically upwards, easily accessible con-
nection piece with gate valve and blind flange.

June 2000 21
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

Internal spindle threads External spindle threads

Fig. 15: Tapered gate valves with respectively internal ad external spindle threads

Preferred is the model with external spindle Spindle: Stainless steel Mat. No. 1.4571
threads as, through removal of the spindle nut and
the spindle thread from the area of the wastewater, Spindle nut: Zinc-free cast Mat. No. 2.1060
heavy wear is avoided and the spindle is easy to bronze
grease. Nevertheless the greater installation height
is to be noted. Ductile cast iron (DCI) is to be pre- Seating ring: Zinc-free cast Mat. No. 2.1060
ferred to grey cast iron (GCI) as casing material bronze
due to the essentially greater security against frac-
ture. Due to their design tapered and parallel slide gate
valves are especially suited for a controlled closure
Attention is to be paid, with gate valves with me- and opening (see EN 752-6, Section 9.3)
chanical drive, that the maximum possible actuat-
ing power cannot damage the gate valve. Clack valves are not suited for wastewater as tex-
tiles can wrap around spindle and swing valve and
To avoid corrosion on components of the gate can prevent the closure procedure.
valve the following materials are recommended for
use in wastewater:

22 June 2000
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

4.4.1 Gate Valves with Elastomer - spindle and spindle nut are located outside the
Coated Obturators wastewater stream even with non-rising
spindles,
These gate valves have a straight valve opening - the parallel slide gate valve can also be
without valve pocket and an elastic seal (see supplied as throttle valve,
Fig. 16). - cutting effect with solid matter in the
wastewater,
They are particularly suitable as gate valve every- - cost efficient.
where where they are almost exclusively open.

Deposits which have settled and hardened in the


valve pocket with tapered gate valves (applies only
with horizontal mounting) are thus avoided. Gate
valves with elastomer coated obturators, however,
are not suitable as throttles.

Fig. 16: Gate valves with elastomer coated


obturators

The dimensions of the gate valve with elastomer


coated obturator, depending on the nominal pres-
sure, correspond with the tapered gate valves. Ma-
terials for spindle and spindle nut here also should Fig. 17: Parallel slide gate valve
be the above given.

4.4.3 Tapered Gate valves


4.4.2 Parallel Slide Gate Valves
The tapered gate valve (see Fig. 15) is very robust
Parallel slide gate valves (see Fig. 17) are charac- and has proved itself in rough wastewater opera-
terised by the following advantages: tion. The exception here is, however, the gate
- very short construction length, valve with two-part (elastic) wedge with which the
- all installation positions are permitted, slider can become clogged with textiles.
- easy adjustment of the parallel slide seal,
Gate valves are standardised up to DN 600 in
DIN 3352, Parts 1 – 8.

June 2000 23
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

4.5 Non-return Valves bility of assessing the output of the pump. With
small nominal widths (< 150 mm) with low static
The non-return valve, when fully opened, may not head of water a backwashing can also be intro-
hinder the passage of solid matter. For this the duced by raising the flap by means of the lever.
check valve with a casing made of grey cast iron or Where a check valve fails due to too small a de-
ductile cast iron is particularly suitable (see Fig. gree of opening as a result of small flow rates, a
18). The later is to be preferred. It should be fitted ball check valve should be employed.
with lever and weight. With this it offers the possi-

Fig. 18: Check valve

To avoid pumping into the bypass through the


4.6 Pump Air Bleeding bleed line and its blocking, that will certainly
occur within the shortest time, the line within
Through conveyance of the centrifugal pump up to the machinery room must have a shut-off de-
the inlet side breakdown of the pumping flow or vice, which automatically closes with the start-
through leaking glands a dry-well installed cen- up of the pump and, with the shutdown of the
trifugal pump empties itself into the inlet chamber pump, opens with a time delay (time until the
after shutting down. Should the return valve be lo- impeller of the pump has stopped turning). So-
cated immediately or just slightly above the pump lenoid or pinch valves are suitable as shut-off
pressure connection piece the pump casing re- devices.
mains filled with air.
Where a return valve is located so high that the air
As centrifugal pumps in such a state cannot nor- from the pump can be forced into the pressure
mally pump they must be bled of air beforehand. main through the rising water level no bleed line is
For this the bleed line with horizontally mounted necessary. With wet-well installed submersible mo-
pumps must run from the highest point of the pump tor-driven pumps this is often the case.
casing or, with vertically mounted pumps, as short
as possible in front of the return valve.
4.7 Admission Gate Valves
The bleed line should end in the inlet chamber.
With this it is to be led so high in the pump room For the following reasons it is necessary to sepa-
that even with maximum water level in the inlet rate the inlet chamber of a pumping station from
chamber a perfect bleeding of the air is possible the inflow:
(see Annex 1).

24 June 2000
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

- for cleaning tasks in the inlet chamber or for cerns, DIN 1988 as well as the DVGW [German
the removal of bulky items and solid matter Technical and Scientific Association for Gas
from the inlet chamber, and Water] Standard W 345 must also be ob-
- for visual checks in the inlet chamber as well served.
as examination of the level switch and other
measuring equipment in the inlet chamber as
well as measuring runs for the determination of 4.9 Washdown Facilities
the pump conveyance flow,
- to dry out the inlet chamber for necessary A supply of water should be provided in order to be
maintenance tasks. able to clean the pump room of a pumping station
with dry-well installed pumps.
Therefore, from the very beginning, an admis-
sion gate valve should be planned with the To clean the inlet chamber an output of from 4 to
construction of a wastewater pumping station. 6 m3/h is required. A fire hydrant is ideal as water
With a small wastewater pumping station manual source to which a DN 25 hose with D-spout in ac-
operation as far as possible using an above cordance with DIN 14365 can be connected.
ground column should be sufficient. With a larger
works the gate valve should have an electric Due to the danger of corrosion the washdown
actuator, explosion protected in the Class E Ex dII pipeline in the inlet chamber should be made from
BT3. The most suitable gate valve is one without PE Hard plastic in accordance with DIN 19533 or
casing with external threaded spindle, which can stainless steel Material No. 1.4571, PN 10.
be installed in a sewer manhole. Due to water-
tightness it is to be so installed in the manhole Attachment of the pipeline should take place also
shaft that the slider plate is pressed against the using plastic, or better, stainless steel (Material No.
frame by the water, i.e. from the inflow side. 1.4571 or equivalent) clips. The bolts/screws used
for this must also be made implicitly from stainless
Threaded spindle, rods as well as all bolts and all steel of the same quality.
anchor bolts, should be manufactured from Mate-
rial No. 1.4571 or equivalent. The seals and guides The washdown pipeline in the inlet chamber
should be made from a zinc-free bronze, for ex- may be connected with a potable water pipeline
ample Material No. Nr. 2.1060. in accordance with DIN 1988, Part 4, only indi-
rectly via a water tank and a downstream
booster system. Only a pipe disconnector ap-
4.8 Water Supply Facilities proved by the DVGW which automatically and visi-
bly establishes a 20 mm long break in the pipe as
In accordance with VBG 54 [Regulations of the soon as the water pressure falls below a certain
Trade Association] (UVV 25) [Accident Preven- safety value may also be employed in short-term
tion Ordinance] washing facilities with running operation. DIN 1988, Part 5, gives further informa-
water must be available in pumping stations. tion.
Further details are to be found in the Implementa-
tion Instructions to the VBG 54 (ZH 1/177). In addi- With several plants of the same type a transport-
tion, water for cleaning purposes in the machinery able washdown facility, if required equipped with
room and inlet chamber is, in particular required water tank, can also be employed.
(see also Section 4.9).

