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A process of estimating errors in the measured values and computing the improved (more precise) values so that they are consistent with the geometric condition of the quantity being measured (ex. length, elev diff, etc)

SO …… WHAT IS GEOMATICS?

SO …… WHAT IS GEOMATICS?

COLLECTION spatial data

PROCESSING spatial data

DELIVERY OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

Those are instruments and methods for the measurement, collection and management of Earth’s spatial data in surveying science and geomatics

Measured or observed data

always contain errors and they must be processed before be utilized for surveying and mapping purposes

Adjustment Computations – Study of Errors in Measurements

Measurement is a process of getting the value for an

unknown quantity

The quantity could be length, angle, coordinates,

weight, pulse rate, etc.

The value for the quantity could be acquired or

estimated from the scale of an instrument

The process may involves activities or actions that

are performed by the operator to bring the instrument

into contact with the quantity

The outcome from this process is the value recorded

by the instrument

The value is known as measured value or observed

value or surveyed value (or data)

No measurement is ever exact (eg. repeated

measurement)

Repeated measurement of the same quantity using

the same instrument under the same condition resulted different values.

The difference between the measured value and its

true value is called “error” in the measurement.

Sources of errors are (i) Instrumental, (ii) Natural and

(iii) Personal.

All measurements are not free from errors

We need to (i) analyse the magnitude of the error, (ii)

determine if the error can be tolerated, and (iii) adjust the error so that its conform to the geometric condition required, resulting better results.

Application of survey data

Input in GIS for output of map products

Quality of the product depends on quality of input or survey data

Quality expressed in terms of errors in the measured data or

observations

error = X - T

 Where X = observed value T = true value

error = gross + systematic + random

Survey observations

…… a way or process of determining the value of an unknown quantity

Errors

….are the differences between observed or measured or derived values and standard or true values of the quantity of interest

Survey observations contain errors that can be categorized as

- gross error

- systematic error or bias

- random error

Gross and systematic errors can be removed from the observations

Random errors cannot be eliminated but can be controlled

Random errors

- due top human and instruments imperfection

- small magnitude and can be positive or negative

- dealt based on law of probability or statistics

Error effects

- repeated observations of same quantity, same condition give different values

- small difference between repeated observations indicates small error and the observation is precise

- precision and accuracy are two different things. Explain.

Accurate or Precise shots?

Detection the presence of random errors

- comparison between observations and certain conditions that fit to the geometry of the measurements

- Examples:

> total elevation difference in a closed loop is zero

> total internal angles of a triangle is 180 deg

> total angles around the horizon at a point is 360 deg

> total latitude and departure of a closed traverse is zero

- the conditions involve more than one observation, i.e. redundant observations

- redundant observations are observations that exceed the minimum number needed to determine the unknown. Give examples.

- redundant observations allow the detection of random error and adjustment be made to get a final or most probable value for the unknown.

- What is the difference between adjustment and correction of observations?

Redundant observations

Example: Observation of three angles of a plane triangle (say A, B and C)

Number of redundant observation is ONE

If only angles A and B were observed, the angle C could be computed as

C = 180 – A – B. Hence, C is unnecessary. If C is observed, it is a redundant.

Advantage of value C from observation:

• Enable to assess error and to decide whether to accept or reject the observation

• To make possible adjustment to the observed values in order to derive higher precision values or Most Probable Values (MPV) for the unknown quantity.