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B.T.P.Madhav et al.

/ (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES


Vol No. 5, Issue No. 1, 062 - 066

Log-periodic Toothed Planar Antenna on


LCP for Ultra Wide Band Application
1*
B.T.P.Madhav, 1VGKM Pisipati, 1K.Sarat Kumar, 1K.V.L.Bhavani, 2VGNS Prasad,
3
K.Praveen Kumar, 4M.Ravi Kumar
1
LCRC-R&D, Department of ECE, K L University, Guntur, AP, India
2
R&D, Department of ECE, Mother Theresa Institute of Science and Technology, Sattupalli
3
Associate professor, Department of ECE, Vani School of Engineering, Cheviture
4
Assistant professor, Department of ECE, Sri Saradhi Institute of Technology, Nuzvid

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Email:madhav.mtech@gmail.com

Abstract: Ultra wide band technology is a


revolutionary wireless technology for transmitting frequencies within the operation range limited only
digital data over a wide range of frequency bands by physical size.
with very low power. UWB devices operate by
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employing very narrow or short duration pulses that
result in very wideband transmission bandwidths. In
this present paper a novel toothed planar microstrip
patch antenna was designed on liquid crystal polymer
In this present work toothed antenna is designed on
liquid crystal polymer substrate for the Ultra
wideband communication applications. The usage
substrate for UWB applications. Antenna parameters of UWB antennas are increasing due to its
are simulated using commercial Ansoft-HFSS extremely fine time and range solution even
software and presented in this paper. through lossy, opaque media, large processing
gains, immunity from multipaths[3-4]. At higher
Keywords: LPTPA (Log-periodic toothed planar power levels UWB signals can travel to
antenna), liquid crystal polymer substrate, UWB significantly greater ranges. UWB technology
(ultra wide band). offers major enhancement in three application areas
includes communication, Radar and positioning or
A
1. Introduction:
ranging. The development of UWB technology will
help to realize potentials of UWB radars and give
The toothed antenna comes under the category of
advantages to those who will use them widely in
log periodic antenna. Toothed antenna follows the
various areas.
angle concept, if one tooth has a width Wo the next
smaller one is гWo wide the third is г2Wo and so.
Let the width of the widest tooth be W1, which is
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2. Antenna specialization:
approximately one quarter wavelength
corresponding to lower frequency limit. Then the The proposed log-periodic toothed planar antenna
width of the n th tooth Wn is Wn=W1гn г is design is shown in figure (1). The operating
a constant representing the ratio of width of (n+1) th bandwidth is between 3 to 10 GHZ and substrate
tooth to width of nth tooth[1-2]. dimensions along x-axis and y-axis are 61mm
respectively. Thickness of the substrate material is
Taking the logarithm of both sides of above
0.58mm and port gap width is 8.1mm. The tau and
equation yields: logWn = logW1 + nlog г. For a
sigma are 6.5mm and 8.1mm, the delta and beta
angles are 45 degrees and outer radius of toothed
Consequently, the logarithm of Wn increases in
arm is 26.9mm. A liquid crystal polymer material
equal steps with n. That is, log Wn increases
is used as substrate in this work and it’s physical,
electrical and mechanical properties are
also implied that whatever electrical properties the
characterized, the permittivity of the material is
antenna may have at a frequency f0, will be
2.88 and dielectric loss tangent is 0.0004. LCP is
repeated at all frequencies given by гn fo.
gaining its importance in the present day
Combining the periodicity with the angle concept,
communication due to its flexible design and
the LPTPA has a self complementary
advantages [5-6].
configuration. This results in a constant input

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B.T.P.Madhav et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES
Vol No. 5, Issue No. 1, 062 - 066

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Figure (1) log-periodic toothed planar antenna

3. Results and discussion:

Ansoft
NameCorporation
X Y Return Loss LogPeriodicToothed_Antenna_ADKv1
0.00
m1 3.8485 -24.4567
Curve Info
m2
m3
m4
-5.00
m5
5.4040
6.5354
7.8081
9.0808
-23.5053
-14.7247
-16.1987
-22.7271
ES dB(St(1,1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1

-10.00
dB(St(1,1))

m3
-15.00
m4

-20.00

Name Delta(X) Delta(Y) Slope(Y) InvSlope(Y) m5


A
m2
d( m1,m2) 1.5556 0.9514m 1 0.6116 1.6351
-25.00
d( m3,m4)
3.00 1.2727 -1.4740 4.00 -1.1581 -0.8635 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00
Freq [GHz]

Figure (2) Frequency Vs Return loss

A good antenna might have a value of -10dB as of 3.00 is obtained from the input impedance smith
90% of the signal is absorbed and 10% is reflected chart curve.
back. The proposed antenna is giving the excellent
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return loss curve in the UWB range[7]. The curve Input Impedance
Ansoft Corporation LogPeriodicToothed_Antenna_ADKv1

