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SCHUBERT, GORICKI AND RIEDMÜLLER: GUIDELINE FOR THE GEOMECHANICAL DESIGN OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

The Guideline for the Geome-

STANDARDS
chanical Design of Underground
Structures with Conventional
Excavation
By Wulf Schubert, Andreas Goricki and Gunter Riedmüller

C urrently, there are no standardized proce-


dures to determine excavation and support
for underground openings. This lack of con-
stresses, groundwater, and the size of under-
ground opening. Despite this requirement it is
still current practice to base the tunnel design
sistency makes it difficult to technically review primarily on experience, basic empirical calcu-
or audit designs, collect, evaluate, and compare lations, and standardized rock mass classifica-
data from different sites and designs. tion systems. Additionally, the on site decisions
A sound and economical tunnel design de- on excavation and support modifications are fre-
pends on a realistic geological model (2), a qual- quently based more on intuition than on analy-
ity rock mass characterization, and the assess- ses. This is especially true for tunnels with high
ment of influencing factors such as primary overburden in complex geological conditions

Richtlinie für die geomechanische Planung von Erfahrungen verschiedener Bauwerke besser nutz- und
Untertagebauarbeiten mit zyklischem Vortrieb vergleichbar zu machen, was auf längere Sicht zu einer
Verbesserung von Planungs- und Baumethoden führen
Die Werkvertragsnorm ÖNORM B2203 regelt die vertragli- sollte.
chen Belange im Untertagebau. Die Fassungen von 1983
und 1994 enthalten auch Elemente der Gebirgstypisie- The Austrian Standard B2203 regulates the contractual pro-
rung. Im Zuge der Überarbeitung der ÖN B2203 im Jahr cedure for underground works. The versions of 1983 and
2001 wurden alle Belange der Gebirgscharakterisierung 1994 contained descriptions of rock mass types. In the
aus der Werkvertragsnorm eliminiert. Eine Arbeitsgruppe course of updating the Standard in 2001 it was decided to
der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Geomechanik er- remove all rock mass characterization issues from the
stellte eine Richtlinie für die geomechanische Planung von Standard. A working group of the Austrian Society for Geo-
Untertagebauarbeiten mit zyklischem Vortrieb, die im Ok- mechanics (OGG) established a guideline for the geome-
tober 2001 erschien und auf welche die ÖNORM B2203-1 chanical design of underground structures, which was pub-
Bezug nimmt. Die Richtlinie beschreibt die für eine Pla- lished in October 2001, and to which the Standard B2203-1
nung und Bauausführung von Untertagebauten erforderli- refers (1). The main topic of the guideline is the develop-
chen Schritte aus technischer Sicht. Der in der Richtlinie ment of a consistent procedure for the determination of
skizzierte schrittweise Vorgang soll einen ingenieurmäßi- excavation and support. The outlined step by step proce-
gen Zugang zur Thematik fördern. dure promotes an engineering approach to the design and
In der Planungsphase basieren die Vortriebs- und Aus- construction of tunnels.
baukonzepte auf Gebirgsverhaltenstypen, die aus den Ge- In the pre-construction phase support concepts are
birgsarten und den das Verhalten beeinflussenden Fakto- based on rock mass behaviour types developed from rock
ren abgeleitet werden. Das Systemverhalten beschreibt mass types and influencing factors. The system behaviour
das Verhalten des Systems Ausbau-Gebirge. Die Ermitt- describes the rock mass-support interaction which is based
lung des Systemverhaltens stützt sich auf Datenauswer- on previous experience (including data base knowledge),
tung ausgeführter Projekte und wird durch numerische analytical and numerical simulations. During construction,
Simulationen an geeigneten Modellen unterstützt. Wäh- geological face mapping, geotechnical monitoring, and ob-
rend des Baus wird die Planung mithilfe von geologischen servations allow the design of support and excavation
Aufnahmen, Beobachtungen und Auswertung von Messun- methods to be completed. The observed and predicted be-
gen verfeinert. Das vorhergesagte und beobachtete Verhal- haviours are compared by evaluating monitored deforma-
ten wird laufend verglichen. Treten Abweichungen zwi- tions, support utilization, and overbreak volume. Devia-
schen prognostiziertem und beobachtetem Verhalten auf, tions between the observed and predicted behaviour lead
ermöglicht die systematische Vorgangsweise eine umfas- to a re-evaluation of the process resulting in modifications
sende Analyse. Damit wird eine ständige Weiterentwick- to the support and excavation methods.
lung des Tunnelbaus ermöglicht und gefördert. The consistent procedure allows designs to be technical-
Bei Einhaltung des in der Richtlinie vorgegebenen Ab- ly reviewed and audited. The standardized approach
laufs ist eine relativ einfache technische Überprüfung der should also allow the establishment of knowledge based
Planung möglich. Die in der Richtlinie geforderte durch- expert systems, which in the long run will improve design
gängige Dokumentation sollte zudem ermöglichen, die and construction methods.

