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Flood 1

A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land.[1]
The EU Floods directive defines a flood as a temporary covering by
water of land not normally covered by water.[2] In the sense of
"flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide.
Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water,
such as a river or lake, which overflows or breaks levees, with the
result that some of the water escapes its usual boundaries.[3]

While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal
changes in precipitation and snow melt, it is not a significant flood People seeking refugee from flood in Java. ca.
unless such escapes of water endanger land areas used by man like a
village, city or other inhabited area.
Floods can also occur in rivers, when flow exceeds the capacity of the
river channel, particularly at bends or meanders. Floods often cause
damage to homes and businesses if they are placed in natural flood
plains of rivers. While flood damage can be virtually eliminated by
moving away from rivers and other bodies of water, since time out of
mind, people have lived and worked by the water to seek sustenance
and capitalize on the gains of cheap and easy travel and commerce by
being near water. That humans continue to inhabit areas threatened by
Flooding of a creek due to heavy monsoonal rain
flood damage is evidence that the perceived value of living near the
and high tide in Darwin, Northern Territory,
water exceeds the cost of repeated periodic flooding. Australia.
The word "flood" comes from the Old English flod, a word common to
Germanic languages (compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the
same root as is seen in flow, float; also compare with Latin fluctus,
flumen). Deluge myths are mythical stories of a great flood sent by a
deity or deities to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution,
and are featured in the mythology of many cultures.

Flooding near Key West, Florida, United States

from Hurricane Wilma's storm surge in October
Flood 2

Flash flooding caused by heavy rain falling in a

short amount of time.

Principal types and causes

• Slow kinds: Runoff from sustained rainfall or rapid snow melt
exceeding the capacity of a river's channel. Causes include heavy
rains from monsoons, hurricanes and tropical depressions, foreign
winds and warm rain affecting snow pack. Unexpected drainage
obstructions such as landslides, ice, or debris can cause slow
flooding upstream of the obstruction.
• Fast kinds: include flash floods resulting from convective
precipitation (intense thunderstorms) or sudden release from an
upstream impoundment created behind a dam, landslide, or glacier.

• Commonly caused by a combination of sea tidal surges caused by
storm-force winds. A storm surge, from either a tropical cyclone or
Dozens of villages were inundated when rain
an extratropical cyclone, falls within this category. pushed the rivers of northwestern Bangladesh
over their banks in early October 2005. The
Coastal Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
(MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured the
• Caused by severe sea storms, or as a result of another hazard (e.g. top image of the flooded Ghaghat and Atrai
tsunami or hurricane). A storm surge, from either a tropical cyclone Rivers on October 12, 2005. The deep blue of the
rivers is spread across the countryside in the flood
or an extratropical cyclone, falls within this category.

• Caused by a significant and unexpected event e.g. dam breakage, or as a result of another hazard (e.g. earthquake
or volcanic eruption).
Flood 3

Accidental damage by workmen to tunnels or pipes.

• A muddy flood is generated by runoff on crop land.
A muddy flood is produced by an accumulation of runoff generated on cropland. Sediments are then detached by
runoff and carried as suspended matter or bed load. Muddy runoff is more likely detected when it reaches inhabited
Muddy floods are therefore a hill slope process, and confusion with mudflows produced by mass movements should
be avoided.

• Floods can occur if water accumulates across an impermeable surface (e.g. from rainfall) and cannot rapidly
dissipate (i.e. gentle orientation or low evaporation).
• A series of storms moving over the same area.
• Dam-building beavers can flood low-lying urban and rural areas, often causing significant damage.


Primary effects
• Physical damage – Can damage any type of structure, including bridges, cars,
buildings, sewerage systems, roadways, and canals.

Secondary effects
• Water supplies – Contamination of water. Clean drinking water becomes
• Diseases – Unhygienic conditions. Spread of water-borne diseases.
• Crops and food supplies – Shortage of food crops can be caused due to loss of
entire harvest.[4] However, lowlands near rivers depend upon river silt
deposited by floods in order to add nutrients to the local soil.
• Trees – Non-tolerant species can die from suffocation.[5]
Autumn Mediterranean flooding in
Alicante (Spain), 1997.
Tertiary/long-term effects
Economic – Economic hardship, due to: temporary decline in tourism, rebuilding costs, food shortage leading to
price increase, etc.
Flood 4

In many countries across the world, rivers prone to floods are often carefully managed. Defenses such as levees,[6]
bunds, reservoirs, and weirs are used to prevent rivers from bursting their banks. When these defenses fail,
emergency measures such as sandbags or portable inflatable tubes are used. Coastal flooding has been addressed in
Europe and the Americas with coastal defences, such as sea walls, beach nourishment, and barrier islands.

