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Dissertation Report

On

IMPACT OF CROSS CULTURAL ASPECTS ON EMPLOYEE


PERFORMANCE IN AN ORGANISATION

By
MBA Class of 2011

Under the Supervision of


Dr. Jaya Yadav

Department of Human Resources

In Partial Fulfillment of Award of Master of Business Administration

AMITY BUSINESS SCHOOL


AMITY UNIVERSITY UTTAR PRADESH
SECTOR 125, NOIDA - 201303, UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA
2011

AMITY UNIVERSITY UTTAR PRADESH


AMITY BUSINESS SCHOOL
DECLARATION

I, xyz student of Masters of Business Administration from Amity Business School,


Amity University Uttar Pradesh hereby declare that I have completed Dissertation
on “IMPACT OF CROSS CULTURAL ASPECTS ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE” as part
of the course requirement.

I further declare that the information presented in this project is true and original to
the best of my knowledge.

Date: 14/03/11 Name:

Place: Noida Enroll.


No:
Program: MBA HR Class of
2011
AMITY UNIVERSITY UTTAR PRADESH
AMITY BUSINESS SCHOOL

CERTIFICATE

I Dr. Jaya Yadav hereby certify that xyz student of Masters of Business

Administration at Amity Business School, Amity University Uttar Pradesh has

completed dissertation on “IMPACT OF CROSS CULTURAL ASPECTS ON EMPLOYEE

PERFORMANCE”, under my guidance.

Dr Jaya Yadav

Assistant Professor

Department of Human Resources


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This study is an integral part of our MBA program and to do this project in a short period was a
heavy task. Intention, dedication, concentration and hard work are very much essential to
complete any task.

I bear to imprint of my people who have given me their precious ideas and times to enable me to
complete the research and the project report. I want to thank them for their continuous support at
my research and writing efforts.

I gratefully acknowledge the pride of having completed this project under the dynamic,
benevolent and valuable guidance of my mentor Dr. Jaya Yadav. Her instructive support and
encouragement has helped me to present this project in a much better way.

I would also like to acknowledge the employees for their immense time and cooperation in
getting the survey completed by giving their valuable feedback.

My heartfelt gratitude towards my college authorities of AMITY UNIVERSITY, Uttar Pradesh


for giving me this fabulous opportunity to conduct this in depth studies on. In the end I would
like to thank all the people who helped me carry out the small daily chores that made my study a
smooth and enjoyable experience.

With regards
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Particulars Page No.

Ch. 1 Introduction to Topic……………………………………………………6

Ch. 2 Objectives & Rationale To the Project…………………………………10

Ch 3 Literature Review………………………………………………………..11

Ch. 4 Research Scope & Methodology ………………………………………..21

Ch. 5 Data Analysis & Interpretation…………………………………………22

Ch. 6 Conclusion………………………………………………………………..33

Ch. 7 Recommendations……………………………………………………….36

Ch. 8 Bibliography……………………………………………………………..38

Ch. 9 Annexure………………………………………………………………....39
INTRODUCTION

SAMSUNG
For over 70 years, Samsung has been dedicated towards making a better world through diverse
businesses that span advanced technology, semiconductors, skyscraper and plant construction,
petrochemicals, fashion, medicine, finance, hotels and more. Their Flagship Company, Samsung
electronics, leads the global market in high-tech electronics manufacturing and digital media.
Samsung is taking the world in imaginative new directions through innovative, reliable products,
talented people, a responsible approach to business and global citizenship, and collaboration with
their partners and customers.

CORPORATE PROFILE
Samsung is all about a digital leader, a responsible global citizen, a multi-faceted family of
companies, an ethical business and much more.

At Samsung Group and Samsung Electronics, their products, their people and their approach to
business are held to only the highest standards so that they can more effectively contribute to a
better world.

VISION
Samsung is dedicated to developing innovative technologies and efficient processes that create
new markets, enrich people’s lives, and continue to make Samsung a digital leader.