FELSBAU 21 (2003) NO. 4 13


SCHUBERT, GORICKI AND RIEDMÜLLER: GUIDELINE FOR THE GEOMECHANICAL DESIGN OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

into the construction phase. The procedure de-


veloped describes a transparent and unbiased
STANDARDS

decision making process and was published in


the form of a guideline (8).
The guideline clearly distinguishes between
rock and rock mass descriptions, behaviour of the
rock mass as a result of the excavation, and the
system behaviour resulting from excavation and
support. The minimum requirements for the doc-
umentation of each step are given in the guideline.
First the procedure for the design phases is
briefly described, and then the procedures for
the construction phase are discussed, as they are
outlined in the guideline.

Procedure during design


The geotechnical design, as part of the tunnel
design, serves as a basis for approval proce-
dures, the tender documents (determination of
excavation classes and their distribution), and
the determination of the excavation and support
methods used on site (9).
The flow chart (Figure 1) shows the basic pro-
cedure, consisting of five general steps, to devel-
op the geotechnical design, beginning with the
determination of the rock mass types and ending
with the definition of excavation classes. During
Fig. 1 Flow chart of
the basic procedure of the first two steps statistical or probabilistic
excavation and sup- analyses should be used to account for the varia-
port design for under- bility and uncertainty in the key parameter val-
ground structures.
ues and influencing factors, as well as their dis-
Bild 1 Flussdia-
gramm der grundsätz- tribution along the projects route (10). The prob-
lichen Vorgangsweise abilistic analyses are then continued throughout
zur geotechnischen the entire process as necessary, resulting in both
Planung von Ausbruch
und Stützung von
a risk analysis and a distribution of excavation
Untertagebauten. classes on which the tender documents can be
based (11).
where limited information is available in the pre-
construction phase. Step 1 – determination of
On the other hand, the quantitative rock mass rock mass types (RMT)
classification systems presently in use (3, 4, 5, 6) The first step starts with a description of the ba-
have severe shortcomings. One of the main defi- sic geologic architecture and proceeds by defin-
ciencies is that the classification parameters are ing geotechnically relevant key parameters for
universally applied to all rock mass types. Espe- each ground type. The key parameters values
cially in heterogeneous and poor ground condi- and distributions are determined from available
tions these classification methods may provide information or estimated with engineering and
misleading results, while other shortcomings in- geological judgment. Values are constantly up-
clude the lack of consideration for different rock dated as pertinent information is obtained. Rock
mass failure modes and ground-support interac- mass types are then defined according to their
tion (7). These schematic procedures have the key parameters. The number of rock mass types
potential to make tunnel design appear rather elaborated depends on the project specific geo-
simple. Frequently, a few specific parameters logical conditions and on the stage of the design
are determined and simple classification formu- process.
las are applied to achieve a rating. Then with a Physical and hydraulic parameters have to be
design chart a support method is determined. No established for each rock mass type (12, 13, 14).
reference is made to project specific require-
ments or to boundary conditions. Step 2 – determination of rock
For this reason, it was decided to develop a mass behaviour types (BT)
consistent method for tunnel design, from the The second step involves evaluating the potential
pre-construction phase through the tunnel con- rock mass behaviours considering each rock
struction, applicable to all rock mass conditions. mass type and local influencing factors, includ-
In general, the final design process continues ing the relative orientation of relevant disconti-