With the installation of water supply facilities 4.10 Machinery room Drainage
potable and non-potable water connections
must be differentiated. For the discharge of leaking water and/or
washdown water and for the draining of pumps
If a potable water connection is intended then, a pump well is to be provided at the deepest
in addition to the respective regulations of the point of the machinery room and a light sub-
Federal German States and water supply con- mersible motor-driven pump with the greatest pos-

June 2000 25
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

sible free impeller passage and automatic level equipped in accordance with VBG 54 with ef-
switch is to be so connected to a fixed pipe that, fective ventilation (see Section 4.11).
with blockage, it can be removed easily and
cleaned at any time by hand. The pipeline must For the inlet chamber of small wastewater pumping
be so laid that a siphoning over to the machin- stations a stationary or transportable mechanical
ery room is prevented, i.e. as a rule using a aerator is, as a rule, sufficient. The displaced air
gooseneck via the highest possible ordinate of the must be able to flow via a sufficiently dimensioned
backwater of the wastewater inflow. free cross-section. With larger pumping stations
both a mechanical aerator as well as an air extrac-
The drainage pump should have a return valve tor should be installed.
immediately behind the pressure hose. The instal-
lation of a gate valve in the fixed pipeline is useful. Fundamentally with ventilation plants attention is to
be paid that no short circuits form between inflow
The size of the pump well depends on the pump and outflow air areas.
selected. It should not undercut the dimensions
500 x 500 mm and a depth of 300 mm. Both the external inflow as well as the outflow
openings are to be so arranged that the
neighbourhood is neither hazarded nor incon-
4.11 Ventilation Facilities for Machinery venienced by exiting gases. With pumping sta-
Rooms tions with superstructure they should be as high as
possible, whereby the outlet of the outgoing air
In accordance with VBG 54 (UVV 25) rooms of channel should be located above the ridge of the
wastewater treatment systems as well as roof (as far as available), that is outside a possible
stormwater tanks and pump pits (inlet cham- lee of the wind.
bers) must be equipped with an effective venti-
lation. Details on the type of ventilation are to be For practical purposes the ventilators should be
found in the Implementation Instruction of the permanently installed in separate above-ground
VBG 54. rooms. These rooms are, as is also the inlet
chamber, to be considered as explosion endan-
With an above-ground structure usually the win- gered and therefore must receive a natural diago-
dows and, additionally, shaft ventilation suffices for nal ventilation.
small machinery rooms. All air inlet and outlet
openings to the outside are to be provided with All horizontal air channels are to be laid with a
protective screens for birds and weather, whereby slight gradient so that any condensed water that
the protective screen for weather must be seated forms can run off to the ventilator or inlet chamber
outside of the protective screen for birds. Further respectively. Every ventilator itself is to be pro-
information is contained in VDI [Association of vided with an outlet pipe at the lowest point of its
German Engineers] Standard 3803. casing, which exits into the ventilation channel to
the inlet chamber. Thus it is avoided that water
If a machinery room lies well below ground level which, under certain circumstances, can even
then a five times the hourly forced air exchange freeze, can collect in the ventilator and lead to its
should be sought. This is most usefully achieved destruction.
using an exhaust fan and appropriate air resupply
openings. All channel sections and naturally also the
connection to the ventilator must be joined,
sealed, with each other. Firms involved in as-
4.12 Ventilation Facilities for Inlet sembly are to be informed urgently on this point.
Chambers
Air distribution must be so designed that the
Enclosed rooms of wastewater discharge facili- air can exit both ca. 1 m above the floor of the
ties and pump wells (inlet chambers) must be empty inlet chamber and also above the maxi-
mum water level of the inlet chamber.

26 June 2000
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

Ventilators and air channels are to be manufac-


tured from corrosion resistant material. 5 Electrical
Engineering
4.13 Lifting Gear
(for this see also Annex 2)
Crane systems are required for the installation and
removal of machinery. With smaller pumping sta- 5.1 External and Structural Prerequi-
tions without superstructure it is to be examined sites
whether mobile lifting gear can be employed, oth-
erwise a slewing pillar crane should be provided. In Electro-technical installations, in particular
smaller pumping stations with superstructure the switchboard plant, must be housed dry, free of
lifting device can be designed as single-beam dust and pollutants.
crane trolley with suspended pulley block. With
this, the crane girder is to be so directed that the If electro-technical devices are installed as switch
heaviest plant component can be placed directly boxes in the open, attention must be additionally
on to the assembly point. With larger pumping sta- paid to their maintenance-friendly accessibility as
tions a double-beam travelling crane with crane well as to protection against damage through road
trolley should be installed in the machinery room. traffic or vandalism. Switchboard plant and trans-
With this a picking up and setting down of a load is formers may not be installed in areas endangered
possible in the complete area of the room. While by flooding.
longitudinal and transverse movement is entirely
possible by hand an electrical drive for lifting is a Rooms with electro-technical installations are
particular advantage when pumps are installed to be aerated and ventilated as well as heated
very deep. To be noted is, that for crane sys- so that their function remains assured.
tems > 1 t which are permanently installed, a
crane maintenance platform, which can be in- Electro-technical plant may be accessible for a
stalled transportable or fixed, is essential for very limited circle of trained or specially instructed
maintenance, repair and the legally prescribed technical personnel only. The electrical opera-
tests. tional rooms and also the switching plant, so
far as it is not installed in electrical operational
The height and weight of the machine parts includ- rooms, must be kept under lock and key.
ing securing and overall height of the lifting gear,
the crane trolley and the crane carrier are to be All doors to electrical operational rooms must be
checked for the dimensioning of the crane system equipped with a panic lock (escape lock), which
and clear height of the superstructure. Here can be opened from inside, even when locked,
thought is to be given to possible expansion of the without aids.
machine plant.
Information for the design and dimensioning of
Statics must take into account all working and con- electrical operational rooms can be found in the
stant loads. VDE Regulations.