Remembering the misery and destruction caused by the 1910 Great Flood of Paris, the French government built a
series of reservoirs called Les Grands Lacs de Seine (or Great Lakes) which helps remove pressure from the Seine
during floods, especially the regular winter flooding.[7]
London is protected from sea flooding by a huge mechanical barrier across the River Thames, which is raised when
the sea water level reaches a certain point (see Thames Barrier).
Venice has a similar arrangement, although it is already unable to cope with very high tides; a new system of
variable-height dikes is under construction. The defences of both London and Venice would be rendered inadequate
if sea levels were to rise.
The Adige in Northern Italy was provided with an underground canal that allows to drain part of its flow into the
Garda Lake (in the Po drainage basin), thus lessening the risk of estuarine floods. The underground canal has been
used twice, in 1966 and 2000.
The largest and most elaborate flood defences can be found in the
Netherlands, where they are referred to as Delta Works with the
Oosterschelde dam as its crowning achievement. These works were
built in response to the North Sea flood of 1953 of the southwestern
part of the Netherlands. The Dutch had already built one of the world's
largest dams in the north of the country: the Afsluitdijk (closing
occurred in 1932).

Currently the Saint Petersburg Flood Prevention Facility Complex is to

be finished by 2008, in Russia, to protect Saint Petersburg from storm The River Berounka, Czech Republic, burst its
surges. It also has a main traffic function, as it completes a ring road banks in the 2002 European floods and houses in
around Saint Petersburg. Eleven dams extend for 25.4 kilometres and the village of Hlásná Třebaň, Beroun District,
were inundated.
stand eight metres above water level.
In Austria, flooding for over 150 years, has been controlled by various
actions of the Vienna Danube regulation, with dredging of the main Danube during 1870–75, and creation of the
New Danube from 1972–1988.
In Northern Ireland flood risk management is provided by Rivers Agency.
Flood 5

North America
Another elaborate system of floodway defences can be found in the
Canadian province of Manitoba. The Red River flows northward from
the United States, passing through the city of Winnipeg (where it meets
the Assiniboine River) and into Lake Winnipeg. As is the case with all
north-flowing rivers in the temperate zone of the Northern
Hemisphere, snowmelt in southern sections may cause river levels to
rise before northern sections have had a chance to completely thaw.
This can lead to devastating flooding, as occurred in Winnipeg during
the spring of 1950. To protect the city from future floods, the Manitoba Debris and bank erosion left after the 2009 Red
River Flood in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
government undertook the construction of a massive system of
diversions, dikes, and floodways (including the Red River Floodway
and the Portage Diversion). The system kept Winnipeg safe during the
1997 flood and which devastated many communities upriver from
Winnipeg, including Grand Forks, North Dakota and Ste. Agathe,
Manitoba. It also kept Winnipeg safe during the 2009 flood.

In the U.S., the New Orleans Metropolitan Area, 35% of which sits
below sea level, is protected by hundreds of miles of levees and flood
gates. This system failed catastrophically, in numerous sections, during
Hurricane Katrina, in the city proper and in eastern sections of the
Metro Area, resulting in the inundation of approximately 50% of the Pittsburgh floods in 1936
metropolitan area, ranging from a few centimetres to 8.2 metres (a few
inches to 27 feet) in coastal communities.[8] In an act of successful
flood prevention, the Federal Government of the United States offered
to buy out flood-prone properties in the United States in order to
prevent repeated disasters after the 1993 flood across the Midwest.
Several communities accepted and the government, in partnership with
the state, bought 25,000 properties which they converted into wetlands.
These wetlands act as a sponge in storms and in 1995, when the floods
returned, the government did not have to expend resources in those
areas.[9] :)
Flooding near Snoqualmie, Washington, 2009.

