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A Neural Network Based Control System for Single Phase

Grid Connected Photovoltaic Energy Conversion


Bambang Sujanarko, Jember University /Graduate School of Institute Technology Sepuluh Nopember Indonesia
Mochamad Ashari and Mauridhi Hery Purnomo, Lecture of Institute Technology Sepuluh Nopember Indonesia
email : bbsujanarko@yahoo.co.id

Abstract- The direct conversion of sunlight into electricity is a very integrated. To overcome it, hence in this research, control
elegant process to generate in environmentally friendly, renewable system integrated. Integrating control system build by NN, so
energy, known as Photovoltaic. This modular can contribute connected PV and Grid can be conducted easier, more flexible
substantially to future energy needs. One important part of integrating and reachable of optimum operational circumstance.
them with Grid system is its control. In this research, a Neural
Network based controlled for power electric single phase designed to
improve an optimum, simple and flexibility of Photovoltaic energy II. DESCRIPTION OF CONTROLLER DESIGN
conversion connected on Grid. The control inputs are solar insolation, In this research, the system to be build have block diagram
inverter current and Grid voltage. They used to determine phase angle as Figure 2. An integrated system control will function to
and magnitude of inverter voltage. The phase angle controls the real control the DC-DC converter based on MPPT, and the inverter
power injected to Grid, while the magnitude controls reactive power. control based on capacities of PV and requirement of power
Laboratory experiment by Matlab Simulink, defined this system has flow.
good performance.
LO AD

Index Terms-photovoltaic, single phase Grid connected, maximum


power point tracker, synchronization, neural network, voltage source PV IN V E R
DC- DC G R ID
inverter, real power, reactive power, voltage phase angle and m o d u le TER

magnitude. Ira d
T
PW M PW M
I. INTRODUCTION
There is no denying the fact that energy is an essential
element for the industrial and socio-economic development. NN
However, the link between energy and environmental pollution C O N TRO LLER

is one of the biggest challenges the world is facing today. In


U ser
this context utilization of solar energy, which is environment A n g le a n d
M a g n itu d e
friendly, is important for sustainable development. C o n tro l

The immense power of the solar energy can be harness for Figure 2. Block Diagram of PV connected Grid with NN based controller
use by humans in two basic ways. Thermal, in which infrared
radiation generate heat and Photovoltaic, in which solar DC-DC controller get the input from the PV insolation and
radiation generates electricity. Thermal radiation can also be PV temperature, which in conventional system through MPPT,
used to generate electricity. Mirrors focus solar radiation onto and then will generate the gate signal for the DC-DC converter
a steam boiler and the steam is used to generate electricity, and the MPPT power value. From DC-DC converter will be
using conventional technology. get maximal power DC for the certain insolation and
Theoretically, solar power could provide all the energy temperature condition. Scheme of conventional DC-DC control
needed by the industrial world, but this would require an is like Figure 3.
immense capital investment and a considerable length of time
to build. It would, however, reduce dependence on imported PWM
oil and gas, reduce pollution and nearly put an end to the DC-DC
human contribution to Global Warming.
In Grid connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, as seen in the
figure 1, the Grid connected system is consist by some part for Figure 3. DC-DC controller
example PV, MPPT and DC-DC converter, Inverter, Grid and
Load. Some control needed in this system, that is the sun Maximal energy from DC-DC converter then will be
direction controller, MPPT [1],[2], and also synchronization converted to become the AC by inverter. This Inverter is
and adjustment phase/magnitude of voltage inverter [3][4]. control by the power of MPPT as well as by consumer to
consideration of optimum power flow on connected PV and
Grid system. Basically, the controlling of power flow
conducted by making sinusoidal control signal of Pulse Wave
Modulation (PWM) result different phase angle and magnitude
at Grid system [5][6]. When phase angle of sinusoidal signal
Figure 1. Grid connected Photovoltaic control result the voltage inverter leading by voltage Grid,
In the previous researches, the controls generally studied hence the real power (P) will be flow, from PV to Grid. On the
separately, so will generate problems when system have to be contrary when the lagging condition will be happened, P will
be flow to PV. While when control signal magnitude make the
voltage inverter become higher than voltage Grid, hence
reactive power (Q), will be flow to the Grid system, on the
contrary when result the lower voltage inverter, hence Q will
be flow to the PV. Figure 4 shows the scheme of conventional
control system for the inverter.