Before first commissioning, following building Allowance should be made for the protection of
modifications and with lifting gear for loads structures from oil, acids, overpressure as well as
greater than 1 t, the complete crane system for fire protection.
must be tested once a year by a specialist.
Floor coverings must be insulated and secure
against electrical breakdown for the corre-
sponding operational voltages. The coverings
may not lead to a build-up of static electricity.

June 2000 27
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

5.2 Energy Supply considerable influence on the room programme,


the costs and the design of the pumping station.
The energy supply as a rule is from the low voltage
network (400/230 V, 50 Hz) of the responsible Every ESC has available application forms for the
ESC (= energy supply company). It can, however, establishment of the connected load, in which the
be also required from the medium high voltage required data such as the number and capacity of
network 20, 10 or 6 kV, in exceptional cases 30 kV the individual consumers is entered.
and more. If a particularly high operational or sup-
ply security respectively is necessary, one should
provide two independent feeders, laid on two sepa- 5.2.1 Energy Supply with a Voltage up to
rate cable routes and secured against simultane- 1000 V (Low Voltage)
ous connection (considerable additional costs!).
Depending on local conditions there is a maximum
For the securing of the electrical energy supply of possible connected load (standard value ca. 10 to
a wastewater pumping station the connected load 50 kVA) for the low voltage supply (LV supply)
must be determined and contact made with the re- which depends on the respective ESC. Already for
sponsible ESC as early as possible. cost reasons an attempt should be made, as far as
possible, to manage with a LV supply (in general
The clarification of the supply conditions must 400/230 V AC), without limiting oneself operation-
take place with the responsible ESC immedi- ally.
ately after establishment of the essential con-
sumers, that is at a very stage, as they have a

28 June 2000
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

Fig. 19: Basic forms for ready-built stations

any case, to be installed in locked operating


5.2.2 Energy Supply with a Voltage over rooms. For medium high voltage systems one or
1000 V (Medium High Voltage) more transformers are required. Ready-made as-
sembled small switchboard plants (compact plants)
If the supply conditions do not allow a low voltage are available for smaller transformer capacities
supply a medium high voltage supply is necessary. (see Fig. 19).
Medium high voltage switchboard plants are, in

June 2000 29
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

The switchboard plants for voltage levels above All switching plant is to be installed safe from
1000 V should, for the protection of personnel, be flooding.
employed only as plants secured against
accidental arcing in accordance with Pehla
Directive No. 2, Criterion 1 to 6, with firmly installed 5.3.1 Main Drives
switchgear or on a rail mounted platform
(retractable). As far as possible, three phase squirrel-cage
motors with small current at make should be
In order that the switchgear still remains operable provided as drive motors for the wastewater
even with failure of the mains and the appropriate pumps (see Section 4.2.1).
information is retained, it is recommended that
both the drive of the switchgear and the control Winding sensing devices can be planned to protect
and reporting systems are designed independent the motor against overload. For drives with
of the mains supply (battery). operationally conditioned long down-times, and
with high air humidity, a down-time heater can be
practical.
5.2.3 Measurement of Consumption
The IP 54 system of protection is to be preferred.
As a rule this is provided and installed by the ESC.
The build-up of the metering facility depends on Every drive has a control selection switch with the
the voltage levels used and thus has an influence positions MANUAL – OFF – AUTOMATIC.
on the room programme. It is to be clarified with
the ESC where the electricity consumption meter is The switching ON and OFF of the pumps is
to be installed. dependent on water level, in special cases the
delivery flow can be over or underlaid. Operating
conditions must be recognisable on the electrical
5.3 Switchboard Plant, Actuators and control panel. Pump exchange switch, current
Appliances meter and operating hours counter should be
integrated. In addition each drive has one (or
Low voltage switchboard plants are normally more) EMERGENCY OFF switches in situ, which
produced in the shape of standardised sheet steel engage directly in the control system.
cabinet systems which are secure against
accidental arcing to increase the protection of Faults always lead to the immediate shutdown of
personnel. the plant. With this the control system, goes into
locked status, an automatic restart following a fault
As a rule a modular method, otherwise an insertion may not occur.
method, is employed for the power items.
Modification of the number of pump revolutions is
To control and monitor the machines motor control possible through pole changing motors (2 or 3
cards (electronic) can be used for the realisation of rpm) or using frequency converter drives (infinitely
the basic circuitry and basic locking mechanism. variable, simultaneous starter in the lower rpm
range).
Higher voltage switches are realised through the
employment of stored-programmable control Frequency converter drives create heat and
systems (SPS). noise which possibly has respectively to be
dissipated or restrained. In addition, converters
Unavoidable blind current components should be create harmonic waves in the power supply. The
compensated using fixed or regulatable blind power supply reactions of these harmonic waves
current compensation. For later expansion a space must be compensated.
and capacity reserve of from 15 – 20 % should be
planned.