In India, Bangladesh and China (i.e.,in the Grand Canal of China
region) , flood diversion areas are rural areas that are deliberately
flooded in emergencies in order to protect cities.[10]
Many have proposed that loss of vegetation (deforestation) will lead to
a risk increase. With natural forest cover the flood duration should
decrease. Reducing the rate of deforestation should improve the
incidents and severity of floods.[11]

Floods in Bangladesh 2009

Flood 6

In Egypt, both the Aswan Dam (1902) and the Aswan High Dam (1976) have controlled various amounts of flooding
along the Nile river.

Clean-up safety
Clean-up activities following floods often pose hazards to workers and volunteers involved in the effort. Potential
dangers include: water polluted by mixing with and causing overflows from sanitary sewers, electrical hazards,
carbon monoxide exposure, musculoskeletal hazards, heat or cold stress, motor vehicle-related dangers, fire,
drowning, and exposure to hazardous materials.[12] Because flooded disaster sites are unstable, clean-up workers
might encounter sharp jagged debris, biological hazards in the flood water, exposed electrical lines, blood or other
body fluids, and animal and human remains. In planning for and reacting to flood disasters, managers provide
workers with hard hats, goggles, heavy work gloves, life jackets, and watertight boots with steel toes and insoles.[13]

There are many disruptive effects of flooding on human settlements and economic activities. However, floods (in
particular the more frequent/smaller floods) can bring many benefits, such as recharging ground water, making soil
more fertile and providing nutrients in which it is deficient. Flood waters provide much needed water resources in
particular in arid and semi-arid regions where precipitation events can be very unevenly distributed throughout the
year. Freshwater floods in particular play an important role in maintaining ecosystems in river corridors and are a
key factor in maintaining floodplain biodiversity.[14] Flooding adds a lot of nutrients to lakes and rivers which leads
to improved fisheries for a few years, also because of the suitability of a floodplain for spawning (little predation and
a lot of nutrients).[15] Fish like the weather fish make use of floods to reach new habitats. Together with fish also
birds profit from the boost in production caused by flooding.[16]
Periodic flooding was essential to the well-being of ancient communities along the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers, the Nile
River, the Indus River, the Ganges and the Yellow River, among others. The viability for hydrological based
renewable sources of energy is higher in flood prone regions.

Computer modelling
While flood modelling is a fairly recent practice, attempts to understand and manage the mechanisms at work in
floodplains have been made for at least six millennia.[17] The recent development in computational flood modelling
has enabled engineers to step away from the tried and tested "hold or break" approach and its tendency to promote
overly engineered structures. Various computational flood models have been developed in recent years either 1D
models (flood levels measured in the channel) and 2D models (flood depth measured for the extent of the
floodplain). HEC-RAS,[18] the Hydraulic Engineering Centre model, is currently among the most popular if only
because it is available for free. Other models such as TUFLOW[19] combine 1D and 2D components to derive flood
depth in the floodplain. So far the focus has been on mapping tidal and fluvial flood events but the 2007 flood events
in the UK have shifted the emphasis onto the impact of surface water flooding.[20]
Flood 7

Deadliest floods
Below is a list of the deadliest floods worldwide, showing events with death tolls at or above 100,000 individuals.

Death toll Event Location Date

[21] 1931 China floods China 1931


900,000–2,000,000 1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1887

500,000–700,000 1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1938

231,000 Banqiao Dam failure, result of Typhoon Nina. Approximately 86,000 people died from flooding China 1975
and another 145,000 died during subsequent disease.

