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Basic functions of CMC are:

1) To provide a common MW set point for both boiler & turbine.
2) Selection of boiler follow / turbine follows modes and fixed pressure / sliding pressure
3) To automatically rundown the unit to the unit capability value in case of failure of major


Load demand is the MW set point for boiler combustion control and turbine EHC. This signal is
generated from target load as follow:
‘ Target load’ (MW set point) for the unit is set either by UCB operator or in AUTO mode by load
Dispatch computer (ADS mode). Digital display is provided for the target load. This target load
is subjected to MIN & MAX limits, set by UCB operator. After this limiting target load is
subjected to a rate control, which varies the MW set Point signal at the rate set by UCB operator,
or as permitted by The TSE – whichever is lower. To this rate controlled set point a frequency
influence correction signal in the range 51 to 52.5 HZ from turbine control is added. This set
point is compared is compared with the unit capability (Described below in C) & Which ever is
lower forms the ‘load demand’ signal.

An auto /manual station and a digital display provided for Load demand. A GO /HOLD
control station is provided so that in the ‘HOLD ’ mode operator sets a new target load and a
MW/min rate without affecting the load ,and then initiated the change by pushing the GO push

To ensure that the unit is following the load set point closely, and inhibit increase /decrease
feature is provided. If any of the MW, Steam pressure, and FW flow deviates from the set point
significantly or if fuel flow or feed water flow has reached the MAX/MIN limits, the load
demand is inhibited from increasing or decreasing as the case may be. Similar signal for airflow
and turbine load limit active are two additional signals to inhibit increase of load demand... The
load demand signal formed as above goes for Boiler & turbine controls.


This refers to the unit generation capability as per the no of major auxiliary equipment which
is in operation, at any time. When in Auto mode Load demand cannot be increased beyond this
value. Also in case of tripping of any major auxiliary the unit is rundown to the new unit
capability level. After starting of an auxiliary however load can be increased only by manually
increasing target load. Unit capability feature is effective only when load demand is on auto.
Unit Capability signals is formed as the lowest of all the following capabilities:

1) Fuel capability as per total no of oil gas coal elevation in service.
2) No of BFPs
3) No of ID fans.
4) No of FD fans.
1) No of SGWCPs or 300 MW if delta P across SGWCP is 0.6 bar.
2) HP bypass capacity proportional to previous operation operating pressure in case of
Turbine or Generator trip.
3) 155 MW or 310 MW incase of overloading of the ICTs.
1) No of CEPs.
Load demand is rundown at 100%/ min for class A signals 40% /min for class B &
10% / min for class c signals.



In unit 5, there is a facility to operate the unit either in constant pressure mode or in controlled
sliding pressure mode. Unlike in constant pressure mode, in sliding pressure throttle steam
pressure is varied in proportion to the load, resulting in less throttling of the turbine c/vs at
lower loads. The principal advantages of sliding pressure operation are:
1) Less temperature variation at turbine end.
2) Higher efficiency due to reduction in throttling losses.
3) Reduced steam pressure and hence smaller heat transfer coefficient results in lower
thermal stress level for the same temp differential between steam, and metal components.
4) Extended control range of both super heat and reheat temperatures.
5) Improved steam flow distribution because of specific volume.
6) Replaced pressure level for all cycle components between feed pump and HP turbine there
by prolonging life span.
In a full variable pressure operation the turbine valves are kept full open with boiler
generating just sufficient pressure to achieve set MW. However control response in this mode
is slow for variations in load .hence to retain the advantages of variable pressure operation
without loosing too much on control response, in controlled sliding pressure operation
“Degree of throttling” is adjusted in the cabinet such that the pressure is raised to full load
pressure at 80% load.

A control station is provided on the UCB to select ‘FIX’ or sliding pressure mode. A constant
pressure setpoint is maintained in ‘FIX’ mode. A function generator is provided in the ‘sliding
’mode where in pressure setpoint is generated linearly proportional to the load demand signal,
Subject to MIN & MAX limits, and with a facility for adjusting the degree of enable manual
variation of setpoint even in sliding pressure mode. In addition the pressure set point is
subjected to a rate control where one of four possible rates can be selected. These rates have
been kept ineffective in auto mode, where the load demand itself has the rate information.



The pressure set point as in ‘D’ above is compared with actual throttle steam
Pressure to obtain the control error signal delta P. three pressure transmitters are provided for
redundancy along with deviation monitoring and middle of the three is selected as actual
pressure. In case of one transmitter fault the lower of the other two is selected. In case of two
transmitter faults the control is put to manual.

