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Dalai Lama

und die Anderen



Dalai Lama und die Anderen: Gedanken zum Buddhismus

von pamokkha (pamokkhala@gmail.com)

Version 1.0: 08.11.2021

Alle Rechte vorbehalten, ©2021 München

Schlüsselbegriffe: Dalai Lama; Mahayana; Hinayana; Theravada; Buddhismus

Direkter Download von OneDrive: Dalai Lama und die Anderen

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„Wirken und Erleben

anderes Reales gibt es nicht“

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INHALTSVERZEICHNIS
Inhaltsverzeichnis .................................................................................... iv

Einleitung ............................................................................................... 1

Zuflucht und die Anderen .......................................................................... 2

Falscher Buddhismus und die Anderen ........................................................ 3

Lehren der Anderen ................................................................................. 4

Nirvana und die Anderen? ......................................................................... 5

Urteil über die Anderen............................................................................. 7

Literaturverzeichnis ................................................................................. 8

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EINLEITUNG
In diesem Aufsatz stütze ich mich auf die Buchreihe The Library of Wisdom and
Compassion verfasst vom Dalai Lama und Thubten Chodron, erschienen bei Wis-
dom Publications (alle Seitenzahlen beziehen sich auf die Scribd edition). In dieser
Reihe sind bisher sechs Bände erschienen:

Dalai Lama; Chodron, Thubten (2017): Approaching the Buddhist Path. (The
Library of Wisdom and Compassion, 1)

Dalai Lama; Chodron, Thubten (2018a): The Foundation of Buddhist Prac-


tice. (The Library of Wisdom and Compassion, 2)

Dalai Lama; Chodron, Thubten (2018b): Saṃsāra, Nirvāṇa, and Buddha Na-
ture. (The Library of Wisdom and Compassion, 3)

Dalai Lama; Chodron, Thubten (2019): Following in the Buddha's Footsteps.


(The Library of Wisdom and Compassion, 4)

Dalai Lama; Chodron, Thubten (2020): In Praise of Great Compassion. (The


Library of Wisdom and Compassion, 5)

Dalai Lama; Chodron, Thubten (2021): Courageous Compassion. (The Li-


brary of Wisdom and Compassion, 6).

Dieser Aufsatz ist ein Anhang zu meinen Aufsätzen Theravada und die Anderen
und Mahayana und die Anderen.

1
ZUFLUCHT UND DIE ANDEREN

“What makes our spiritual practice Buddhist? It is not merely doing


practices taught in Buddhist scriptures, for some of those practices —
such as refraining from harming others, cultivating love and compassion,
and developing concentration — are also found in other religions. Doing
these and other practices with a mind that has taken refuge in the Three
Jewels is the key that makes these practices Buddhist.” {Dalai Lama 2019
#2700D: 25}

“People accepting the four seals are considered Buddhists by view,


and those accepting the Three Jewels as their ultimate source of refuge
are considered Buddhists by conduct. The four seals are: (1) all con-
ditioned phenomena are transient, (2) all polluted phenomena are duḥkha
(unsatisfactory) in nature, (3) all phenomena are empty and selfless,
and (4) nirvāṇa is true peace.” {Dalai Lama 2018a #2698D: 28}

Nach dem Dalai Lama wird man durch die dreifache Zuflucht und das Annehmen
der vier Siegel zum Buddhisten. Werden die Zufluchtsobjekte in allen bud-
dhistischen Konfessionen gleich verstanden?

“Maitreya’s Sublime Continuum (Ratnagotravibhāga or Uttaratantra


Śāstra) discusses the excellent qualities of the Three Jewels according
to the unique Mahāyāna perspective that is not shared by the Fundamental
Vehicle.” {Dalai Lama 2019 #2700D: 49}

Nein. Leider bleibt die Frage, ob das Zufluchtsverständnis des „Fundamentalfahr-


zeugs“ ausreichend ist, um Buddhist zu sein, ungestellt. Was sind beispielhaft die
Unterschiede?

“Although Śākyamuni Buddha was already fully awakened before per-


forming the twelve deeds, he appeared in ordinary form so that his life
would be an inspiring example for us to contemplate and follow.” {Dalai
Lama 2021 #3463D: 572}

“There are two thoughts about when Śākyamuni attained buddhahood.