14 FELSBAU 21 (2003) NO. 4


SCHUBERT, GORICKI AND RIEDMÜLLER: GUIDELINE FOR THE GEOMECHANICAL DESIGN OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

nuities to the excavation, ground water condi- Table General categories of rock mass behaviour types.
tions, stress situation, etc. (15, 16, 17). This Tabelle Übergeordnete Kategorien von Gebirgsverhaltenstypen.

STANDARDS
process results in the definition of project specif- Behaviour type (BT) Description of potential failure modes/mecha-
ic behaviour types. nisms during excavation of the unsupported rock
The rock mass behaviour has to be evaluated mass
for the full cross sectional area without consider- 1 Stable Stable rock mass with the potential of small local
ing any modifications including the excavation gravity induced falling or sliding of blocks
method or sequence and support or other auxil- 2 Stable with the potential of Deep reaching, discontinuity controlled, gravity in-
iary measures. discontinuity controlled duced falling and sliding of blocks, occasional local
Eleven general categories are listed in the block fall shear failure
guideline (Table). In case more than one behav- 3 Shallow shear failure Shallow stress induced shear failures in combina-
tion with discontinuity and gravity controlled failure
iour type is identified in one of the general catego- of the rock mass
ries, sub types have to be assigned. A concise de- 4 Deep seated shear failure Deep seated stress induced shear failures and
scription of the applicable rock mass types, the large deformation
influencing factors, the specific behaviour, failure 5 Rock burst Sudden and violent failure of the rock mass,
modes, as well as estimates of the displacements caused by highly stressed brittle rocks and the
for each behaviour type is required. rapid release of accumulated strain energy
The rock mass behaviour types form the basis 6 Buckling failure Buckling of rocks with a narrowly spaced disconti-
nuity set, frequently associated with shear failure
for determining the excavation and support
methods as well as assist in evaluating monitor- 7 Shear failure under low Potential for excessive overbreak and progressive
confining pressure shear failure with the development chimney type
ing data during the excavation. failure, caused mainly by a deficiency of side pres-
sure
Step 3 – determination of the 8 Ravelling ground Flow of cohesionless dry or moist, intensely frac-
excavation and support tured rocks or soil
Based on the defined project specific behaviour 9 Flowing ground Flow of intensely fractured rocks or soil with high
types, different excavation and support meas- water content
ures are evaluated and acceptable methods are 10 Swelling Time dependent volume increase of the rock mass
caused by physical-chemical reaction of rock and
determined. The system behaviour (SB) is a re- water in combination with stress relief, leading to
sult of the interaction between the rock mass inward movement of the tunnel perimeter
behaviour and the selected excavation and sup- 11 Frequently changing Rapid variations of stresses and deformations,
port schemes. The evaluated system behaviour behaviour caused by heterogeneous rock mass conditions or
has to be compared to the defined requirements. block-in-matrix rock situation of a tectonic melange
(brittle fault zone)
If the system behaviour does not comply with the
requirements, the excavation or support scheme
has to be modified until compliance is obtained. Step 4 – geotechnical report – Fig. 2 Numerical
analysis of the rock
It is emphasized, that different boundary condi- baseline construction plan mass behaviour for a
tions or different requirements may lead to dif- Based on steps 1 through 3 the alignment is di- full section (left); the
ferent support and excavation methods for the vided into “homogeneous” regions with similar influence of a reduced
same behaviour type even within one project. excavation and support requirements. The base- face height (centre),
and the system be-
Figure 2 illustrates the process of determina- line construction plan indicates the excavation haviour with installed
tion of the behaviour type on the full, unsupport- and support methods available for each region, support (right).
ed cross section, and the influence of the reduc- and contains limits and criteria for possible var- Bild 2 Numerische
Analyse des Gebirgs-
tion of the face height, and finally the system be- iations or modifications on site. The plan sum-
verhaltens am vollen
haviour of the supported top heading. Once the marizes the geotechnical design and should con- Querschnitt (links),
acceptable excavation and support methods tain following information: des Einflusses einer
have been determined both risk and economic ➮ Geological model with distribution of rock reduzierten Ausbruch-
höhe (Mitte) sowie des
analyses should be performed to allow appropri- mass types and behaviour types in a longitudi- Systemverhaltens mit
ate assessments during the tender process (11). nal section, Ausbau (rechts).