PID
V grid controller x
PWM
INVERTER

Angle
Magnitude
Adjust Adjust (Q)
(P)
Figure 4. Conventional controller of connected inverter and Grid

III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION


NN control system use 7-10-30-2 configuration, with the
activation functions are tansig-tansig-tansig, and training
method use the Back Propagation. Data training will be taken
from graph of PV characteristic, insolation, temperature and
current of inverter and grid. The data then kept in Matlab
Workspace, and after normalization and reduce the data
through sampling method by certain interval, hence process the
training done. Normalization and sampling conduct to get more Figure 6. Temperature, Insolation and PQ
precise of process training on system NN and to reduce require
time training [7]. Figure 5 shows the control configuration IV. CONCLUSION
system based NN and Figure 6 shows some result of using the The result of this research indicate that the system control
control based NN system. of the PV connected Grid can be made integrated by using NN.
The result expected can push to easier implementation for
using PV as sustainable and environment friendly source
Insolation
energy, although still need continuation research so this
controller applicable to all of PV module type and product and
Temperature

Control signal
in the compact form as Integrated Circuit (IC).
VGrid
DC-DC PWM
MPPT
Control signal
V. REFERENCE
IInverter
Inverter PWM
[1] T. Hiyama, and K. Kitabayashi, “Neural network based estimation of
Angle
2 maximum power generation from PV module using environmental
Magnitude [tansig] information,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol.12, pp.241-247, Sept.
10 1997.
[tansig] [2] Il-Song Kim, Myung-Bok Kim, and Myung-Joong Youn, “New
Maximum Power Point Tracker Using Sliding-Mode Observer for
Estimation of Solar Array Current in the Grid-Connected Photovoltaic
System,” IEEE Transactions On Industrial Electronics, Vol. 53, August
20 2006, pp 1027-1035.
[tansig] [3] Frede Blaabjerg, Remus Teodorescu, Marco Liserre, and Adrian V.
Timbus, “Overview of Control and Grid Synchronization for Distributed
Figure 5. NN controller of Photovoltaic connected Grid
Power Generation Systems,” IEEE Transactions On Industrial
By this Figure, the system can provable that if increasing Electronics, Vol. 53, October 2006, pp 1398-1409.
[4] Sung-Hun Ko, Seong R. Lee, Hooman Dehbonei, and Chemmangot V.
phase angle, hence real power of inverter (Pinv) will be Nayar, “Application of Voltage- and Current-Controlled Voltage Source
increase, and the real power of Grid (Pgrid) will decrease. In Inverters for Distributed Generation Systems,” IEEE Transactions On
another condition, when amplitude of voltage inverter Energy Conversion, Vol. 21, September 2006, pp 782-792.
increased, hence inverter reactive power (Qinv) will be [5] T.I. Marisa, St. Kourtesib, L. Ekonomouc, G.P. Fotisd, “Modeling of a
single-phase photovoltaic inverter,” Solar Energy Materials & Solar
increase, whereas Qgrid will decrease. This occurence shows Cells 91 (2007), pp 1713–1725.
the power flow as explained previously. [6] Mochamad Ashari,W.W. L. Keerthipala,and Chernmangot V. Nayar, “A
Single Phase Parallely Connected Uninterruptible Power
In half time of graph in the Figure 6, insolation increasing Supply/Demand Side Management System,” ,IEEE Transactions On
will be result PV power increase. The other Parameter Energy Conversion, Vol. 15, No. 1, March 2000, pp 97-102.
changing, reality also will give the result consistency such as [7] Mauridhi Hery Purnomo, Agus Kurniawan, “Supervised Neural
Networks dan Aplikasinya,” Graha Ilmu, 2006.
which expected.