According to the Pāli tradition and the Vaibhāṣika and Sautrāntika tenet
systems, he was born as a prince in the Śākya clan and, having renounced
worldly life, lived as a renunciant and attained awakening under the
bodhi tree at Bodh Gaya. According to the Cittamātra and Madhyamaka
tenet systems, he had attained awakening many eons prior and in the life
as Śākyamuni displayed the behavior of practicing the path and attaining
awakening.” {Dalai Lama 2019 #2700D: 152}

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FALSCHER BUDDHISMUS UND DIE ANDEREN

“It is better to remain a nonbeliever than to distort the Buddha’s


teachings… Some so-called Buddhists are hypocrites. They present them-
selves as followers of Buddha Śākyamuni, but live and think differently
than he did.” {Dalai Lama 2021 #3463D: 203}

“Making up your own brand of teachings and claiming that it is


Buddhism is extremely dangerous for both the individual and those he
teaches.” {Dalai Lama 2021 #3463D: 212}

“changing the teachings of the Buddha that describe duḥkha, its


origin, its cessation, and the path to nirvāṇa would alter the funda-
mental perspective and principles of the Buddhadharma, making it no
longer the teachings of the Buddha.” {Dalai Lama 2017 #2699D: 251}

Der Dalai Lama macht hier für mich unmissverständlich klar, dass es besser ist,
kein Buddhist zu sein, als einem falschen Buddhismus anzuhängen. Was ist ein
falscher Buddhismus? Anders leben und denken als der Buddha. Wer das Verständ-
nis von Leiden und seiner Auflösung (nirvāṇa) verändert dessen Verständnis ist
nicht länger Buddhalehre. Später gehe ich ausführlicher auf das Verständnis von
nirvāṇa ein.

“Intelligent and discerning disciples also examine the source of a


teaching and are not satisfied unless they know it originated with the
Buddha.” {Dalai Lama 2018a #2698D: 163}

Welcher Buddha ist hier gemeint? Der Buddha, der unter dem Bodhibaum die Er-
leuchtung erlangte oder der Buddha, der unter dem Bodhibaum ein Schauspiel
aufführte? Und wie kann man die Frage, ob die Lehren ihren Ursprung beim Bud-
dha haben am besten beantworten? Durch buddhologische Forschung.

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LEHREN DER ANDEREN

“Even within Buddhism, our teacher, the Buddha, taught different


philosophies to different people.” {Dalai Lama 2017 #2699D: 44}

Haben diese unterschiedlichen Lehren auch unterschiedliche Früchte?

“the Fundamental Vehicle and the Mahāyāna bring different results.”


{Dalai Lama 2020 #3182D: 101}

Ja. Werden diese unterschiedlichen Früchte unterschiedlich bewertet?

“How do we gain conviction that full awakening is necessary to


fulfill our own purposes so that we turn away from seeking only our own
liberation? By knowing that (1) śrāvakas have not abandoned all defile-
ments or actualized all realizations, (2) śrāvakas are liberated from
cyclic existence but not from the drawbacks of the personal peace that
is an arhat’s nirvāṇa, and (3) a buddha’s truth body is the fulfillment
of our own purpose because it’s the complete abandonment of all obscu-
rations and the full realization of all excellent qualities.” {Dalai
Lama 2020 #3182D: 115}

“[A bodhisattva] will reach the destination of awakening easily and


without the danger of falling to the two extremes of saṃsāra and the
personal peace of an arhat’s nirvāṇa.” {Dalai Lama 2020 #3182D: 272}

Ja. Der Dalai Lama lehrt hier, dass das nirvāṇa der śrāvaka ein zu vermeidendes
Extrem ist, welches durch einen persönlichen Frieden beeinträchtigt ist. Es ist ein
Extrem, wie der Leidenskreislauf auch.

Gibt es unter den buddhistischen Konfessionen nur eine Lehrmeinung, die wirklich
zum Ziel führt?

“In actuality, only by following the Madhyamaka view of the empti-


ness of inherent existence of both persons and phenomena can we generate
the kind of wisdom that is capable of removing both the afflictive and
cognitive obscurations.” {Dalai Lama 2021 #3463D: 156}

Ja. Lehrt die Buddhologie, dass der Madhyamaka seinen Ursprung beim histori-
schen Buddha hat? Nein.

4
NIRVANA UND DIE ANDEREN?

“Each of the various Buddhist tenet systems has its own slightly
different explanation of nirvāṇa or liberation.” {Dalai Lama 2017
#2699D: 88}

Das ist nicht ehrlich. Die Erklärungen sind nicht geringfügig anders oder warum
wurde weiter oben bereits vom nirvāṇa der śrāvaka als ein zu vermeidendes Ext-
rem gesprochen? Die Lehrmeinungen zum Geist und nirvāṇa gehen weit
auseinander:

“Within Buddhism there are two positions regarding this question.