SAMSUNG’S VALUES

At Samsung they believe that living by strong values is the key to good business. At Samsung, a
rigorous code of conduct and the core values are at the heart of every decision they make.
PEOPLE
Quite simple, a company is its people. At Samsung, they are dedicated to giving their people a
wealth of opportunities to reach their full potential.

EXCELLENCE
Everything they do at Samsung is driven by an unyielding passion for excellence—and an unfaltering
commitment to develop the best products and services on the market.

CHANGE

In today’s fast-paced global economy, change is constant and innovation is critical to a company’s
survival. As Samsung has done for 70 years, they set our sights on the future, anticipating market needs
and demands so they can steer their company towards long-term success.

INTEGRITY

Operating in an ethical way is the foundation of our business. Everything Samsung do is guided by a
moral compass that ensures fairness, respect for all stakeholders and complete transparency.

CO-PROSPERITY

A business cannot be successful unless it creates prosperity and opportunity for others. Samsung is
dedicated to being a socially and environmentally responsible corporate citizen in every community
where they operate around the globe.

The Samsung Philosophy

At Samsung, they follow a simple business philosophy: to devote their talent and technology to creating
superior products and services that contribute to a better global society.

Every day, their people bring this philosophy to life. Their leaders search for the brightest talent from
around the world, and give them the resources they need to be the best at what they do. The result is that
all of our products—from memory chips that help businesses store vital knowledge to mobile phones that
connect people across continents— have the power to enrich lives. And that’s what making a better global
society all is about.
MATRIX
Matrix is the leading provider of complete Mobile and Data Solutions.
Ever since their first day of business in 1995, they have aimed to be the best for service, quality,
innovation and choice. It is still the same mantra they stick to today.
They cater to a wide audience including leisure and business travelers, students studying abroad
and businesses.
With Matrix you can always keep in touch whenever and wherever you are in the world.
They are always increasing our portfolio of countries and focusing on fulfilling customers’
specific communication needs, at home and abroad.
Their services include Indian SIM Cards, international SIM cards and Data solutions.
Our vision is to connect everyone with convenient, cost-effective mobile solutions. They are
proud to have established ourselves as the undisputed market leader

CEASEFIRE INDUSTRIES LTD


Ceasefire is India’s most trusted fire safety and Security Company. The company, at heart, is an
altruistic one that aims at saving lives and giving people the means to protect them. Their market
structure however, is based on keen industry acumen; an instinctive aptitude for sensing the
consumer’s needs, and fulfilling those needs in the best possible way. Since its inception,
Ceasefire has grown from a company that dealt exclusively with extinguishers to one that has
branched out to cover everything in the fire safety and security spectrum.

Ceasefire is the sum of FIVE


Fire
Their ranges of products cover every area of fire safety: from fire safety modules and
extinguishers to escape gear and signage.
Detection
Ceasefire’s Detection Division was created in an effort to protect people against the potential
danger of fire and smoke. Their devices sound an alert the second they detect a trace of smoke.
Security
Ceasefire's Security Division offers cutting-edge devices designed to protect both compact areas
like homes and much larger spaces like shopping malls.
Home
Ceasefire’s Home Division concentrates on providing homeowners with fire safety and security
needs that suit their requirements. This includes gas leak detectors, smoke detectors and fire
extinguishers.
Projects
This division was created to help design an effective fire safety and security plan for large-scale
projects like malls and hotels. The project team takes care of everything; from determining the
equipment required to maintaining the products installed. A project manager oversees the entire
process.
OBJECTIVE & RATIONALE

1. Rationale of proposed investigation:


The issues or focus points are very important in the cross-cultural as it is required to
choose between culture specific or culture general training, which areas of the
culture to focus upon and what are the personal requirements of the person who
might have to deal with a situation like this or who is shifting to a different culture
for work and what is its impact on the organization as in how is it affected.