FELSBAU 21 (2003) NO. 4 15


SCHUBERT, GORICKI AND RIEDMÜLLER: GUIDELINE FOR THE GEOMECHANICAL DESIGN OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

vation classes are defined, based on the evalua-


tion of the excavation and support measures.
STANDARDS

The excavation classes form a basis for compen-


sation clauses in the tender documents. In Aus-
tria the evaluation of excavation classes is based
on the regulations in ONORM B2203-1. In other
locations the local or agreed upon regulations
should be used.
The distribution of the expected behaviour
types and the excavation classes along the align-
ment of the underground structure provides the
basis for establishing the bill of quantities and
the bid price during tender.

Procedure during construction


Due to the fact, that in many cases the rock mass
conditions cannot be defined with the required
accuracy prior to construction, a continuous up-
dating of the geotechnical model and an adjust-
ment of excavation and support to the actual
ground conditions during construction is re-
quired.
The final determination of excavation meth-
ods, as well as support type and quantity in most
cases is possible only on site. In order to guaran-
tee the required safety, a safety management
plan needs to be followed. Figure 3 shows the
basic procedure to be followed for each section.

Step 1 – determination of the


encountered rock mass type
To be able to determine the encountered rock
mass type, the geological investigation (documen-
tation) during construction has to be targeted to
collect and record the relevant parameters that
have the greatest influence on the rock mass be-
Fig. 3 Flow chart of ➮ Sections, where specific requirements for haviour (18, 19, 20). The geological and geotech-
basic procedure for
excavation and sup-
construction have to be observed, nical data collected and evaluated on site are the
port selection and veri- ➮ Fixed excavation and support types (round basis for the extrapolation and prediction of the
fication of the system length, excavation sequence, overexcavation, rock mass conditions into a representative vol-
behaviour during con- invert distance, support quality and quantity, ume (rock mass volume, which determines the
struction
ground improvements, etc.), behaviour). In addition to recording the face con-
Bild 3 Flussdia-
gramm der grundsätz- ➮ List of measures to be determined on site ditions, geologists need to predict the conditions
lichen Vorgangsweise (support ahead of the face, face support, in the volume of rock that controls the behaviour.
bei der Festlegung von ground improvement, drainage), Predefined criteria and weighted parameters
Ausbruch und Stüt-
zung und Überprüfung ➮ Description of system behaviour (behaviour are used to identify the appropriate rock mass
des Systemverhaltens during excavation, deformation characteris- type.
während des Baus. tics, utilization of supports),
➮ Warning criteria and levels, as well as contin- Step 2 – determination of the actual
gency measures according to the safety man- rock mass behaviour type
agement plan. Observations during excavation, such as signs of
This is the final step in the geotechnical design excessive stress, deformation pattern and ob-
process. All possible geological conditions served failure mechanisms, and results from
should be addressed with a defined range of ex- probing ahead are used to continuously update
cavation and support methods as well as the the geotechnical model. The reaction of the
probability or likelihood of occurrence. ground to the excavation has to be observed, us-
ing appropriate geotechnical monitoring meth-
Step 5 – determination ods and layouts. Based on observations and
of excavation classes measurement results during construction a
In the final step of the design process the geo- short-term prediction is made, and the actual
technical design must be transformed into a cost rock mass behaviour type for the coming excava-
and time estimate for the tender process. Exca- tion step is determined (21, 22).