30 June 2000
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

Attention is to be paid that the adjustment of the - Plug connections for three phase 400 V to
rpm modifies all characteristic curves of the 63 A, 230 V/16 A AC and extra-low voltage
pumps. 25 V/10 A,
- Water heaters for sanitary objects,
There are the following possibilities for the - Connections for measuring technology, fused
automatic operation of the pumps: outlets 230 V,
- Reserve outlets; for each voltage level 1 to 3
- Pumping control
reserve outlets.
Conveyance of the pump is monitored.
- Protection against dry running
It is prevented that the pump lowers the water
level in the inlet chamber below a permitted
5.3.4 Operating and Measuring System
level and thus runs dry.
Recording of operating and fault messages:
- Simultaneous start
Simultaneous start of large consumers is
Operating messages should be displayed
prevented to avoid expensive peak loads.
individually optically, fault messages shown
- Reserve pump with malfunction
individually optically and collectively acoustically.
With malfunction of the service pump the
The fault messages can, if required, be combined
reserve pump takes over operation
together as a group fault message.
automatically.
- Conveyed quantity- or pressure control
A test key for all illuminated displays is
- Parallel operation of several pumps
recommended.
- Reclosure preventing device
The immediate reclosure following switching off
The remote transmission of operating and fault
for operational reasons is prevented depending
messages as well as status signals can, for
on time in order to avoid the inadmissible
example take place via a cable or leased lines.
heating of electrical components and/or heavy
start.
Remote transmission is, however, only sensible if
- Monitoring of oil and cooling water
there are possibilities of acceptance or of calling
- Alternating closure
up this information in rotation as well as for its
With every new closure impulse another drive
operational processing.
is switched on in preselected sequence.

A telephone connection is necessary,


5.3.2 Ancillary Drives
alternatively paging or service radio. In any
case personnel working in the pumping station
Ancillary drives are, inter alia:
must be available or must be capable of
- Actuators for fittings, making contact with the control centre.
- Inlet chamber ventilators, if required pump
room ventilators,
- Drainage pumps for pump rooms, 5.4 Emergency Power Supply
- Booster pumps for wash down facilities,
- Grease or oil pumps for bearing lubrication, Depending on the security of the energy supply,
- Lifting gear, possibilities of retaining the wastewater in cases of
- Compressors. failure and the operational significance of the
pumping station in the drainage system, a mobile
or a stationary, automated emergency power
5.3.3 Ancillary Facilities equipment is required.
- Mobile plant
These cover:
This requires a signal of the fault at the central
- Electrical heating for frost protection, point, a possibility that the plant can be trans-
- Lighting plant, additional emergency lighting, ported in and connected to the switchboard
- Battery systems, plant rapidly and without complications, where-

June 2000 31
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

whereby, at the same time, the separation from Zones 0, 1 and 2 are differentiated according to
the power supply and locking must take place. the timely and local probability of the presence of
- Automatic plant dangerous atmospheres capable of explosion.
Automatic emergency power supply systems
switch in immediately following voltage Valid as “explosion endangered rooms” are all
breakdown and, with a time delay, switch off rooms or areas in which, according to local or
following reestablishment of the power supply. operational conditions, atmospheres capable of
For rotational maintenance their must be a explosion can collect. In the area of the pumping
possibility of running the emergency power station they are, in general, to be assigned to Zone
system under load over several hours. 1, so that the Explosive Ordinance is to be
- Special cases applied.
The energy supply of the complete works or
parts of this can take place with the aid of a
stationary, automatic generator (see Section 5.5.2 Protection against Accidental
4.2.2). Contact

In order to protect personnel working in a pumping


5.5 Types of Protection and station from the results of an electrical accident
Regulations such as
- three-phase power accident,
All equipment and installations must
- arcing accident or
correspond with the relevant VDE and VBG
- three-phase power accident with an intrinsically
regulations as well as the technical connection
non-hazardous current,
conditions (TAB) of the responsible ESC.
the following protection against accidental contact
An earthing of the complete plant, incl. the is necessary:
conductive plant components which do not
- protection with direct contact,
belong to the operating power circuit, in
- protection against direct contact,
accordance with the VDE is to be carried out
- partial protection against accidental contact,
with the aid of the foundation earth planned by
- protection with indirect contact.
the customer and, if required, additional
earthing (see Section 3.4.7).
Protective measures with indirect contact are
fundamentally required with all electrical plant
Equipotential bonding between all conductive
or equipment (see Section 3.4.7).
components must be carried out whereby
protection against lightning strike is included
Protective measures without earth conductor:
in the bonding.
- double insulation,
Lightning protection in accordance with ABB is - protective low voltage,
required for superstructures (see Section 3.4.8). - fuse.

Protective measures with earth conductor:


5.5.1 Explosion Protection
- protective earth,
With the pumping station, as a rule, the inlet - earthing,
chamber, inlet shaft and, possibly, the ventilator - earthed conductor system,
room are explosion endangered areas. - fault-voltage [German = FU] protective circuit,
- residual current [German = FI] operated
The operating equipment therein must be so device.
installed and the plant so mounted and
operated that no explosion can be caused.

32 June 2000
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

6.3 Flow Measuring Systems


6 Measurement
Engineering Permanently installed flow measuring systems are
to be employed when a continuous measuring of
the delivery flow is necessary for an accurate
The external prerequisites are practically identical determination of the delivery efficiency of the
with those of electrical engineering. The pumping station. The manufacturer-specific
transmitters must, however, as a rule be install in installation conditions (e.g. calming stretches) are
situ. Therefore, with these devices there is the to be observed.
involvement of large expense for protection against
moisture, cold, dust, corrosion through pollutants, Magnetic-inductive flow measurement (MID)
mechanical damage as well as possibly for The measuring method functions without contact,
explosion protection. therefore is reliable and easily maintained. The
measuring system in addition is the only one
With the employment of electronic components capable of calibration.
conditions are to be created which allow the
electrical equipping of various type and design to
exist alongside each other.
Ultrasonic flow measurement
Flow measurements with the aid of the Doppler
6.1 Level Measuring Systems effect are available. These systems are, however,
significantly less accurate than the MID and not
Level measuring systems are required for the capable of calibration.
determination of the respective water level on the
inlet side and, in special cases, also on the outlet Flow monitoring
side and for the automatic control of the pumping In the area of wastewater flow monitoring is
plant. possible using the signals of the MID or from the
position of the flap of the non-return valve.
The following measuring methods are employed:
- electrical pressure sensor,
- depth sounder. 6.4 Transmission of Measured Values

The electrical transmission of the measured values


takes place via electronic measuring transducers
6.2 Delivery Pressure Measuring
which convert the measured value into a
Systems
proportionally formed direct current of 0...20 mA or
4...20 mA and/or of 0...10 V.
Delivery pressure measuring systems are required
for the determination of the pressure head at the
pump and the pressure in the pressure pipeline.