Some Vaibhāṣikas say that when an arhat (someone who has attained lib-
eration from saṃsāra) passes away (attains nirvāṇa without remainder
of the polluted aggregates), the continuum of the person ceases to
exist, like the flame of a lamp going out due to lack of fuel. (…)

Furthermore, there is nothing that can eradicate the mindstream —


the continuity of mind. The wisdom realizing selflessness eradicates
afflictive obscurations, but it cannot destroy the clear and cognizant
nature of the mind. For this reason Mādhyamikas and most Cittamātrins
assert that after a person attains parinirvāṇa — the nirvāṇa after death
— the continuum of the purified aggregates exists. These purified ag-
gregates are the basis of designation of that arhat; thus the person
does not cease to exist when he or she attains parinirvāṇa. Motivated
by compassion, bodhisattvas who have overcome afflictive obscurations
continue to take rebirth in cyclic existence. The continuity of buddhas’
mindstreams also remain forever.” {Dalai Lama 2018b #2697D: 39–40, meine
Hervorhebungen}

“Leaving the five polluted aggregates [at death] and taking mental
bodies (T. yid lus) that are not made of atoms, arhats now have a nirvāṇa
without remainder. They remain meditating in peaceful nirvāṇa for eons,
until the Buddha wakes them and encourages them to become fully awakened
buddhas. They then generate bodhicitta, take birth by the power of
prayers and aspirations, and enter the bodhisattva path.” {Dalai Lama
2018b #2697D: 402}

““Liberate those who are not liberated” refers to liberating sen-


tient beings who have cognitive obscurations; these are śrāvaka arhats
and ārya bodhisattvas… The Bodhisattva Vehicle seeks to eliminate not
only afflictive obscurations but also cognitive obscurations so that

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its practitioners attain nonabiding nirvāṇa — the nirvāṇa of a buddha
that is free from the extreme of saṃsāra and the extreme of the personal
peace of śrāvakas’ and solitary realizers’ nirvāṇa.” {Dalai Lama 2020
#3182D: 351–353}

“the early sūtras that comprise the Fundamental Vehicle teachings


state that at the time of attaining parinirvāṇa when an arhat dies, that
person attains “nirvāṇa without remainder.” At that time, the continuum
of the polluted mental and physical aggregates are said to cease. How-
ever, if we analyze carefully, there is no reason why the continuum of
an arhat’s mind would totally cease at the time of death. There is no
agent or antidote that could bring about the cessation of a continuum
of consciousness.” {Dalai Lama 2017 #2699D: 201}

“liberation — the stoppage of uncontrolled rebirth in saṃsāra.”


{Dalai Lama 2018b #2697D: 201}

“Those that do not generate bodhicitta follow their given path until
attaining arhatship. These arhats take a mental body and abide in the
personal peace of nirvāṇa for a long while. It is said that at some
point the Buddha will “arouse” them from their meditative equipoise on
emptiness and encourage them to work for the benefit of all sentient
beings and attain full awakening. They will generate bodhicitta and
enter the Mahāyāna path of accumulation.” {Dalai Lama 2021 #3463D: 413}

Und zum Geist:

“This class of [highest yoga] tantra speaks of the fundamental in-


nate mind of clear light, the subtlest consciousness of each and every
sentient being. This innate clear light mind is beginningless and end-
less. It came from our past lives to the present life and will continue
on to buddhahood.” {Dalai Lama 2019 #2700D: 73}

“our mind is originally unborn and unceasing.” {Dalai Lama 2020


#3182D: 417}

6
URTEIL ÜBER DIE ANDEREN

Wenn der Dalai Lama feststellt, dass „changing the teachings of the Buddha that
describe duḥkha, its origin, its cessation, and the path to nirvāṇa would alter the
fundamental perspective and principles of the Buddhadharma, making it no longer
the teachings of the Buddha” und dann ebenfalls folgende Aussage trifft: „the ex-
treme of the personal peace of śrāvakas’ and solitary realizers’ nirvāṇa”, dann
urteilt er – ohne es jedoch auszusprechen –, dass die śrāvaka nicht den Lehren
des Buddha angehören. Ein geschicktes Mittel.

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LITERATURVERZEICHNIS

pamokkha. (09.09.2018). Theravada und die Anderen: Gedanken zum


Buddhismus. https://de.scribd.com/document/388193852/Theravada-und-
die-Anderen.

pamokkha. (28.03.2019). Mahayana und die Anderen: Gedanken zum


Buddhismus. https://www.scribd.com/document/403505358/Mahayana-
und-die-Anderen-Gedanken-zum-Buddhismus: Scribd.com.

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Añño esa āvuso gatakassa maggo nāma
Der Pfad, Freund, ist anders für den, der ihn gegangen ist.

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