16 FELSBAU 21 (2003) NO. 4


SCHUBERT, GORICKI AND RIEDMÜLLER: GUIDELINE FOR THE GEOMECHANICAL DESIGN OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

Step 3 – determination of excavation For the determination of the excavation and


and support support two different scenarios are anticipated.

STANDARDS
To determine the appropriate excavation and In the first case no limitations in blasting vibra-
support the criteria laid out in the baseline con- tions and no restrictions in the surface settle-
struction plan have to be followed. Consequent- ments have to be observed. This allows a round
ly, the actual rock mass conditions (RMT, BT) length of 2.5 m, while for support shotcrete, rock
continuously have to be compared to the predic- bolts, and steel arches are used. In the second
tion for compliance. A continuous detailed anal- case the boundary conditions are different, with
ysis of the rock mass behaviour is used to update restrictions both in blasting vibrations and sur-
the geotechnical model. The additional data ob- face settlements due to an adjacent building. In
tained during construction form the basis for the this case the round length is reduced to 1.3 m to
determination of the applied excavation and reduce blasting vibrations and displacements. In
support methods. The goal is to achieve an eco- addition forepoling is used to reduce loosening.
nomical and safe tunnel construction. This example is used to demonstrate, that differ-
Based on the evaluated behaviour type, and ent requirements strongly can influence the ex-
the excavation and support layout determined cavation and support design.
according to the defined criteria, the system be-
haviour for each section has to be predicted (23). Step 4 – verification of
Both excavation and support, to a major ex- system behaviour
tent, have to be determined prior to the excava- By monitoring the behaviour of the excavated
tion. After the initial excavation only minor mod- and supported section the compliance with the
ifications, like additional bolts, are possible. This requirements and criteria defined in the geo-
fact stresses the importance of a continuous technical safety management plan can be
short-term prediction. checked. When differences between the ob-
Figure 4 shows an example for the determina- served and predicted behaviour occur, the pa-
tion of excavation and support on site. To deter- rameters and criteria used during excavation for
mine the rock mass type, the rock type, strength the determination of rock mass type and the ex- Fig. 4 Example of
the sequence for de-
of the rock, spacing of foliation planes and slick- cavation and support have to be reviewed. When
termination of excava-
ensides, joint fillings and contact, thickness of cat- the displacements or support utilization are tion and support with
aclastic zones, and weathering are used. Parame- higher than predicted, a detailed investigation different requirements.
ters for the determination of the behaviour type into the reasons for the different system behav- Bild 4 Beispiel für
are the geometry of the excavation, the stress iour has to be conducted, and if required im- die Bestimmung von
Ausbruch und Stüt-
conditions, the ground water, and the relative ori- provement measures (like increase of support) zung bei unterschied-
entation of discontinuities to the tunnel axis. ordered (24, 25). In case the system behaviour is lichen Anforderungen.

FELSBAU 21 (2003) NO. 4 17


SCHUBERT, GORICKI AND RIEDMÜLLER: GUIDELINE FOR THE GEOMECHANICAL DESIGN OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

more favourable than expected, the reasons 9. Schubert, W. et al.: Method for a Consistent Determination
have to be analysed as well, and the findings of Excavation and Support for Design and Construction of
STANDARDS