Electric pressure sensors, which are flanged directly 7 Wastewater Pressure


to the pressure pipeline, are suitable for suction and
pressure measurement. A further possibility lies in Pipelines
the employment of spring-tube manometers in
overpressure secure design in accordance with
DIN 16005 with a damping device and reinforced
7.1 Pressure Pipelines
dial train as well as pure water seal.
Pressure pipelines serve for the transport of the
wastewater from the pumping station to the desti-
nation. Pump and pressure pipeline are to be dealt
with as hydraulic unit. The relationship is given, on

June 2000 33
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

one hand, by the pump characteristic curve (throt- trained air or the gas cushions resulting from the
tle curve) and the pipeline characteristic curve on formation of gas. Gas cushions can lead to higher
the other (see Section 4.1.1). energy losses as a result of a narrowing of the flow
cross-section.
The pressure pipeline must be able to accept
the internal and external pressure on the If, in the case of repair with pumps at standstill, the
system continuously and without damage. To pipeline does not empty itself due to geodetic
this belong the pressure transient processes (e.g. gradient, emptying pipelines with connection to the
water hammer), if no other safety measures are wastewater and combined wastewater sewer
taken. system or for suction vehicles are to be planned for
suitable low points.

7.2 Pipeline Routes Monitoring ports, for example for pipe inspection
using cameras, venting and ventilation as well as
Basically the pressure pipeline should represent emptying fittings, are, from a practical point, to be
the shortest possible connection between the accommodated in shafts which should be
pumping station and the discharge point. equipped with a pump well at the bottom.

The pipeline should as far as possible be laid


straight constant with the run of the vertical 7.3 Dimensioning
position in order to keep the hydraulic losses low
through small changes of direction. If the ground The required pipe diameter is determined based
permits the pipeline should be designed with a on the delivery flow determined through the
steady incline in order to transport the air also hydraulic calculation (see Sections 2.6 and 2.7).
conveyed to the end of the pipeline.
The pressure rating of the pipeline to be used is
Digested matter in the wastewater can lead to the determined according to the static and dynamic
formation of H2S and thus to an endangering of the effective internal pressure. Both the nominal width
pipe inner walls. In particular the employment of (DN) of the pipes and the pressure rating (PN)
cement-bonded materials (concrete pipes, cement- must correspond with DIN 2401 and DIN 2402
fibre and cement-mortar lining) is problematic here respectively.
(see Advisory Leaflet ATV-M 168).
The minimum and maximum speeds of the delivery
Pipelines must be laid at depths safe from frost flow are to be observed. Furthermore the
or be appropriately protected. The required statements in Section 2.7 apply.
crown covering in Germany lies between 0.8 m
and 1.5 m. As the delivery flow conditioned by the wastewater
yield is subjected to considerable variations it can
For static reasons (see ATV-A 127E) a greater be practical, if required, to lay instead of one
minimum covering can be necessary in view of pressure pipeline a second (or more), which can,
extreme traffic loading. Further security measures at the same time, serve as reserve pipeline. The
in the form of protective pipes or concrete cladding pipe material is determined through the hydraulic,
can be considered for use. mechanical and chemical stresses which can have
an effect both internal and external.
At significant high points pressure mains must
equipped with venting and ventilation fittings. Pipe wall thickness is dependent on the required
pressure rating, the external loads and the type of
Venting is necessary in order that the pipeline can material.
be completely emptied and a return flow due to si-
phoning effect is prevented. Ventilation is required The hydrostatic pressure is determined from the
for the controlled filling of the pipeline. With filled geodetic height difference. The dynamic loading
pipelines it is necessary to be able to remove en- results from the pressure loss and the unsteady

34 June 2000
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

pressure changes (pressure surges) combined through minimum cover and/or insulation, with
through the individual pipe losses. varying or even continuous high temperatures of
the pumped medium, an additional stress of the
The overall dynamic pressure loss is made up from pipeline can occur. The pipe material here is to be
the pressure loss through pipe friction and the selected with particular care.
individual losses due to mountings, fittings such
as, for example, elbows cross-section chambers Abrasion occurs with pressure mains if increased
and branches as well as through losses at inlets mineral substances occur in the wastewater.
and outlets. For details see The ATV Handbook Effects are to be expected particularly in the area
„Bau und Betrieb der Kanalisation“ [“Construction of changes of direction and throttle points. It can
and operation of sewer systems]”. be necessary to counter these through increasing
wall thickness, for example through the selection of
a higher nominal pressure rating, in the critical
7.4 Stresses area.

Pressure mains are subject to different stresses.


They are caused by: 7.5 Pipe Materials
- transport and storage,
The medium to be transported in wastewater
- installation,
pressure mains, as opposed to drinking water,
- external forces,
cannot be described precisely. Wastewater can
- internal forces,
contain many putrefactive substances so that fresh
- temperature,
and older wastewater in their behaviour with
- abrasion,
regard to some materials is different. Therefore,
- corrosion.
the selection of material is to be made taking into
account local conditions. If required, appropriate
With the stresses through transport and storage,
pre-treatment and pipe protective measures are to
installation as well as through external forces a
be planned.
wastewater pressure main does not differ from
drinking water pipelines. Important information can
As materials there are available:
be found in EN 1610, DIN 4124 and DIN 19630.
- metallic materials,
With the internal forces attention is drawn - cement bonded materials,
particularly to stresses due to pressure surges. - ceramic materials and
Pressure surges result following unsteady flow - plastic.
processes with the switching on and off of pumps,
changes to the pump rpm or adjustment of gate
valves and failure of pump drives. Physical bases 7.6 Corrosion and Corrosion Protection
and calculation procedures for pressure surges are
contained in DVGW Advisory Leaflet W 303. Significant wastewater-specific attacks with
wastewater pressure mains are, above all to be
With wastewater pressure mains the pressure expected on the inner wall. With this the
(water hammer) problem is reinforced in that the composition of the wastewater and its time-
wastewater can form gases which combine in the dependent possible change are of significance as
high points into gas cushions. Pressure surges well as the possible aggressiveness with partial
which occur in the presence of gas cushions are (with gas formation in the crown areas) or
not predictable. Therefore the high points of complete filling of the pipeline.
wastewater pressure mains are to be inspected by
rotation, even during operation, and if necessary Here it should be noted that wastewater pressure
vented. mains made from certain materials also have
components such as fittings, seals and mountings
With the exception of external temperature made from other materials.
stresses against which a pipeline is to be protected