2. Objective(s):
• Identifying the issues and problems faced by employees because of
cultural differences.
• Impact of Cross culture on productivity & output of the organization.
• To find out the ways to cope up with these problems.
• Impact on Globalization.
LITERATURE REVIEW
• Cross-cultural communication between the Company’s branches is challenging. Arising
of several issues because of cross-cultural communication between the two branches, which
inturn hinders the performance of the organization as well as employees. ( Sosik, John and
Jung Dong, 2002. "Work-group characteristics and performance in collectivistic and
individualistic cultures". The Journal of Social Psychology. Washington, pp 5-23.)

• Often issues related to Language barrier and culture shock are encountered. These
problems lead to other serious complications in the organization. (Pan Fan, K., Zhang,
Zigang (2004), Cross-cultural challenges when doing business in China, Singapore
Management Review, 01295977, 2004 1st Half, Vol. 26, Issue 1. Extracted February 28,
2004 from Business Source Premier at http://www.apollolibrary.com/databases.asp )

• No team work neither development and organizational interaction, thus, affecting the
tendency for the members of the organization to bond and coexist peacefully. (Ting-Toomey
S, 1985. Toward a theory of conflict and culture. In WB Gudykunst, LP Stewart, S Ting-
Toomey (eds). Communication, Culture and Organizational Processes, pp 71-86. Beverly
Hills, CA: Sage. )

• Major issue is diversification. It has been found that many organisations diversify their
operations globally but fail to manage it. ( Bhagat, Rabi S., Kedia, Ben L., Harveston, Paula
D., Triandis, Harry C. (Apr2002), Cultural Variations in the crossborder Transfer of
Organizational Knowledge, Academy of Management Review; Apr2002, Vol. 27 Issue 2.)

• Cross-border transfer of organizational knowledge is most effective in terms of both


velocity and viscosity when the type of knowledge (i.e., human, social, or structured) being
transferred is simple, explicit, and independent and when such transfers involve similar
cultural contexts. In contrast, transfer is least effective when the type of knowledge being
transferred is complex, tacit, and systemic and involves dissimilar cultural contexts. (Weaver,
K Mark, 2000. "Attitudes toward Cooperative Strategies: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of
Entrepreneurs", Journal of International Business Studies, 31, Fourth Quarter 2000: pp 591-
609. )

INTRODUCTION
The culture of an organization helps dictate its internal practices, which determines the
organization’s failure or success in the market, both locally and internationally. It is suggested
that communication is an important factor in the development of a specific culture in an
organization. This is been concluded that the performance and the sales of a particular branch of
a multinational corporation depends on the culture its members develop within the organization.
In addition, it can be said that an international organization is able to reach and relate to their
consumers better with the existence of effective communication, regardless of the types of
culture, beliefs, or language. The trend of globalization has provided opportunities for Indian
firms to reach foreign markets. The business model of many upcoming industries like the
information technology sector is depending heavily on the foreign markets. This increases the
need of professionals working in foreign cultural settings. The merger and acquisition activity
especially the cross-border acquisitions have reached too much higher levels. The trend of
acquisitions is not only restricted to the new sectors like Information Technology, Telecom and
Business Process Outsourcing, but to core sector companies like Manufacturing (For Example:
Bharat Forge acquiring Carl Dan Peddinghaus in Germany) and Mining (For Example: Sterlite
group acquiring mines in Australia) have observed spurt in such activities too. The
Pharmaceutical companies have widened their reach in world market with examples like
Ranbaxy and DRL having presence in many countries. The different changes happening in the
society today have brought about significant changes in the internal environment of
organizations. Due to the increase in globalization, many organizations and corporations have
been forced to restructure their workforce, as to having a mixture of different cultures and
languages present in a specific branch of the company. The globalization dreams present a new
challenge for the Indian firms; the challenge to develop competent managers who would be able
to work in new environments efficiently and will act as a bridge between the parent company and
its subsidiaries. The globalization will also bring new employees to the Indian firms, the ones
with different origin, language and national culture adding complexities to the culture of Indian
organizations. The firms thus need to develop systems and processes not only to train managers
for expatriate assignments but also to handle cultural diversity. This task can be achieved by well
designed cross-cultural training programs which will help employees in coping up with the stress
and cultural shock while dealing with a new culture. The need for cross-cultural training will be
for both: Indian expatriates and employees dealing with expatriates of other origins. The cross-
cultural training will also be required for the Indian companies getting into Business Process
Outsourcing as the clients belong to culturally different environments. Working effectively in
cross-cultural context is becoming vital competence for aspiring managers.