Tunnels. P. Särkkä, P.Eloranta (eds.): Rock mechanics; A


used to better calibrate the geotechnical model challenge for society, pp. 383 -388, Proc. ISRM Reg. Symp.
and the delimitating criteria and parameters. Eurock 2001, Espoo, Finland. Rotterdam: Balkema, 2001.
10. Goricki, A. ; Schubert, W. ; Steidl, A. ; Vigl, L.: Geotechni-
cal Risk Assessment as the Basis for Cost Estimates in Tun-
Conclusion nelling. In: Felsbau 20 (2002), No. 5, pp. 24-30.
11. Goricki, A. ; Schick, K.J. ; Steidl, A.: Quantification of the
The Guideline for the “Geomechanical Design of Geotechnical and Economic Risk in Tunnelling. Probabilis-
Underground Structures with Conventional Ex- tics in Geotechnics: Technical and Economic Risk Estima-
cavation” of the OGG outlines a method to deter- tion. pp. 483-490, Graz, Austria, September 2002. Essen:
mine support and excavation sequence for the Verlag Glueckauf GmbH, 2002.
12. Hoek, E.: Putting numbers to geology – an engineer´s
design and construction of tunnels. Instead of viewpoint. In: Felsbau 17 (1999), No. 3, pp. 139-151.
support decisions based on standardized rock 13. Barton, N. ; Bandis, S.: Effects of block size on the shear
mass classification systems this project tailored behaviour of jointed rock. Key note lecture, Proceedings 23rd
procedure incorporates the observation of the US Symposium on Rock Mechanics, Berkeley, California,
pp. 739-760, 1982.
rock mass behaviour and the rock mass support
14. Bhasin, R. ; Hoeg, K.: Numerical modelling of block size
interaction in a transparent and consistent way. effects and influence of joint properties in multiply jointed
There are several goals that are hoped to be rock. In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 13
reached by applying of this procedure: (1998), No. 2, pp. 181-188.
➮ Optimized exploratory investigation pro- 15. Feder, G.: Zum Stabilitätsnachweis für Hohlräume in fes-
tem Gebirge bei richtungsbetontem Primärdruck. In: Berg-
grammes by concentrating on the collection of und Hüttenmännische Monatshefte 122 (1977), No. 4, pp.
rock mass and project specific key parame- 131-140.
ters, 16. Feder, G.: Versuchsergebnisse und analytische Ansätze
➮ Consistent designs meeting project specific zum Scherbruchmechanismus im Bereich tiefliegender Tun-
nel. In: Rock Mechanics, No. 6/1978, pp. 71-102.
requirements,
17. Hoek, E.: Support for very weak rock associated with
➮ Optimized construction by providing clear faults and shear zones. Rock Support and Reinforcement
procedures to support the decisions on site, Practice in Mining; Proc. intern. symp., Kalgoorlie, Australia,
➮ Continuous documentation of the decision 1999.
making process, 18. Liu, Q. ; Brosch, F.-J. ; Klima, K. ; Riedmüller, G. ; Schu-
bert, W.: Application of a data base system during tunnelling.
➮ Promote technical advances in tunnelling by
In: Felsbau 17(1999), No. 1, pp. 47-50.
evaluating comparable data from various sites. 19. Liu, Q. ; Riedmüller, G. ; Klima, K.: Quantification of pa-
Most of the owners in Austria meanwhile rameter relationships in tunnelling. P. Särkkä, P.Eloranta
specify the Guideline as a basis for geomechani- (eds.): Rock mechanics; A challenge for society. Proc. ISRM
Reg. Symp. Eurock 2001, Espoo, Finland, pp. 357 -362. Rot-