June 2000 35
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

Pipe materials susceptible to corrosion must lation, possibly regulation/control, displays) under
be protected through internal and external the local installed conditions.
insulation. Thus steel pipes receive externally a
polyethylene jacket or coating with polyurethane In detail the following are recommended as
tar and, internally, an epoxy-resin or cement controls:
mortar lining. With pressure pipes made from
- tension-free assembly,
ductile cast irons external spray galvanisation,
- adjustment of end bearings and torque,
bitumen paint or epoxy-resin coating and internally
- direction of pump rotation,
cement mortar lining are used. Reinforced
- pump sequential switching,
concrete and fibre-cement pipes in many cases
- setting of rpm,
receive an additional coating on a bitumen basis or
- venting of the pump casing,
of epoxy-resin (see DIN 4030), for example with
- sealing,
the danger of sulphide formation in the wastewater
- noises,
and with high sulphate content.
- vibrations,
- temperatures,
8 Commissioning - pressure surges,
- non-return valve clapper knock,
- measurement and control technology,
The documentation of all plant components - remote monitoring and control,
must be available for commissioning (see ATV- - emergency energy supply.
A 148E).
The pumps should be tested under full load for at
least two hours. If there is not enough water
8.1 Pumping Station available for a test run it has proved advantageous
if the existing water can be pumped via a diversion
Acceptance with functional testing and trial in a circle.
runs of the individual component parts must
precede commissioning of the pumping For the commissioning and later operation it is
station. Those responsible for planning and necessary that the operating personnel receive
construction work, from the undertaking and, for precise knowledge of the plant engineering
reasons of warranty, also representatives of the already with assembly and that they have
manufacturer and/or supply companies are to take already received instruction.
part in this.
The pumping station can be taken into operation
Before commissioning the electrical plant all after the functional testing.
short circuit and overcurrent protective
systems are to be checked for correct setting With this the requirements of the pressure main
and are to be secure. All switching and control commissioning are to be observed.
procedures are to be carried out first without
loading (cold testing). Only then can the facility be In the run-in phase (ca. 4 weeks) it is
released for operation. recommended that the complete operating cycle
has increased monitoring as, from experience, an
In general the pumps have been subjected to a increased number of faults occur on the plant
test bench trial at the manufacturer’s works. This components during this period.
factory acceptance serves for the examination of
whether the guaranteed delivery data are
achieved. In contrast to that the test run in the 8.2 Pressure Main
pumping station is to provide information on its
mechanical and hydraulic behaviour, freedom from An internal pressure test in accordance with
vibration, heating of bearings and correct function- DIN 4279 is to be undertaken before commis-
ing of ancillary facilities (lubrication, cooling, venti- sioning. For commissioning the ventilation fittings

36 June 2000
ATV-DVWK-A 134E

to be operated manually are to be opened and 9.1 General Terms and Conditions for
controlled during the filling procedure. Engineering Services, (VOB)

With the connection of the pressure main to the Part C, General Technical Regulations for
existing network with different pressure potentials, Engineering Services:
it should be noted that pressure surges result
through too rapid opening or closing of the gate DIN 18 017 Lüftung von Bädern und Spül-
valves, which can lead to damage to the pressure Part 1 aborten ohne Außenfenster durch
main. Once a flow is no longer detectable the gate Schächte und Kanäle, ohne
valve can be opened very slowly. Closure is Motorkraft; Einzelschachtanlagen
carried out analogously. [Ventilation of baths and flush
toilets without outer widows
Immediately after commissioning of a new pres- through shafts and channels,
sure main the first pressure pipe characteristic without motor drive, single shaft
curve should be adopted. It serves for the estab- facilities]
lishment of a practical and economic dimensioning DIN 18 300 Erdarbeiten [Excavation works]
and for the evaluation of the delivery pumps in this DIN 18 303 Verbauarbeiten [Revetting]
pressure main. DIN 18 304 Rammarbeiten [Pile driving]
DIN 18 305 Wasserhaltungsarbeiten
[Dewatering works]
DIN 18 306 Entwässerungskanalarbeiten

9 Information on Stan- DIN 18 331


[Drainage sewer works]
Beton und Stahlbetonarbeiten
dard Specifications, [Concrete and reinforced concrete
works]
Directives, Standards, DIN 18 335 Stahlbauarbeiten [Steel
construction works]
Advisory Leaflets (Se- DIN 18 336 Abdichtung gegen drückendes
lection) Wasser [Sealing against water
under pressure]
DIN 18 363 Anstricharbeiten [Painting works]
The documents listed below have been mentioned DIN 18 364 Korrosionsschutzarbeiten an Stahl-
in this Standard and must be taken into account in und Aluminiumbauten [Corrosion
the respectively valid version inter alia with the protection works on steel and
design and construction of a wastewater pumping aluminium structures]
station. [Translators note: Where there is a known DIN 18 379 Lüftungstechnische Anlagen
official translation the title is given in English only. [Ventilation plants]
Otherwise a courtesy translation is given in square DIN 18 381 Gas-, Wasser- und
brackets after the German title.] Abwasserinstallationsarbeiten
innerhalb von Gebäuden [Gas,
water and wastewater installation
works within buildings]
DIN 18 382 Elektrische Kabel- und
Leitungsarbeiten in Gebäuden
[Electrical cable and line works
inside buildings]

