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maxon sensor

Technology – short and to the point

maxon sensor

Sensors Program 1 End cap

2 Electrical connections motor and encoder
maxon offers a series of sensors. – Digital MILE encoder 3 Print
Their characteristics are: – Digital MR encoder 4 MR sensor
– Digital Hall effect encoder 5 ASIC
Digital incremental encoder 6 Magnetic multi-pole wheel
– Digital optical encoder
– Relative position signal suitable for
positioning tasks – DC Tacho 7 Encoder housing
– Rotation direction recognition – Resolver 8 Motor connections
– Speed information from number of pulses per 9 Motor
time unit = Solid measure
– Standard solution for many applications + Carrier of solid measure
DC tachometer
– Analog speed signal
– Rotation direction recognition
– Not suitable for positioning tasks

– Analog rotor position signal
– Analog speed signal
– Extensive evaluation electronics required in
the control system
– For special solutions in conjunction with Magneto-resistant (MR) principle Optical principle
sinusoidal commutation in EC motors In an MR-encoder, the multipole magnetic The opto-electronic principle (example: HEDL
disc mounted on the motor shaft produces a HEDS, Enc22) sends an LED light through
sinusoidal voltage in the MR sensor. The typical a finely screened code wheel that is rigidly
encoder signals are created by interpolation mounted onto the motor shaft. The receiver
and electronic signal refinement. (photo transistor) changes light/dark signals
into corresponding electrical impulses that are
Digital Incremental Encoder Characteristics amplified and processed in the electronics.
– Needs very little space
Encoder signals – No protruding parts Characteristics
The encoders provide a simple square signal – High number of pulses by interpolation – Needs large space with protruding part
for further processing in the control system. Its – Different number of pulses can be selected – High number of pulses
impulses can be counted for exact positioning – Index channel possible – Index channel possible
or determining speed. Channels A and B pick – Line driver possible – Line driver possible
up phase shifted signals, which are compared – High accuracy
with one another to determine the rotation
direction. Magnetic principle with Hall sensors Inductive eddy current principle
On the magnetic MEnc-Encoder a small In the inductive MILE encoder, a high-frequency
A “home” pulse (index channel I) can be used multipole permanent magnet sits on the motor magnetic field is brought onto a structured
as a reference point for precise determination of shaft. The changes in magnetic flux are read copper disc and the angle-dependent field
rotation angle. by Hall sensors and fed into the electronics as displacement measured.
channel A and B.
The line driver produces complementary sig- Characteristics
– – -
nals A, B, I which help to eliminate interference Characteristics – Very robust against magnetic and electrical
on long signal lines. In addition, this electronic – Small design fields as well as contamination
driver installed in the encoder improves signal – 2 channels A and B – Very high speeds possible
quality by steeper signal edges. – No line driver possible – High precision. Interpolation errors are
– Low number of pulses largely compensated for by a look-up table
– Index channel and line driver available
– Absolute interface (SSI) on request

Representation of the output signal Schematic design of a Schematic design of an

of a digital encoder magnetic encoder opto-electronic encoder

90° e Phase shift A,B A B I

360° e Cycle

Channel A

Channel B S
Channel I
Index puls width S
Phase shift of index pulse

32 Technology – short and to the point May 2010 edition / subject to change

maxon sensor
7 9
6 +
3 53

8 =
DC Tacho

In principle every maxon DC motor can be used

as a DC tacho. For motor-tacho combinations,
we offer a DC tachometer, whereby the tacho
rotor is mounted directly on the motor shaft.
– The output DC voltage is proportional to the
speed thanks to the precious metal brushes.
– AINiCo magnet for high signal stability with
temperature fluctuations
– No additional tacho bearings or friction
Tips on encoder selection The following applies especially to – No couplings, high mechanical resonance
Principal features of the maxon incremental positioning systems: frequency
encoder are: – All maxon positioning systems evaluate the
– The number of pulses per revolution rising and falling signal edges. With regard
(increments) to encoder number of pulses, this results in a
– The accuracy four times higher positioning precision. This
– Use of an index channel is what is referred to as quadcounts.
– The use of a line driver The resolver is mounted on the motor’s through
– The maximum supported speed – The higher the number of pulses, the more shaft and adjusted according to the magnetic
– The suitability for special ambient conditions precise the position that can be reached. field of the motor rotor. The resolver has a rotat-
(dust, oil, magnetic fields, ionizing radiation) At 500 pulses (2000 quadcounts) an angle ing primary coil (rotor) and two secondary coils
resolution of 0.18° is achieved, which is (stator) offset by 90°. An alternating current
Encoders and maxon controllers usually much better than the precision of the connected to the primary coil is transferred to
– As a standard the maxon controllers are mechanical drive components (e.g. due to the two secondary coils. The amplitudes of the
preset for encoders with 500 pulses per revo- gear play or elasticity of drive belts). secondary voltages are sin j and cos j, where
lution j is the rotation angle.
– The higher the number of pulses and the – Only encoders with an integrated line driver
higher the accuracy the better a smooth, jerk- (RS422) should be used in positioning con- Characteristics
free operation can be achieved even at low trols. This prevents electromagnetic interfer- – Robust, for industrial use
speeds. ence signals from causing signal loss and – Long service life
– maxon controllers can be set for low or high accumulated positioning errors. – No mechanical wear
speed operation and for encoders with a low – Output signal can be transmitted over long
or high number of pulses. – Positioning applications often require the distances without problems
– Control electronics can restrict an encoder’s index channel of the encoder for precise – No sensitive electronics
maximum possible number of pulses. reference point detection. – Special signal evaluation required
– Only one sensor for position and speed infor-
– EC motors with resolver are supplied
without Hall sensors

Schematic design of Recommendations for

the inductive MILE encoder using the maxon encoder Schematic design of a resolver


line driver possible ✓ ✓ ✓
arctan index channel possible ✓ ✓ ✓
A/D precise position ✓ ✓
LUT very low speed ✓
very high speed (✓) ✓ ✓
dust, dirt, oil ✓ ✓ ✓
ionising radiation ✓*
*on request

May 2010 edition / subject to change Technology – short and to the point 33