cal designs. The response from owners and de-
terdam: Balkema, 2001.
signers is very positive. The practical application 20. Gaich, A. ; Fasching, A. ; Schubert, W.: Geotechnical
of the Guideline has shown that a few points data collection supported by computer vision. ISRM Reg.
need clarification. Currently a revision of the Symp. Eurock 2001, Espoo, Finland. P. Särkkä, P. Eloranta
Guideline is under preparation, which will ap- (eds.): Rock Mechanics; A Challenge for Society. Proc. ISRM
Reg. Symp. Eurock 2001, Espoo, Finland, pp. 65-70. Rotter-
pear later in 2003. Parallel to this, the Guideline
dam: Balkema, 2001.
is translated into English, allowing a wider dis- 21. Steindorfer, A.: Short Term Prediction of Rock Mass Be-
tribution. haviour in Tunnelling by Advanced Analysis of Displacement
Monitoring Data. G. Riedmüller, W. Schubert, S. Semprich
(eds.): Schriftenreihe der Gruppe Geotechnik Graz (1). Graz:
References Gruppe Geotechnik Graz, 1998.
1. Austrian Standards Institute: ONORM B 2203-1. 2001. 22. Golser, H. ; Steindorfer, A.: Displacement vector orienta-
2. Riedmüller, G. ; Schubert, W.: Project and rock mass spe- tions in tunnelling – what do they tell? In: Felsbau 18 (2000),
cific investigation for tunnels. ISRM Reg. Symp. Eurock No. 1. pp. 16-21.
2001, Espoo, Finland. P. Särkkä, P. Eloranta (eds.): Rock 23. Sellner, P.: Prediction of displacements in tunnelling. G.
Mechanics a Challenge for Society, pp. 369-376. Rotterdam: Riedmüller, W. Schubert, S. Semprich (eds.): Schriftenreihe
Balkema, 2001. der Gruppe Geotechnik Graz (9). Graz: Gruppe Geotechnik
3. Bieniawski, Z.T.: Geomechanics classification of rock Graz, 2000.
masses and its application in tunnelling. Advances in rock 24. Rokahr, R. ; Zachow, R.: Ein neues Verfahren zur tägli-
mechanics 2(A), pp. 27-32, 1974. chen Kontrolle der Auslastung einer Spritzbetonschale. In:
4. Bieniawski, Z.T.: Engineering rock mass classifications. Felsbau 15 (1997), No. 6, pp. 430-434.
New York: Wiley, 1989. 25. Hellmich, C. ; Macht, J. ; Mang, H.: Ein hybrides Verfahren
5. Barton, N. ; Lien, R. L. ; Lunde, J.: Engineering classifica- zur Bestimmung der Auslastung von Spritzbetonschalen. In:
tion of rock masses for the design of tunnel support. In: Rock Felsbau 17 (1999), No. 5, pp. 422-425.
Mechanics 6 (1974), No. 4, pp. 189-236.
6. Barton, N.: NMT support concepts for tunnels in weak
rocks. A. Negro Jr., A.A. Feirreira (eds.): Tunnels and Me- Authors
tropolises, pp. 273-279. Proc. intern. symp., Sao Paulo. Rot- Univ.-Professor Dipl.-Ing. Dr.mont. Wulf Schubert, Dipl.-Ing.
terdam: Balkema, 1998. Andreas Goricki, Institute for Rock Mechanics and Tunnel-
7. Riedmüller, G. ; Schubert, W.: Critical comments on quan- ling, Graz University of Technology, Rechbauerstraße 12, A-
titative rock mass classifications. In: Felsbau 17 (1999), 8010 Graz, Austria, E-Mail schubert@tugraz.at, goricki@
No. 3, pp. 164-167. tugraz.at; Univ.-Professor Dr. Gunter Riedmüller, Institute of
8. Österreichische Gesellschaft für Geomechanik: Richtlinie Engineering Geology and Applied Mineralogy, Graz Univer-
für die Geomechanische Planung von Untertagebauarbeiten sity of Technology, Rechbauerstraße 12, A-8010 Graz, Aus-
mit zyklischem Vortrieb. Salzburg, 2001. tria, E-Mail rdm@egam.tugraz.at