9.2 Standard Specifications

DIN 4045 Wastewater engineering -


Vocabulary

June 2000 37
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EN 752 Drainage systems outside buil- DIN 2614 Cement mortar linings for ductile
Parts 1-7 dings iron and steel pipes and fittings;
EN 1671 Pressure sewerage systems application requirements and
outside buildings testing
DIN 3352 Gate valves [Available in English
9.2.1 Building Standards Parts 1-8 Parts 1-4 only]
DIN 4032 Concrete pipes and fittings
DIN 1045 Structural use of concrete; design DIN 4035 Stahlbetonrohre und zugehörige
and construction Formstücke aus Stahlbeton
DIN 1055 Design loads for buildings [Reinforced concrete pipes and
Parts 1- 6 associated fittings made from
DIN 1084 Control (Quality control) of reinforced concrete]
Parts 1-3 concrete structures and reinforced DIN 4279 Testing of pressure pipelines for
concrete structures Parts 1-10 water by internal pressure [Parts
DIN 1164 Portland-, Eisenportland-, Hoch- 1,7,8 not available in English]
Parts 1,2,8, ofen- und Trasszement; Begriffe, DIN 8061 Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride
Bestandteile, Anforderungen, pipes (PVC-U); general quality
Lieferung [Portland, iron Portland, requirements and testing
blast furnace slag and trass DIN 8062 Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride
cement; Terms, requirements, pipes (PVC-U, PVC-HI);
delivery] dimensions
DIN 1986 Site drainage systems DIN 8063 Pipe joints and fittings for pipes
DIN 1988 Drinking water supply systems Parts 1-12 under pressure made of
DIN 2000 Zentrale Trinkwasserversorgung; unplasticised polyvinyl chloride
Leitsätze für Anforderungen an (PVC-U) [Parts 5,7,9,10 not
Trinkwasser, Planung, Bau und available in English]
Betrieb der Anlagen [Central DIN 8074 Polyethylene (PE) pipes –
drinking water supply; Guidelines dimensions
for requirements on drinking water, DIN 8075 Polyethylene (PE) pipes –
planning construction and dimensions – General quality
operation of plants] requirements and testing
DIN 2001 Private and individual drinking DIN 8077 Polypropylene (PP) pipes –
water supply; governing principles dimensions
DIN 4030 Assessment of water, soil and DIN 8078 Types 1, 2 and 3 Polypropylene
gases for their aggressiveness to (PP) pipes – General requirements
concrete and testing
DIN 4124 Building pits and trenches – slopes, DIN 14 365 Multi-purpose branch pipes for
working place widths, sheeting Parts 1-2 nominal pressure 16; dimensions
DIN 18 196 Soil classification for civil materials, construction, marking
engineering purposes DIN 19 532 Rohrleitungen aus weichmacher-
freiem Polyvinylchlorid (PVC hart,
9.2.2 Pipes and Fittings PVC-U) für die
Trinkwasserversorgung [Pipelines
DIN 1333 Zahlenangaben [Numerical data] made from unplasticised polyvinyl
DIN 2440 Steel tubes; medium-weight chloride [PVC-H, PVC-U for
suitable for screwing drinking water supply]
DIN 2448 Seamless steel pipes and tubes DIN 19 533 Pipelines of high density PE and
DIN 2458 Welded steel pipes and tubes low density PE for drinking water
DIN 2605 Steel butt-welded pipe fittings supply; pipes, pipe connections
Parts 1-2 and fittings for pipelines

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DIN 19 534 Rohre und Formstücke aus EN 1299 Vibration isolation of machinery –
weichmacherfreiem information fort he application of
Polyvinylchlorid (PVC-U) mit source isolation
Steckmuffe, für Abwasserkanäle EN 1610 Construction and testing of drains
und –leitungen [Pipelines and and sewers
fittings made from unplasticised
polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U) with 9.2.3 Mechanical Engineering
sleeves, for drains and sewers]
DIN 19 537 High density polyethylene (HDPE) DIN 1184 Pumping stations; Archimedean
pipes and fittings for drains and Part 4 screw pumps; Directives for
sewers; technical delivery planning
conditions DIN 1944 Acceptance tests on centrifugal
DIN 19630 Richtlinien für den Bau von pumps (VDI rules for centrifugal
Rohrleitungen [Directives for the pumps)
construction of pipelines] DIN 24 260 Kreiselpumpen und
DIN 19 800 Asbestos-cement pipes and fittings Part 1 Kreiselpumpenanlagen; Begriffe,
Part 1 for pressure pipelines; pipes, Formelzeichen, Einheiten
dimensions [Centrifugal pumps and centrifugal
DIN 19 850 Fibre-cement pipes and fittings for pump systems; Terms, symbols,
Parts 1-2 drains and sewers; Part 1: units]
dimensions of pipes, branches and DIN 24 293 Kreiselpumpen – Technische
bends; Part 2: Dimensions of joint Unterlagen – Begriffe,
assemblies Lieferumfang, Ausführung
DIN 30 675 External corrosion protection of [Centrifugal pumps – technical
Parts 1-2 buried pipes, corrosion protection documents, scope of delivery,
systems for steel and ductile iron design]
pipes DIN 45 635 Measurement of noise emitted by
EN 295 Vitrified clay pipes and fittings and Part 1 machinery
pipe joints for drains and sewers
EN 545 Ductile iron pipes, fittings,
accessories and their joints for
water pipelines; Requirements and
test methods
EN 639 Requirements for concrete 9.2.4 Measurement Technology
pressure pipes including joints and
fittings DIN 1319 Basic concepts in metrology
EN 640 Reinforced concrete pressure DIN 16005 Überdruckmessgeräte mit
pipes and distributed reinforce- elastischem Messglied für die allg.
ment concrete pressure pipes Anwendung [Overpressure
(non-cylinder type), including joints measurement equipment with
and fittings elastic measuring unit for general
EN 642 Prestressed concrete pressure applications]
pipes, cylinder and non-cylinder EN 837-1 Pressure gauges - Part 1: Bourdon
types, including joints, fittings and tube pressure gauges -
specific requirements for dimensions, metrology,
prestressing steel for pipes requirements and testing
EN 764 Pressure equipment; Terminology EN 837-3 Pressure gauges – Part 3:
and symbols relating to tempe- Diaphragm and capsule pressure
rature, pressure and volume gauges; dimensions, metrology,
EN 1032 Testing of mobile machinery in requirements and testing
order to determine the whole body
vibration emission value - General