230,000 Indian Ocean tsunami Indonesia 2004

145,000 1935 Yangtze river flood China 1935

100,000+ St. Felix's Flood, storm surge Netherlands 1530

100,000 Hanoi and Red River Delta flood North 1971


100,000 1911 Yangtze river flood China 1911

[1] MSN Encarta Dictionary. Flood. (http:/ / encarta. msn. com/ encnet/ features/ dictionary/ DictionaryResults. aspx?refid=1861612277)
Retrieved on 2006-12-28. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ query?id=1257023547055729) 2009-10-31.
[2] Directive 2007/60/EC Chapter 1 Article2 (http:/ / eur-lex. europa. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ. do?uri=OJ:L:2007:288:0027:0034:EN:PDF)
[3] Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). Flood. (http:/ / amsglossary. allenpress. com/ glossary/ search?id=flood1) Retrieved on 2009-01-09.
[4] (http:/ / www. southasianfloods. org)
[5] Stephen Bratkovich, Lisa Burban, et al., "Flooding and its Effects on Trees", USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Private
Forestry, St. Paul, MN, September 1993, webpage: (
[6] Henry Petroski (2006). Levees and Other Raised Ground. 94. American Scientist. pp. 7–11.
[7] See Jeffrey H. Jackson, Paris Under Water: How the City of Light Survived the Great Flood of 1910 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010).
[8] United States Department of Commerce (June 2006). "Hurricane Katrina Service Assessment Report" (http:/ / www. weather. gov/ om/
assessments/ pdfs/ Katrina. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2006-07-14.
[9] Amanda Ripley. "Floods, Tornadoes, Hurricanes, Wildfires, Earthquakes... Why We Don't Prepare." (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/
magazine/ article/ 0,9171,1229102,00. html) Time. August 28, 2006.
[10] "China blows up seventh dike to divert flooding." (http:/ / www. chinadaily. com. cn/ en/ doc/ 2003-07/ 07/ content_243670. htm) China
Daily. 2003-07-07.
[11] Bradshaw CJ, Sodhi NS, Peh SH, Brook BW. (2007). Global evidence that deforestation amplifies flood risk and severity in the developing.
Also a flood has recently hit Pakistan which is said to be more devastating then the Tsunami of 2005 world. Global Change Biology, 13:
[12] United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Storm and Flood Cleanup. (http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ niosh/
topics/ flood/ ) Accessed 23 September 2008.
[13] NIOSH. NIOSH Warns of Hazards of Flood Cleanup Work. (http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ niosh/ docs/ 94-123/ ) NIOSH Publication No. 94-123.
[14] WMO/GWP Associated Programme on Flood Management "Environmental Aspects of Integrated Flood Management." (http:/ / www.
apfm. info/ pdf/ ifm_environmental_aspects. pdf) WMO, 2007
[15] Extension of the Flood Pulse Concept (http:/ / kops. ub. uni-konstanz. de/ volltexte/ 2009/ 7515/ pdf/
2008_Wantzen_etal_An_extension_of_the_floodpulse. pdf)
[16] Birdlife soars above Botswana's floodplains (http:/ / africa. ipsterraviva. net/ 2010/ 10/ 15/ birdlife-soars-above-botswanas-floodplains/ )
[17] Dyhouse, G. et al. "Flood modelling Using HEC-RAS (First Edition)." Haestad Press, Waterbury (USA), 2003.
[18] United States Army Corps of Engineers. Davis, CA. Hydrologic Engineering Center. (http:/ / www. hec. usace. army. mil)
[19] BMT WBM Ltd. Spring Hill, Queensland. "TUFLOW Flood and Tide Simulation Software." (http:/ / www. tuflow. com/ )
[20] Cabinet Office, UK. "Pitt Review: Lessons learned from the 2007 floods." (http:/ / archive. cabinetoffice. gov. uk/ pittreview/ thepittreview.
html) June 2008.
[21] Worst Natural Disasters In History (http:/ / www. nbc10. com/ news/ 4030540/ detail. html)
Flood 8

• O'Connor, Jim E. and John E. Costa. (2004). The World's Largest Floods, Past and Present: Their Causes and
Magnitudes [Circular 1254]. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.
• Thompson, M.T. (1964). Historical Floods in New England [Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1779-M].
Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office.
• Powell, W. Gabe. 2009. Identifying Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) Using National Agriculture Imagery Program
(NAIP) Data as a Hydrologic Model Input for Local Flood Plain Management. Applied Research Project. Texas
State University – San Marcos. (