The pressure set point generated in this circuit is also sent to HP bypass control. Actual
pressure and delta P signals are sent to turbine electro – hydraulic control. Actual MW signal
(Middle of three – transmitters) is sent is formed as the difference between load demand and
Actual MW.

In ‘Boiler Follow ’mode, turbine (EHC) control and boiler follow to maintain the pressure. In
Turbine follow mode boiler combustion control controls the and turbine follow to control the

‘Turbine follow ’ mode is normally resorted to when boiler control is on manual , i.e. when all
fuel are on manual control or when firing is done just proportional to the load demand signal
as in the case of unit capability arising out of any boiler auxiliary failure . When boiler follow
mode is selected by the operated, the control error signal Delta P is switched to the EHC and
vice versa in TFM.


The main function of the boiler master auto/ manual station on UCB is to provide a set
point for fuel and air flow, i.e. fuel demand and air demand signals. In the manual mode the
fuel /air demand signals. In the manual mode the fuel demand and air demand is equal to the
load demand + combustion controller output. In manual mode the boiler master is used as a
bias station where by the fuel /air setpoint can be varied from 80% to 120% of the load
demand signal. This variation would be necessary to account for variation in fuel calorific
value etc.

Combustion master controller is a prop+Int +Derivative (PID) controller acting on delta P

error (boiler follow mode) or delta MW error (TFM). When Boiler master is on auto output of
this controller is added to the load demand signal to generate fuel/ air demand set point.

The fuel /air = (P+D) of load demand + D of Press set point + PID of delta P or delta MW
These derivative are tuned to achieve proper over firing /under firing, particularly in variable
pressure operation.

In the special case when boiler master is on auto with all individual fuel controls are on hand,
Fuel /air demand signal is made equal to the total fuel flow.
Suitable tracking is provided to achieve bump less transfer between manual and auto


1) When load demand is on manual or unit capability active the target load is tracked equal to
load demand.
2) When boiler master is on hand or when all fuels are on hand, turbine follow mode is
automatically selected.
3) When the unit capability is active, boiler master goes to manual and hence turbine follow
mode is selected. Thus under unit capability condition. Boiler maintains steady firing as per
new load demand set point and turbine does the pressure control.
4) Boiler master goes to manual under any one of the following conditions:
a) Air flow on manual (Both FD fans control)
b) Feed water Master on manual.
c) Unit capability active.
d) HP bypass quick opening.
e) Throttle pressure transmitter deviation.
5) Unit capability active signal throws HP bypass pressure setpoint to manual.
6) Under turbine trip and generator trip conditions the throttle pressure set point goes to
7) When any fuel burner pressure limits is exceeded the combustion master controller is
blocked from any further integration.


This refers to the fuel and air flow controls. Setpoint for fuel and air controller is
derived from combustion master done in such a way so as to always ensure an air rich furnace.
Two pneumatically operated control valve (255 & 75%) operated by one oil controller are
provided for flow controls.75% operated by one gas controller for each one of the eight
feeders. Air flow control is done by varying the blade pitch of two axial FD fans. A thyristor
drive electric actuator controls the pilot in the hydraulic system for operating the blade pitch.

The fuel demand as generated in CMC is compared with actual air flow and a
minimum of the two is selected as the fuel set point. The air demand as generated in CMC is
compared with actual fuel flow and a maximum of the two is selected as air set point. This
MIN/MAX selection ensures an air rich furnace. When fuel /air demand increases the MAX
gate first increases the air set point, and when the actual air flow has increased, the MIN gate
permits the increase of fuel. When fuel /air demand decreases the MIN first decreases the fuel
setpoint and when fuel has decreased the MAX gate permits reduction of air flow also.


The LC oil flow to burners is measured by two oval wheel meters (in series) and a
facility is provided for selecting one of the two transmitters. Third oval wheel meter is
provided in the return oil flow. The net LC oil flow is hence measured is a difference between
the two. Two transmitters are provided for measuring fuel gas flow with individual pressure
compensation and a facility for selecting one of two compensated measurement is available.
Feeder speed is taken as the measure of coal flow. All three flows are added to get total fuel
flow. Cabinet adjustment is provided to take care of individual calorific to obtain total fuel
flow as fuel oil equivalent (FOE). Gas flow is taken into the calculation only when gas vent
valve is closed. The total fuel flow (FOE) is compared with a fuel set point to generate fuel
control error. This control error is fed to all fuel controllers in parallel, enabling simultaneous
control of all three fuels. A bias feature is provided between coal and oil.


An auto / manual station is provided for fuel oil flow control with bump less transfer
possible in both directions. In auto mode fuel control error as above is fed to a PI controller .
The output of the controller is suitably split to achieve split range operation of 25% and 75%
valves with suitable overlap. Limit circuit are provided to keep burner pressure within the HI
and LO limits set in the cabinet during auto operation.

