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Roll no. : A76


Myself kishan kachhap student of B.Tech (ME)1st year, First of
all I would like to thank the Almighty God, without his help
nothing could be done. Then I would like to thank my parents
who are so supportive. I   am   grateful   to   the   faculty   of   lovely 
professional university and I would like to thank my teacher,  who 
have funded for this term paper and offered timely instructions to carry 
out the study. I particularly acknowledge the services of Mr. DIGVIJAY
SINGH, who processed my papers and gave instructions without  any 

This is to certify that

I am submitting this term paper of MANUFACTURING of the
given Topic. I would like to thank the people who have entirely
assisted me with my Project.

1. Introduction To HONING TECHNOLOGY

2. Definition of HONING TECHNOLOGY


8. Reference
Honing process is used to precision size many types of components including
cylinder bores, hydraulic cylinders, and similar parts. The honing machine consists of fine
grain abrasive stones attached to an expandable mandrel that is then slowly rotated and
oscillated inside the cylinder bore. This operation is performed under an oil bath for
lubrication and heat control until the desired finish and diameter are obtained

Honing is a final finishing operation conducted on a surface, typically of an inside cylinder,

such as of an automotive engine block. Abrasive stones are used to remove minute amounts
of material in order to tighten the tolerance on cylindricity. Honing is a surface finish
operation, not a gross geometry-modifying operation. Hones can be of the multiple pedal
types or the brush type. Either type applies a slight, uniform pressure to a light abrasive that
wipes over the entire surface.

Typical applications are the finishing of cylinders for internal combustion engines, air
bearing spindles and gears. Types of hone are many and various but all consist of one or
more abrasive stones that are held under pressure against the surface they are working on.


Honing process with rough honing tool and finish honing tool on same
rotating head: - A two honing process eliminates the need for subsequent brush honing at
another location. The honing process which is accomplished with a single head uses rough
honing stones or tools for the initial phase, and finishing tools of tightly compacted abrasive
containing plastic monofilaments for the second phase. The phases may be contiguous,
slightly spaced, or preferably overlap for up to about one-half of the rough honing phase.
When the finishing honing tools are operating alone, the angle of movement of the tools is
somewhat askew of the oil retaining ridges and grooves formed by the rough honing

operation. With the process, the oil bearing surfaces have improvements in plateau finish and
surface topography, avoid abrasive contamination caused by hard finishing tools, and obtain
such improvements in a more economic manner.


This invention relates generally as indicated to a honing process associated with sliding
sealed surfaces; such as, internal combustion engine cylinders and liners, hydraulic and
pneumatic cylinders and other internal machined, bored, drilled and reamed surfaces. In
particular it relates to a two-step honing process which eliminates the need for conventional
finish honing stones, and also any subsequent brush honing operation. A somewhat yielding,
tightly packed abrasive monofilament tool is used in lieu of the conventional finish honing
stones or steel tools, and the two steps are performed at a single station.


A honing method and honing control device suitable for the honing having a large processing
area is provided. The honing control device includes a grinder and an expansion member for
disposition in a processing hole of a work piece. The amount of an expanding movement
when the grinder contacts the inner surface of a gauge hole via the expansion member is
stored as a target expansion amount by inserting a honing head into the gauge hole having the
same size as a target processing diameter of a master gauge. Then, a honing of an inner
surface of the processing hole is performed by inserting the honing head within a processing
hole of a work piece moving the grinder towards an outer side of a diametrical direction by
the expansion member installed within the honing head to rotate the honing head. The honing
is completed when the amount of the expanding movement of the grinder reaches a target
expansion amount established by the master gauge.


A honing tool has a large-diameter portion thereof provided with a plurality of stone holding
recesses arranged radically from the inner bore to the outer edge for slid ably holding
grinding stones. Each stone holding recess is arranged to form an upper guiding facet and a
lower guiding facet at the top side and the bottom side thereof, respectively as well as a
couple of side guiding facets at both sides thereof. Also, each grinding stone has an upper
sliding facet and a lower sliding facet provided at the top side and the bottom side thereof,
respectively for sliding directly on the upper guiding facet and the lower guiding facet. Both
sides of the grinding stone are side sliding facets for running directly on the side guiding
facets. Moreover, the grinding stone has a tapered facet provided on an upper end thereof at
the inner bore side for receiving a pressing force of a tapered rod. Accordingly, the grinding
stone is stably held at four sides and can be slid without any jerky movement while being
driven for rotating and reciprocating actions as pressing against the inner surface of a work

A rotary honing tool includes a rotatable body member mounted on a shaft and having
attached rotatable honing arms as well as a band or collar fitted about the body. The collar is
engaged with the body by means of a lug on the collar fitted into a channel on the outside
face of the cylindrical body. The collar may be rotatably displaced to control radial extention
of the honing arms.

