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INTRODUCTION

The name of a popular wireless networking


technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless
high-speed Internet and network connections. The
Wi-Fi Alliance, the organization that owns the Wi-Fi
(registered trademark) term specifically defines Wi-Fi
as any "wireless local area network (WLAN) products
that are based on the Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards."
The term Wi-Fi suggests Wireless Fidelity, resembling
the long-established audio-equipment classification
term high fidelity (in use since the 1930s) or Hi-Fi
(used since 1950)
Wi-Fi is wireless technology which enable connection
between two or more devices wirelessly for data
sharing puposes.It is wireless networking which is
based on IEEE 802.11 standards. it is now being used
by millions of people using various devices such as
personal computers, laptops, pdas', printers, camera,
games, mp3 players etc, more and more gadgets are
coming with built in feature of this amazning wireless
technology.

RADIO TECHNOLOGY

Wi-Fi network uses radio technology called IEEE


802.11b to provide secure, fast, reliable, wireless
connectivity. 11b defines the physical layer and media
access control (MAC) sublayer for communications
across a shared, wireless local area network (WLAN).
At the physical layer, IEEE 802.11b operates at the
radio frequency of 2.45 gigahertz (GHz) with a
maximum bit rate of 11 Mbps. It uses the direct
sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) transmission
technique. At the MAC sublayer of the Data Link layer,
802.11b uses the carrier sense multiple access with
collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) media access control
(MAC) protocol

AREA UNDER USED

Initially, Wi-Fi was used in place of only the 2.4GHz


802.11b standard, however the Wi-Fi Alliance has
expanded the generic use of the Wi-Fi term to include
any type of network or WLAN product based on any of
the 802.11 standards, including 802.11b, 802.11a,
dual-band, and so on, in an attempt to stop confusion
about wireless LAN interoperability.
Wi-Fi works with no physical wired connection
between sender and receiver by using radio frequency
(RF) technology, a frequency within the
electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave
propagation. When an RF current is supplied to an
antenna, an electromagnetic field is created that then
is able to propagate through space. The cornerstone
of any wireless network is an access point (AP). The
primary job of an access point is to broadcast a
wireless signal that computers can detect and "tune"
into. In order to connect to an access point and join a
wireless network, computers and devices must be
equipped with wireless network adapters

WORKING
Wi-Fi is supported by many applications and devices
including video game consoles, home networks, PDAs,
mobile phones, major operating systems, and other
types of consumer electronics. Any products that are
tested and approved as "Wi-Fi Certified" (a registered
trademark) by the Wi-Fi Alliance are certified as
interoperable with each other, even if they are from
different manufacturers. For example, a user with a
Wi-Fi Certified product can use any brand of access
point with any other brand of client hardware that
also is also "Wi-Fi Certified". Products that pass this
certification are required to carry an identifying seal
on their packaging that states "Wi-Fi Certified" and
indicates the radio frequency band used (2.5GHz for
802.11b, 802.11g, or 802.11n, and 5GHz for
802.11a).
A common misconception is that the term Wi-Fi is
short for "wireless fidelity," however this is not the
case. Wi-Fi is simply a trademarked term meaning
IEEE 802.11x.

MUNICIPLE WIFI

Often abbreviated as muni Wi-Fi, municipal Wi-Fi is a


city-wide (municipal) wireless network, based mainly
on 802.11 networking standards that provide high-
speed Internet access within the municipality for free
or low cost access when compared to standard
broadband access fees. Municipal Wi-Fi networks are
a type of wireless mesh network.

WIFI ENABLED
The term used to describe any device that has build-in
support for Wi-Fi, a popular wireless networking
technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless
high-speed Internet and network connections.