The scheme for gas flow control is identical to oil flow control but for the supply
header pressure limitation. When ONGC supply pressure falls below a cabinet set value. a
separate PI controller reduces the gas flow controller output to close the gas flow control

On MFT both oil and gas control valves are closed.

A local pneumatic control system is provided in the return line to control the LC oil
header pressure. Fuel gas header pressure control is from UCB where an Auto/manual station
and pressure set point setter are provided. A PID controller is provided with D action working
on the actual gas pressure as well as gas flow controller output to give anticipation for control.


As mentioned above air demand setpoint is generated as the MAX of the following:
a) Air demand from Boiler Master.
b) Total fuel flow.
c) Purge setting.
d) A safe minimum 30% setting.
Actual air flow is measured at the suction of each one of the FD fans (Piezometric ring). Two
transmitters per fan are provided. Sum of the two selected transmitters give the secondary air
flow. Primary air flow is added to this to give total air flow, which is used for combustion
control, purge logic, secondary air control, recorder & DAS. This airflow, through it includes
RAPH leakages, has been used for control in view of the difficulties encountered in aerofoil
measurement provided for secondary air flow near the wind box . Air set point as above is
compared with the actual air flow modified by o2 trim to generate the air flow control error.
This signal is doubled I n case only one out ot two running fans is available for automatic
control. An equalizing and biasing signal is added to equalize and bias the individual fan air
flows. Control signal thus formed operates on the individual controller (For each fan) whose
output fires the thyristor drives of the 415V AC motors for blade pitch control . AN auto
/manual station is provided for each fan.

D) O2 TRIM :

An Auto/manual station and a setter for O2 set point are provided to achieve desired
excess air. The auto mode, The set point and actual value are compared and thr difference
operates on a controller whose output (Oxygen trim) modifies the actual airflow signal which
goes for control. Two o2 probes are provided at each RAPH inlet in the flue gas path and
average of any two of the four can be selected for control . These probes are Zirconium oxide
probes working on the principle of partial pressure of oxygen .


A) Air flow can be put on auto only if Furnace pressure control is on auto . Boiler master can
be put on auto only if Airflow is on Auto.

. B) MFT makes the airflow control go to manual mode resulting in constant airflow.

C) Furnace pressure HI (From pressure switch) Inhibits opening of Blade pitch and Furnace
pressure Lo inhibits closing of Blade Pitch.

D) Control oil pressure OK is a necessary start permissive for the fan . Pressure Lo inhibits
open/ close commands.

E) Any fuel transmitter faulty or deviation Hi transfers fuel and airflow controls to manual .
Any fuel measurement error will result in wrong total fuel signal to air flow control and hence
this interlock.

F) When Both FD controls are on manual, O2 control station goes to manual.


A) Main turbine is provided with an electro hydraulic controller (EHC) in addition to mechanical
hydraulic governor, the lower of the two setting being effective. When EHC is in service, If tracking
device is on, “Starting device” is tracked to a setting just higher than EHC setting. The electro
hydraulic convertor coil receives the command signal from EHC electro hydraulic control system and
controls the hydraulic pressure which regulates the main control valves.

EHC has the following four controllers.

A) Speed controller
B) Load controller
C) Pressure controller
D) Valve lift controller
Each of the speed/ load/ pressure controller are effective under different operating conditions, Which
is achievd by suitable MAX/MIN gates and tracking interlocks. MAX between the outputs of speed
and load controllers is selected which is then compared with the pressure controller is selected which
is the compared with the pressure controller output in a MIN gate . This output goes as the setpoint
for a valve Position which is compared with the actual EHC position feedback and the valve lift
controller operates on the EH coil. Speed controller is a proportional controller which has actual
throttle steam pressure from CMC as an additional input which account for turbine no load losses.
This controller is effective normally upto station load operation beyond which load controller takes
over. When turbine is selected for CMC operation, Load controller works on load reference signal
from CMC. Load controller is specially designed to match with turbine – generator dynamic
characteristics. When load controller is effective, Speed controller Track “Station load” setting. When
generator breaker is ‘OFF’ Speed controller immediately becomes effective for station load operation
and thus speed rise along the droop line is avoided. Load controller tracks speed controller. When
Boiler follow mode is selected in CMC, EHC pressure controller (A PI controller) works in limit
pressure mode i.e. load controller is normally effective but if actual throttle pressure is less than set
point (in CMC) by say 20 Bar, Pressure controller throttles the control valves. When turbine follow
mode is selected in CMC pressure controller becomes effective on initial pressure mode i.e. operates
on the delta P signal from CMC and load controller is tracked above pressure controller output.