90 80 Curve Info rms bandw idth(1, 0)

has deep and wide dips at frequencies 3.8, 5.4, 6.5,


100
110 1.00 70
St(1,1))
120 60 0.3546 3.0000
Setup1 : Sw eep1
130 50

7.8 and 9.08 GHz. The return loss obtained at these


0.50 2.00
140 40

frequencies is -24.45, -23.50, -14.72, -16.19 and -


150 30

160 0.20 5.00 20

22.72 respectively. Maximum power transfer can 170 10

be achieved if the impedance of the antenna is


0.20 0.50 1.00 2.00 5.00
180 0.00
-0.00 0

matched with the load, which involves complex


-170 -10

-160 -0.20 -5.00 -20

conjugate of the load impedance. In UWB antennas -150 -30

impedance matching is difficult to achieve. By


-140 -40
-0.50 -2.00
-130 -50
-120 -60

applying proper mechanism and careful design this


-110 -1.00 -70
-100 -90 -80

problem can be solved [8]. The input impedance Figure (3) input impedance smith chart
smith chart for the proposed UWB antenna is
presented in the figure (3). A bandwidth of 78% is Impedance mismatch between the transmission line
achieved from the current design. The rms of and its load can be measured using VSWR curve. If
0.3546, gain margin of 6.4832, phase margin of the VSWR is high then the mismatch will be
184.60, phase crossover of 3.57 and gain crossover greater, the minimum VSWR corresponds to a
perfect impedance match is unity. Figure (4) shows
the VSWR curve for the UWB antenna.

ISSN: 2230-7818 @ 2011 http://www.ijaest.iserp.org. All rights Reserved. Page 63


B.T.P.Madhav et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES
Vol No. 5, Issue No. 1, 062 - 066

Ansoft
NameCorporation
X Y XY Plot 1 LogPeriodicToothed_Antenna_ADKv1
4.50
m1 3.8485 1.1274
Curve Info
m2 5.4040 1.1431
VSWRt(LogPeriodicToothedPlanarAntenna1_T1)
m3 6.5354 1.4496 Setup1 : Sw eep1
VSWRt(LogPeriodicToothedPlanarAntenna1_T1)

4.00
m4 7.8081 1.3666
m5 9.0808 1.1576
3.50

3.00

2.50

2.00

1.50 m3
m4
Name Delta(X) Delta(Y) Slope(Y) InvSlope(Y)
m1 m2 m5
d( m1,m2) 1.5556 0.0158 0.0102 98.4756
1.00
d( m3,3.00
m4) 1.2727 -0.08304.00 -0.0652 -15.3257
5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00
Freq [GHz]

Figure (4) Frequency Vs VSWR

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The VSWR is maintained 2:1 ratio at the desired frequencies. The VSWR of 1.12, 1.14, 1.44, 1.39 and 1.15 is
obtained at 3.8, 5.4, 6.5, 7.8 and 9.08GHz respectively.

Ansoft
NameCorporation
X Y ff_2D_GainTotal LogPeriodicToothed_Antenna_ADKv1
6.00
m1 180.0000 5.2997
Curve Info
m1
dB(GainTotal)_1
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
4.00

2.00
ES
dB(GainTotal)_1

0.00

-2.00

-4.00

-6.00
-200.00 -150.00 -100.00 -50.00 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00
Theta [deg]

Figure (5) 2D-gain of the UWB antenna


A
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Figure (6) 3D-gain of the UWB antenna

All real antennas will radiate more in some directions than in others, therefore gain is the amount of power that
can achieve in one direction at the expense of power lost in the others. Gain is the one of the important
parameter with respect to its performance of an antenna. The gain is always related to the main lobe and from
figure (5) it is showing 5.29dBi. Figure (6) showing the gain of the LCP substrate log-periodic toothed planar
ultra wideband antenna in three dimensional view.

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B.T.P.Madhav et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES
Vol No. 5, Issue No. 1, 062 - 066

S.NO rE Value At Phi At Theta


Ansoft Corporation Radiation Pattern 4 LogPeriodicToothed_Antenna_ADKv1

0 Curve Info

field (v) (degrees) (degrees)


dB(GainPhi)
-30 30
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
-2.00
Phi='0deg'
dB(GainPhi)

1 Total 0.62635 45 -166


-14.00
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
-60 60
Phi='5deg'
-26.00
dB(GainPhi)

X 0.61194 50 -166
Setup1 : LastAdaptive

2
-38.00 Phi='10deg'
dB(GainPhi)
-90 90 Setup1 : LastAdaptive

3 Y 0.20871 0 -92
Phi='15deg'
dB(GainPhi)
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Phi='20deg'

4 Z 0.25623 160 42
dB(GainPhi)
-120 120 Setup1 : LastAdaptive

-150
-180
150
5 Phi 0.60639 80 -178
6 Theta 0.60638 170 180
Figure (7) gain-phi 7 LHCP 0.48303 70 -150
8 RHCP 0.47921 70 -30
In the far field the power radiated in a particular Table (2) Maximum field data values
direction is important. In most applications the
power radiated from an antenna is measured from Peak gain of 3.59 and peak directivity of 3.52 is
the far field region. The figure (7) and (8) shows obtained for the current model. From the table it is
the radiation pattern of antenna at phi and theta. clear that the incident and radiated power is very
Ansoft Corporation Radiation Pattern 5 LogPeriodicToothed_Antenna_ADKv1
less values of 0.00379 and 0.00185 respectively.