WIFI PHONE
A cellular telephone that's capable of connecting to
the Internet through a Wi-Fi network or hotspot is
frequently referred to as a Wi-Fi phone. Wi-Fi mobile
phones enable a person to make calls, send and
receive text messages, receive voicemail and access
the Internet when connected to a Wi-Fi network.
A second category of Wi-Fi phones lacks cellular
telephone capabilities and essentially operates as
VoIP over a Wi-Fi network, utilizing Voice over Wi-Fi,
or Voice over WLAN, technology to make voice calls.

WIFI ALLIANCE
An organization made up of leading wireless
equipment and software providers with the missions
of certifying all 802.11-based products for
interoperability and promoting the term Wi-Fi as the
global brand name across all markets for any 802.11-
based wireless LAN products.
While all 802.11a/b/g products are called Wi-Fi, only
products that have passed the Wi-Fi Alliance testing
are allowed to refer to their products as "Wi-Fi
Certified" (a registered trademark). Products that
pass are required to carry an identifying seal on their
packaging that states "Wi-Fi Certified" and indicates
the radio frequency band used (2.5GHz for 802.11b or
11g, 5GHz for 802.11a)
This group was formerly known as the Wireless
Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA) but changed
its name in October 2002 to better reflect the Wi-Fi
brand it wants to build.

USES

Wi-Fi enabled device such as a personal computer,


video game console, smartphone or digital audio
player can connect to the Internet when within range
of a wireless network connected to the Internet. The
coverage of one or more (interconnected) access
points — called hotspots — can comprise an area as
small as a few rooms or as large as many square
miles. Coverage in the larger area may depend on a
group of access points with overlapping coverage. Wi-
Fi technology has been used in wireless mesh
networks, for example, in London, UK.
In addition to private use in homes and offices, Wi-Fi
can provide public access at Wi-Fi hotspots provided
either free-of-charge or to subscribers to various
commercial services. Organizations and businesses -
such as those running airports, hotels and restaurants
- often provide free-use hotspots to attract or assist
clients. Enthusiasts or authorities who wish to provide
services or even to promote business in selected areas
sometimes provide free Wi-Fi access. As of 2008 more
than 300 metropolitan-wide Wi-Fi (Muni-Fi) projects
had started. As of 2010 the Czech Republic had 1150
Wi-Fi based wireless Internet service providers.

Routers that incorporate a digital subscriber line


modem or a cable modem and a Wi-Fi access point,
often set up in homes and other premises, can provide
Internet access and internetworking to all devices
connected (wirelessly or by cable) to them. With the
emergence of MiFi and WiBro (a portable Wi-Fi router)
people can easily create their own Wi-Fi hotspots that
connect to Internet via cellular networks. Now iPhone,
Android or Symbian phones can create wireless
connections.[19]
One can also connect Wi-Fi devices in ad-hoc mode for
client-to-client connections without a router. Wi-Fi
also connects places that would traditionally not have
network access, for example kitchens and garden
sheds.

REACH
Wi-Fi networks have limited range. A typical wireless
router using 802.11b or 802.11g with a stock antenna
might have a range of 32 m (120 ft) indoors and 95 m
(300 ft) outdoors. The IEEE 802.11n however, can
exceed that range by more than two times.[30] Range
also varies with frequency band. Wi-Fi in the 2.4 GHz
frequency block has slightly better range than Wi-Fi in
the 5 GHz frequency block. Outdoor ranges - through
use of directional antennas - can be improved with
antennas located several kilometers or more from
their base. In general, the maximum amount of power
that a Wi-Fi device can transmit is limited by local
regulations, such as FCC Part 15[31] in USA.

MOBILITY
The very limited practical range of Wi-Fi essentially
confines mobile use to such applications as inventory-
taking machines in warehouses or in retail spaces,
barcode-reading devices at check-out stands, or
receiving/shipping stations. Mobile use of Wi-Fi over
wider ranges is limited, for instance, to uses such as
in an automobile moving from one hotspot to another
(known as Wardriving). Other wireless technologies
are more suitable as illustrated in the graphic.