18 FELSBAU 21 (2003) NO. 4


VG
SCHUBERT, GORICKI AND RIEDMÜLLER: GUIDELINE FOR THE GEOMECHANICAL DESIGN OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

Fax-Antwort +49 (0) 20 54 / 9 24-1 29


Verlag Glückauf Essen

STANDARDS
grund der besonderen Randbedin-
gungen noch höher sein. Der Erkun-
Gründung von Offshore- dung der Baugrundeigenschaften
und der optimalen Auswahl der

Windenergieanlagen Gründung kommt also eine hohe


wirtschaftliche und technische Bedeu-
tung zu. Für eine wirtschaftliche Rea-
Gründungskonzepte lisierung der Offshore-Windparks
folgt daraus, dass vor allem Grün-
und geotechnische Grundlagen dungsarten zu entwickeln sind, die
sich trotz eines hohen Grads an Vor-
fertigung an die jeweiligen grün-
von Jens Wiemann, Kerstin Inhalt und Zielgruppe dungstechnischen Randbedingungen
Lesny und Werner Richwien vor Ort anpassen lassen. Dies erfor-
Ein weiterer Ausbau der Windenergie dert in allen Planungsphasen hinrei-
Band 29 der Mitteilungen aus an Land ist nur noch in einem gerin- chende Kenntnisse über die Bau-
dem Fachgebiet Grundbau und gen Umfang möglich, weil geeignete grundeigenschaften und deren Um-
Bodenmechanik der Universität Standorte kaum noch vorhanden und setzung im Rahmen der Gründungs-
Essen, Hrsg.: Prof. Dr.-Ing. vor allem nicht mehr genehmigungs- planung. Hierzu soll das vorliegende
W. Richwien fähig sind. Stattdessen sollen die ener- Heft eine Arbeitshilfe sein.
giepolitischen Ziele (Vorrang erneuer-
Verlag Glückauf 2002, 100 Sei- barer Energien) durch intensive Nut- Dieses Werk fasst die bisherigen Er-
ten, DIN A5, ISBN 3-7739-1429-6, zung des Windenergiepotenzials in kenntnisse über die geologische Ent-
Preis 14,80 EUR der Deutschen Bucht und der Ostsee wicklung der Böden in der Deutschen
genutzt werden. In Offshore-Wind- Bucht zusammen und enthält für
parks, vorzugsweise in der ausschließ- typische Bodenarten Bandbreiten der
lichen Wirtschaftszone maßgebenden Baugrundkennwerte.
(AWZ) der Bundesrepu- Die Methoden der Baugrunderkun-
blik Deutschland, sollen dungen werden vorgestellt und die
bis zum Jahr 2030 rd. derzeit für den Entwurf und die Be-
25 000 bis 30 000 MW messung maßgebenden Regeln und
Leistung in Offshore- Ansätze diskutiert. Das Werk richtet
Windparks mit mehreren sich nicht nur an Geotechniker, son-
hundert Anlagen pro Park dern an alle an der Planung der
und einer Leistung von bis Windparks beteiligten Fachleute
zu 5 MW pro Anlage instal- und enthält daher zusätzlich ein Glos-
liert werden. sar typischer geotechnischer Fachbe-
griffe.
Generell entfällt ein wesent-
licher Teil der Baukosten auf Die Publikation ist aus der Mitwir-
die Gründung. Bei konventio- kung der Autoren in der Forschungs-
nellen Bauwerken auf dem gruppe Gigawind an der Universität
Festland sind dies erfahrungs- Hannover – Bau- und umwelttechni-
gemäß 10 bis 30 % der Rohbau- sche Aspekte von Offshore-Windener-
kosten, je nach Baugrundbe- gieanlagen – mit Unterstützung des
schaffenheit. Bei Bauwerken auf Bundesministeriums für Wirtschaft
hoher See kann der Anteil auf- und Technologie entstanden.
Bestellung

Absender:
Verlag Glückauf Essen

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Internet www.vge.de Datum Unterschrift

FELSBAU 21 (2003) NO. 4 19