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VDE 0410 VDE-Bestimmung für elektrische DIN EN 50 015 Elektrische Betriebsmittel für ex-
Messgeräte; plosionsgefährdete Bereiche;
Sicherheitsbestimmung für Ölkapselung [Electrical equipment
anzeigende und schreibende for explosion endangered areas;
Messgeräte und Zubehör [VDE Oil immersion]
regulations for electrical metering DIN EN 50 016 Elektrische Betriebsmittel für
equipment; safety regulations for explosionsgefährdete Bereiche;
indicating and recording measuring Überdruck-kapselung [Electrical
equipment and accessories] equipment for explosion
endangered areas; Pressurising]
9.2.5 Electrical Engineering DIN EN 50 017 Elektrische Betriebsmittel für
explosions-gefährdete Bereiche;
VDE 0100 Bestimmungen für das Errichten Sandkapselung [Electrical
von Starkstromanlagen mit equipment for explosion
Nennspannungen bis 1000 V endangered areas; Powder filling]
[Regulations for the erection of DIN EN 50 018 Elektrische Betriebsmittel für
high tension facilities with nominal explosionsgefährdete Bereiche;
voltages up to 1000 V Druckfeste Kapselung [Electrical
VDE 0105 Betrieb von Starkstromanlagen equipment for explosion
[Operation of high tension facilities] endangered areas; Flame-proof
as well as i.a.: Operation of power installations enclosure]
EN 50110 DIN EN 50 019 Elektrische Betriebsmittel für ex-
Part 1 plosionsgefährdete Bereiche;
VDE 0160 Ausrüstung von erhöhte Sicherheit [Electrical
Starkstromanlagen mit equipment for explosion
elektronischen Betriebsmitteln endangered
[Equipping of high tension facilities areas; Increased safety]
with electronic equipment] DIN EN 50 020 Elektrische Betriebsmittel für ex-
as well as i.a.: Adjustable speed electrical power plosionsgefährdete Bereiche;
EN 61 800 drive systems Eigensicherheit [Electrical
Part 3 equipment for explosion
endangered areas; Own safety]
VDE 0165 Errichten elektrischer Anlagen in DIN EN 50 021 Elektrische Betriebsmittel für ex-
explosionsgefährdeten Bereichen plosionsgefährdete Bereiche;
[Installation of electrical plant in Betriebsmittel der Zündschutzart
explosion-endangered areas] [Electrical equipment for explosion
as well as i.a.: Elektrische Betriebsmittel für endangered areas; Equipment with
EN 60 079 gasexplosionsgefährdete Bereiche “e”-type protection ]
Part 10 [Electrical equipment for gas DIN EN 50 039 Elektrische Betriebsmittel für ex-
explosion endangered areas] plosionsgefährdete Bereiche;
VDE Elektrische Betriebsmittel für Eigensichere elektrische Systeme
0170/0171 explosionsgefährdete Bereiche [Electrical equipment for explosion
[Electrical equipment for explosion endangered areas; Intrinsically
endangered areas] safe electrical systems]
As well as i.a.: DIN IEC Blitzschutz baulicher Anlagen
DIN EN 50 014 Elektrische Betriebsmittel für 61024-1-2; [Lightning protection of structural
explosionsgefährdete Bereiche; works]
Allgemeine Bestimmungen VDE 0185
[Electrical equipment for explosion Part 102
endangered areas; General
conditions]

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VDE 0266 Halogenfreie Kabel mit ATV-A 166 Bauwerke der zentralen
verbessertem Verhalten im Regenwasserbehandlung und -
Brandfall [Halogen-free cables with rückhaltung - Konstruktive
improved behaviour in case of fire] Gestaltung und Ausrüstung
VDE 0660 Niederspannungs-Schaltgeräte [Structures for Centralised
[Low voltage switch gear] Treatment, Retention, Design and
as well as i.a.: Low voltage switchgear and Equipping of Stormwater Facilities]
EN 60 439 control gear - combinations ATV-M 168E Corrosion of Wastewater Systems
Parts 1-5 – Wastewater Discharge –
EN 60 947 Low voltage switchgear and ATV-M 176 Hinweise und Beispiele zur
Parts 1-7 control gear konstruktiven Gestaltung und
VDE 0670 Wechselstromschaltgeräte für Ausrüstung von Bauwerke der
Spannungen über 1 kV [AC zentralen
equipment for voltages above Regenwasserbehandlung und -
1 kV] rückhaltung - [Notes and Examples
VDE 0800 Fernmeldetechnik for the Design and Equipping of
[Telecommunications engineering] Structures for Centralised
Wastewater Treatment and
Retention]
9.3 Directives, Standards and Advisory ATV-M 263E Recommendations for Corrosion
Leaflets Protection of Steel Components in
Wastewater Treatment Plants
Using Coating and Cladding
9.3.1 of the ATV
9.3.2 of the DVGW
ATV-A 105E Selection of the Drainage System
ATV-A 110E Hydraulic Dimensioning and DVGW W 302 Hydraulische Berechnung von
Performance Verification of Rohrleitungen und Rohrnetzen
Sewers and Drains [Hydraulic calculation of pipelines
ATV-A 116E Special Sewer Systems - Vacuum and pipe networks]
Drainage Service – Pressure DVGW W 303 Dynamische Druckänderungen in
Drainage Service Wasserversorgungsanlagen
ATV-A 118E Hydraulic Dimensioning and [Dynamic pressure changes in
Verification of Drainage Systems water supply facilities]
ATV-A 127E Static Calculation of Drains and DVGW W 342 Werkseitig hergestellte
Sewers Zementmörtelauskleidungen für
ATV-A 128E Standards for the Dimensioning Guss- und Stahlrohre [Factory
and Design of Stormwater produced cement mortar cladding
Structures in Combined Sewers for cast and steel pipes]
ATV-A 142E Sewers and Drains in Water DVGW W 345 Schutz des Trinkwassers in
Catchment Areas Wasserrohrnetzen vor
ATV-A 148E Service and Operating Instructions Verunreinigung [Protection of
for Personnel of Wastewater drinking water from pollution]
Pumping Stations, Wastewater
Pressure Pipelines and 9.3.3 des VDI
Stormwater Tanks
ATV-A 200E Principles for the Disposal of VDI 2058 Beurteilung von Arbeitslärm in der
Wastewater in Rurally Structured Nachbarschaft [Assessment of
Areas work noise in the neighbourhood]
ATV-A 241 Bauwerke der Kanalisation
[Structures in Sewer Systems]

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VDI 3743 Emissionskennwerte technischer VDMA 24 297 Kreiselpumpen, Technische


Bl. 1 Sheet 1] Schallquellen – Pumpen – Kreisel- Anforderungen, Richtlinien
pumpen [Characteristic values of [Centrifugal pumps, Technical
emissions from technical noise requirements, directives]
sources – pumps - centrifugal
pumps]
VDI 3803 Raumlufttechnische Anlagen
Bauliche und technische Anforde-
rungen [Ventilation and air 10 Annexes
conditioning facilities; structural
and technical requirements]
Annex 1: Example of a pumping
9.3.4 of the VDMA [German Association station with centrifugal
of Mechanical Engineering pumps in horizontal,
Establishments] dry-well installation
VDMA 24 261 Pumpen – Benennung nach Wir-
Part 1 kungsweise und konstruktiven Annex 2: Basic circuit diagram
Merkmalen – Kreiselpumpen
[Pumps – designation according to
functional and design
characteristics – centrifugal
pumps]

42 June 2000