External links
• Website on the Great Flood of Paris in 1910 (
• U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Healthy Water – Flood Water Exposure (http://www. Health risks, cleanup of flood waters, and links to flood
• American Water Resources Association (
• Associated Programme on Flood Management ( from World Meteorological
• Dartmouth Flood Observatory (
• Decision tree to choose an uncertainty method for hydrological and hydraulic modelling (http://www.floodrisk.
net), Choosing an uncertainty analysis for flood modeling.
• DeltaWorks.Org ( Flood protecting dams and barriers project in the Netherlands
• Video: Monsoon flooding, in Phnom Penh, Cambodia (
• Europe floods 2006
• Flood Risk Management Research Consortium (
• Flooding Risk and warning for Emergency Rescue Services (
• International Flood Initiative (
• International teaching module "Integrated Flood Risk Management of Extreme Events" (Floodmaster) (http://
• Predictions Off for Global Warming Flood Risk – Study (
• Protecting against the Next Katrina (
articleID=000E6686-677C-134D-A77C83414B7F0000) – Scientific American Magazine (October 2005)
• Related articles at Appropedia, a wiki for non-Wikipedia (projects & practical "how to") content.
• Safecoast ( Knowledge exchange on coastal flooding and climate change in the
North Sea region
• Social & Economic Benefits/Costs of Heavy Rain & Flooding (
?goal=weather&file=events/precip/) NOAA Economics
• (, Rivers Agency of Northern Ireland
Article Sources and Contributors 9