HARDWARE USED IN THE


COMMUNICATION
A wireless access point (WAP) connects a group of
wireless devices to an adjacent wired LAN. An access
point resembles a network hub, relaying data between
connected wireless devices in addition to a (usually)
single connected wired device, most often an Ethernet
hub or switch, allowing wireless devices to
communicate with other wired devices.
Wireless adapters allow devices to connect to a
wireless network. These adapters connect to devices
using various external or internal interconnects such
as PCI, miniPCI, USB, Express Card, Card bus and PC
Card. As of 2010, most new laptop computers come
equipped with internal adapters. Internal cards are
generally more difficult to install
Wireless network bridges connect a wired network to
a wireless network. A bridge differs from an access
point: an access point connects wireless devices to a
wired network at the data-link layer. Two wireless
bridges may be used to connect two wired networks
over a wireless link, useful in situations where a wired
connection may be unavailable, such as between two
separate homes.
Wireless range-extenders or wireless repeaters can
extend the range of an existing wireless network.
Strategically placed range-extenders can elongate a
signal area or allow for the signal area to reach
around barriers such as those pertaining in L-shaped
corridors. Wireless devices connected through
repeaters will suffer from an increased latency for
each hop. Additionally, a wireless device connected to
any of the repeaters in the chain will have a
throughput limited by the "weakest link" between the
two nodes in the chain from which the connection
originates to where the connection ends.
Wi-Fi is on going technology, every now and then
some thing new in wireless technology shows up. Wi-
Fi technology is by far the most used technology world
wide as every one is realizing growing needs for being
wireless which is impacting our daily lives and our
businesses. In below section we will talk about latest
news related to Wi-Fi from around the world wide.

SECURITY

Because wireless is a shared medium, everything that


is transmitted or received over a wireless network can
be intercepted. Encryption and authentication are
always considered when developing a wireless
networking system. The goal of adding these security
features is to make wireless traffic as secure as wired
traffic. The IEEE 802.11b standard provides a
mechanism to do this by encrypting the traffic and
authenticating nodes via the Wired Equivalent Privacy
(WEP) protocol. The IEEE 802.11 standard defines the
following mechanisms for wireless security: •
Authentication through the open system and shared
key authentication types • Data confidentiality
through Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) Open system
authentication does not provide authentication, only
identification using the wireless adapter's MAC
address. Open system authentication is used when no
authentication is required. Some wireless APs allow
the configuration of the MAC addresses of allowed
wireless clients. However, this is not secure because
the MAC address of a wireless client can be spoofed.
Shared key authentication verifies that an
authenticating wireless client has knowledge of a
shared secret. This is similar to preshared key
authentication in Internet Protocol security (IPsec).
The 802.11 standard currently assumes that
The shared key is delivered to participating STAs
through a secure channel that is independent of IEEE
802.11. In practice, this secret is manually configured
for both the wireless AP and client. Because the
shared key authentication secret must be distributed
manually, this method of authentication does not
scale to a large infrastructure mode network (for
example, corporate campuses and public places, such
as malls and airports). Additionally, shared key
authentication is not secure and is not recommended
for use

HEALTH ISSUES
Small percentage of Wifi users has reported adverse
health issues after repeat exposure and use of Wifi.
Common ailments of "Wifi Sickness" or "Wifi
Sensitivity" as described by those who have suffered
include "unusual headaches” as well as one or more of
the following symptoms: nausea, heart irregularities
and "racing heart" rates, temporary incidents of loss
of balance and dizziness, chest pain, a heating and/or
tingling sensation in the face area, undue physical
stress, panic attacks and/or mental anxiety, and
minor cognitive impairment. A few health experts
conclude there is a strong neurological component to
described health issues.
Concerns brought up by those who have been affected
include that additional research is needed, that
includes focus on whether only a certain segment of
the population is adversely affected by Wifi and RF
technology, or if there is a larger underlining issue
that ultimately could have adverse, long term health
affects to the general population as a result of the
constant and repeat exposure to Wifi that has recently
become common throughout many industrialized
nations.