A honing machine for close tolerance sizing of a cylindrical bore in a work piece such as an
internal combustion engine block includes a table for supporting the work piece with its
cylindrical bore in vertical alignment and a vertical tower structure spanning the table and
supporting a trolley for reciprocal movement motor means for driving the honing head being
suspended from the trolley by a gimbal mounting. The honing machine is preferably adapted
for manual operation, a manual lever and adjustable fulcrum being interconnected together
between the vertical tower and trolley for controlling the reciprocating stroke of the honing
head, and adjustable stop limiting the downward stroke of the honing head with the weight of
the trolley, motor and honing head being counterbalanced to facilitate reciprocating
movement of the honing head.

A honing mechanism for honing blades which includes a pair of honing wheels mounted on
carriages for movement in a direction toward and away from each other between an operating
or honing position and a dressing position. Each honing wheel is driven by a cog belt from a
sprocket, and the sprockets are splined to a drive shaft, so that as the honing wheels are
moved between the honing position and the dressing position the sprockets will move along
the splined drive shaft to maintain the proper tension on the drive belt. A dressing mechanism
is incorporated which acts to remove a controlled amount of the surface of each honing wheel
when in the dressing position and to return the honing wheels to the proper grinding position
by automatically compensating for the amount removed from the surfaces of the wheels
during the dressing operation.



The honing jig has a base on which a whetstone or other abrasive substance is mounted. A
pair of spaced guide rods extends the length of the base. A carriage is mounted to tubes which
slide along the rods and through which the guide rods extend. The blade to be sharpened is
held to the carriage by a clamp and the clamp swivels on the carriage to allow the inclination
of the blade relative to the whetstone to be adjusted. The angle of the guide rods can be
adjusted to permit fine adjustment of the inclination of the blade.


A cylinder truing hone comprising a plurality of pressure members mounted in

circumferentially spaced locations around a driven member for movement radially of the
driven member and with pressure surfaces on the pressure members outermost. An axially
movable cam on the driven member is in engagement with the pressure members and can
move them outwardly. Abrasive coated sheet material extends over the pressure surfaces
where it can be pressed into engagement with a cylindrical inner surface by movement of the
cam, and a mechanism is provided for changing the portion of the abrasive coated sheet
material extending over the pressure surfaces.

Honing uses a special tool, called a honing stone or a hone, to achieve a precision surface. An
improved honing stone which minimizes the vibrations to which the abrasive material is
subjected during the honing process. The improved stone has a hole formed in a dead zone
thereof. A piece of resilient material is forced into the hole. When the stone is inserted into
the honing machine, the resilient material retains and cushions the stone within the machine.
Any abrasive material may be used to create a honing stone, but the most commonly used
are corundum, silicon carbide, cubic boron nitride, or diamond. The choice of abrasive
material is usually driven by the characteristics of the work piece material. In most cases,
corundum or silicon carbide are acceptable, but extremely hard work piece materials must be
honed using super abrasives.

The hone is usually turned in the bore while being moved in and out. Special cutting
fluids are used to give a smooth cutting action and to remove the material that has been

abraded. Machines can be portable, simple manual machines, or fully automatic

with gauging depending on the application

The invention pertains to hone stone apparatus utilizing radially movable stone assemblies
located in a rotating or oscillating head and radially movable through openings defined in the
head for engagement with the work piece. The stone assemblies include an abrasive stone
partially embedded within a synthetic plastic body and the end regions of the body are
slightly oversized with respect to the head opening configuration and the body end regions
are slotted to permit compression wherein a firm frictional engagement exists between the
stone assembly and the head for retaining the stone assembly within its head opening.

The method of honing gears which comprises placing the first gear of a first series of gears in
tight mesh with a gear like hone in new condition so as to have a predetermined clearance
between the crests of the hone teeth and the bottom of the spaces between gear teeth, and thus
establishing an initial position to be occupied by the first gears of successive series of gears,
rotating the gear and hone in tight mesh under light pressure contact to finish the side profiles
of the teeth of the gear while material is worn away from the sides of the hone teeth while
maintaining the hone in a fixed position. Repeating the process with successive gears in the
first series while reducing the centre distance between the hone and successive gears to
maintain tight mesh as material is removed from the sides of the hone teeth until the crests of
the hone teeth approach an interference condition in which they would bottom in the spaces
between gear teeth.

At this time
the honing operation on the first series of gear teeth is terminated and the hone is either
replaced with a new hone or is reconditioned by removing material from the crests of the
teeth. In either case, substantially the same clearance is introduced between the crests of
the hone teeth and the bottom of the spaces between gear teeth of the first gear of the second
series. Thereafter, the cycle is repeated on the multiplicity of gears constituting the second
series until sufficient material is worn away from the sides of the hone teeth to cause
approach to the aforesaid interference condition.


Since honing is a high precision process, it is also relatively expensive. Therefore it is only
used in components that demand the highest level of precision. It is typically
the last manufacturing operation before the part is shipped to a customer. The dimensional
size of the object is established by preceding operations, the last of which is usually grinding.
Then the part is honed to improve a form characteristic such as roundness, flatness,


Since honing is a relatively expensive manufacturing process, it can only be economically
justified for applications that require very good form accuracy. The improved shape after
honing may result in a quieter running or higher precision component.