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0 Curve Info

4. Conclusion:
dB(GainTheta)
-30 30
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
0.00
Phi='0deg'
dB(GainTheta)
-10.00
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
-60 60
Phi='5deg'
-20.00

In this paper the Ultra Wideband log-periodic


dB(GainTheta)
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
-30.00 Phi='10deg'

toothed planar antenna was designed by using


dB(GainTheta)
-90 90 Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Phi='15deg'
dB(GainTheta)

Liquid crystal polymer substrate. From the


Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Phi='20deg'
dB(GainTheta)

simulation results, we can see that this antenna is


-120 120 Setup1 : LastAdaptive

-150

Figure (8) gain-theta


-180
150
ES well matched and VSWR is less than 2:1on
frequency ranges from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz. The
radiated field at the front end of the antenna is
vertically polarized. Gain of 5.29dB and directivity
of 3.56dB is obtained from the current design. This
work giving confidence for the applicability of
LCP materials in the future UWB technology.

5. Acknowledgment:

The authors like to express their thanks to the


management and department of ECE, K L
A
University for their support and encouragement
Figure (9) Current distribution during this work. Further, VGKM Pisipati
acknowledges the financial support of Department
Figure (9) shows the mesh pattern of the toothed of Science and Technology through the grant
antenna. The triangular Jones indicating the current No.SR/S2/CMP-0071/2008.
distribution and it is observed that the current
distribution is closer at toothed patch. The current References:
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distribution indicates the radiation of the antenna


around the patch. The antenna parameters and 1) W. L. Stutzman and G. A. Thiele, Antenna Theory
and Design, 2nd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, New
maximum field data tables for the proposed York, 1998.
antenna is given below.
2) OSD/DARPA, \Ultra-Wideband Radar Review
Antenna Parameters Panel," Assessment of Ultra-Wideband (UWB)
Technology, Arlington, VA.: DARPA, 1990.
Quantity Value/units
Max U 0.00052031 w/sr 3) E. Guillanton, J.Y. Dauvignac, C. Pichot, and J.
Cashman, A new design tapered slot antenna for
Peak directivity 3.52 ultra-wideband applications, Microwave Opt
Peak gain 3.59 Technol Lett 19 (1998), 286–289.
Peak realized gain 1.72
4) Kishk, A.A. , K.F.Lee, W.C.Mok, and K.M.Luk, “A
Radiated power 0.00185 w wideband small size antenna proximately coupled to
Accepted power 0.00181 w a hook shape probe,” IEEE Trans. Antennas
Incident power 0.00379 w Propagat., Vol.52, No.1, 59–65, Jan.2004.
Radiation efficiency 1.021
Front to back ratio 1.020 5) Dane C. Thompson, O. Tantot, H. Jallageas, George
Table (1) Antenna Parameters E. Ponchak, Manos M. Tentzeris, and J.

ISSN: 2230-7818 @ 2011 http://www.ijaest.iserp.org. All rights Reserved. Page 65


B.T.P.Madhav et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES
Vol No. 5, Issue No. 1, 062 - 066

Papapolymerou, “Characterization of Liquid Crystal


Polymer (LCP) Material and Transmission lines on
LCP Substrates from 10 to 110 GHz”, IEEE
Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques,
vol. 52, no. 4, April 2004.

6) G. Zou, H. Gronqvist, J. P. Starski and J. Liu,


“Characterization of Liquid Crystal Polymer for
High Frequency System-in-Package Applications”,
IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, 2002.

7) Hosseini, S.A. , Z.A tlasbaf, and K.F orooraghi, “A


new compact ultra wide band (UWB) planar antenna
using glass as substrate,” Journal of Electromagnetic
Waves and Applications, Vol.22, No.1, 47–59, 2008.

8) Liu, L., J.P .Xiong, Y.Z.Yin, and Y.L.Zhao, “A


novel dualf- shaped planar monopole antenna for

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ultra wideband communications,” Journal of
Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol.22,
Nos.8/9, 1106–1114, 2008.

Author’s Details:
ES
B.T.P.Madhav was born in India, A.P, in
1981. He received the B.Sc, M.Sc, M.Tech,
MBA degrees from Nagarjuna University,
A.P, India in 2001, 2003, 2007, 2009 respectively.
From 2003-2007 he worked as lecturer and from
2007 to till date he is working as Asst.professor in
Electronics Engineering. He has published more
than 25 papers in International and National
journals. His research interests include antennas,
liquid crystals applications and wireless
communications.
A
Prof. VGKM Pisipati was born in India,
A.P, in 1944. He received his B.Sc, M.Sc
and PhD degrees from Andhra University.
Since 1975 he has been with physics department at
Acharya Nagarjuna University as Professor, Head,
R&D Director. He guided 22 PhDs and more than
20 M.Phils. His area of research includes liquid
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crystals, nanotechnology and liquid crystals


applications. He visited so many countries and he is
having more than 260 International research
publications. He served different positions as
academician and successfully completed different
projects sponsored by different government and
non-government bodies. He is having 5 patents to
his credit.

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