Article Sources and Contributors

Flood  Source:  Contributors: (HUN)Villy, 05paynes, 21655, 25or6to4, 5 albert square, A. B., A. Parrot, ABF, AJCham, Academic
Challenger, Adashiel, Addshore, AdelaMae, AdjustShift, Aesopos, Ahernra, Ahoerstemeier, Aiman abmajid, Aitias, Aj00200, Ajraddatz, Akhin, Akid, Alan Liefting, Alansohn, Ale jrb, Aleenf1,
Alex43223, Alexf, Alexius08, AlexiusHoratius, Alison, Allstarecho, Alpha 4615, Alpha Quadrant (alt), Alphachimp, Altermike, Alureiter, Andrew Kelly, Andrewpmk, Andycjp, Angela2109,
Animesh96, Animum, Annas86, Anss123, Antandrus, Antarcticpenguins88, Antonio Lopez, Arakunem, Arg, ArielGold, Arlen22, Armanaziz, Arsenalrokz, Arthena, Aruton, Attilios, Auric,
Averette, Avicennasis, Awewe, Awickert, Awoodyear, AxelBoldt, Azumanga1, B-dazzle the amazing, BD2412, BQZip01, BRUTE, Baa, Badeggbill, BanRay, Bart133, Bdelisle, Beivushtang,
Belovedfreak, Ben--r, Bencherlite, Benji55545, Bernhard Fürst, Bertus, BiT, Bidgee, Bigmac85987, Bilky asko, Bkell, Blanchardb, BlazerKnight, Bletch, Blue Henk, Blue Leopard, Bluerasberry,
Bobet, Bobo192, Bodaonline, Bodyart, Bona Fides, Bongwarrior, Bookandcoffee, BoomerAB, BowlerGuy426, BozMo, Bradjuhasz, Branddobbe, Brazzy, Bremerenator, Brendajane, Brian0918,
Bryan Derksen, Bsadowski1, Bucketsofg, Burntsauce, Buster2058, Butros, C-3PO, CHJL, CIreland, CWii, Caknuck, Calmer Waters, Cambyses, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanOfWorms,
CanadianLinuxUser, Cantiorix, Capricorn42, Captain433180, Carcharoth, CaribDigita, Castlepumps, Catgut, Chaojoker, Chcknwnm, Chenzw, Chill doubt, Chivista, Chizr, Cholmes75, Chris j
wood, Chris the speller, Chris55, ClemRutter, Closedmouth, Cmichael, Colonies Chris, Cometstyles, Cool Hand Luke, Correogsk, Courcelles, Crisis, Cruccone, Crunchy Numbers, Ctu2485,
Cureden, Curtbeckmann, Cuvette, Cvlpennington, Cyberdiablo, D, D. Recorder, D.M.N., D0762, D6, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, DImfeld, DJ Clayworth, DUBJAY04, DVD R W, DVdm, Da monster
under your bed, Dabbler, Daggerstorm, Dancingwombatsrule, Daniel Collins, DanielCD, Danjres, DarkFalls, Darth Panda, Dave6, Daven200520, David.Monniaux, Davidnporter, Ddwl,
DeadEyeArrow, Deathawk, Debresser, Delpino, Deor, DerHexer, Derek Ross, Destroyer531, Deviator13, Dfrg.msc, Dgernes, Dgrant, Diannaa, Digitalme, Diino Raawr, Diliff, Dingerdonger,
Discospinster, Dissolve, Dittaeva, Dj Capricorn, Dlohcierekim, Dogaroon, Domitori, DoubleBlue, Dr bab, Drat, Drivenapart, Drnoble, Dspradau, Dthomsen8, Duk, DuncanHill, Dxu1688,
Dycedarg, Dylan620, Dysepsion, E Wing, ESkog, ESpublic013, EWikist, Earlypsychosis, Ed Fitzgerald, EdChem, Edderso, El C, ElTyrant, Eleassar777, Elipongo, Eliz81, Elliotkim999, Ellmist,
Ellywa, Emanz, Emc2, Emperorbma, Entoaggie09, Enzo Aquarius, Epbr123, Eras-mus, Eric-Wester, Everard Proudfoot, Everyking, Evrardo, Excirial, FCSundae, Fableheroesguild,
Faithlessthewonderboy, Fang Aili, Farosdaughter, Favonian, Fieldday-sunday, Fiftytwo thirty, Fir0002, Flood Manager, Flowanda, Flowerpotman, Flynnklc, Fnorp, Footwarrior, Francescocorsi,
Fredrik, Funandtrvl, Funchion, Fyyer, GB fan, Gaff, Gahini7, Gail, Gallagher69, Gameronreach, Gavelclub, Geni, Gensanders, Gfoley4, Ghewgill, Giftlite, Gikü, Gilliam, Gits (Neo), Glane23,
Gnowor, Gogo Dodo, Golbez, Googaalalasopid, GordonFreeman1998, Grafen, Grafikm fr, Graham87, Gsp8181, Gurch, Guru-45, Gökhan, H3h, Hadal, Hai 55, Halibutt, Hammer of the year,
Happysailor, Harryboyles, Harshit arora, Haza-w, Hazza111211111111, HealthywaterCDC, Hemmer, HenryLi, Hephaestos, Heron, Hiddekel, Hifi42, Highevery, Hike395, Hinigugma, Hinzel,
Hirohisat, Hojimachong, Hoo man, Hurontario, Hurricanehink, Husond, Hut 8.5, ICHARM, INkubusse, IRP, Iain, Icestorm815, Ilse@, Imroy, Indon, Inferno, Lord of Penguins, Inter16,
Iridescent, Ismailbinumar, Itsmejudith, Ixfd64, IzzyScott, J.Gifford, J.delanoy, JForget, JFreeman, JYi, Jakbaby007, JamesLee, JamesMLane, JamesTeterenko, Jameschoucino, Jamesooders,
JamieS93, Jasynnash2, Jaxl, Jazzyfro, Jcw69, Jdorje, Jeepday, Jeff G., Jeff3000, Jejawiki, JeremyA, Jess Mars, Jezebel Parks, Jharpinger, Jigglyfidders, Jimp, Jj137, Jmeeter, Joe2008, JoePane,
John254, Johnbaba2.5, Johncapistrano, Jojit fb, Jon Harald Søby, Jon f, Jonathan Hall, JonathanOlsen, Jonemerson, Jorvik, Josh Parris, Juliancolton, Jusjih, Kablammo, Kansan, Kavindunethsara,
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Longhair, LordofPens, Lotje, Loveguga, Lradrama, Luk, M jurrens, M2Ys4U, MER-C, MTM, MWIE90, Mac, MacGyverMagic, Mackensen, Mad Scientist, Madhero88, Magister Mathematicae,
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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

File:A Flood on Java 1865-1876 Raden Saleh.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain
 Contributors: Krscal
File:Rapid Creek flooding 1.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Bidgee
File:Flood102405.JPG  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Averette
File:Trapped woman on a car roof during flash flooding in Toowoomba 2.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors:
Kingbob86 (Timothy)
File:BDF0.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Armanaziz, Ludo29
File:Alicante(30-09-1997).JPG  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Hinzel
File:Povoden 2002 hlasna treban.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5
 Contributors: che at cs.wikipedia
File:Flooderosion.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: NellieBly
File:1936 Pittsburgh flood0007.jpg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: Original uploader was Egpuhl at
File:Snoqualmie area flood.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Bdelisle
File:Flood Dhaka Rezowan.jpg  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Rezowan at

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