Determinants of cultural differences:


There have been many attempts to define cultures and what differentiates them. The study by
Hofstede (1981,in Hofstede, 2001) defined and differentiated between cultures on various
dimensions – viz. collectivism vs. individualism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance,
masculinity vs. feminism and long vs. short term orientation. There are various parameters which
can be defined as:
1. Power distance: degree of inequality in power between a less powerful individual and a
more powerful one in which they belong to same social system.
2. Masculinity vs. feminism: refers to the distribution of emotional roles between the
genders. It opposes a tough masculine to tender feminine society.
3. Uncertainty avoidance: is the extent to which a culture programs its members to feel either
comfortable or uncomfortable in unstructured situations.
4. Individualism vs. collectivism: is the degree to which individuals are supposed to look
after themselves or remain integrated into groups usually around the family
5. Long term vs. short-term orientation: refers to the extent to which a culture programs its
members to accept delayed gratification of their material, social and emotional needs.

The differences in cultural values were shown by the study of Hofstede (2001), which involves
60, plus countries where each one of them was classified on these parameters. These cultural
differences may effect motivational factors, collectivism at work place, organizational structure
design etc. Various studies have tried to study these differences. The difference in cultures has
been associated with perceptions and paradoxes. The study by Osland and Bird (2000), lists
down the paradoxes and the reasons for them. The paradoxes arise because of perceptual
schemas (cultural myopia and lack of experience), theoretical limitations emic and etic studies
which present one sided views of the cultures (From inside and outside the culture while ignoring
the other ones.). The other reasons for misunderstandings are tendency for observers to confuse
individual and group values, unresolved cultural issues, role differences and real vs. espoused
values. The cultural differences and varying approaches lead to significant difference in business
practices which must be recognized by the trainers and employees receiving expatriate
assignment.

How do people and practices differ across cultures?


The differences in cultures lead to significant differences in the way people react to a
stimulus. The motivational needs of the managers and executives vary across the cultures. The
motivational factors that work in India may not be relevant in China, hence the expatriates will
need to understand the basic differences in the employee behavior. The production facilities of
firms may be similar across all the subsidiaries but the employee behavior in these facilities may
not remain the same. One of the relevant examples in this context is failure of Japanese
management technique like Quality Circles in India. The study by Neelankavil, Mathur and
Zhang (1999) that analyzed India, Philippines, USA and China for managerial performance and
motivational factors in two different studies found different managerial values, value dimensions
and comparative management. India was found closer to USA than China although the
geographical distance is much lesser. For example for American managers drive and ambition
were important for success which is not the case in China. These countries differ in their scores
of individualism with USA (91) and china (7) and the other two falling in between. Similarly the
study of motivational factors found opportunity for advancement and financial rewards to be
least important while these factors were nearly very important for employees in the other
countries. The study by Peters and Lipit (1978) found USA employees different from those in
Latin American countries like Columbia, Peru and Chile,even within the Latin American
countries there was a difference between Columbia and Peru (good pay as the highest ranked
motivator) and Chile (creativity as the highest ranked motivator). The culture differences effect
the managerial decisions related to performance appraisals in multicultural workplaces and
decisions in international business context (Lee and Karakowsky, 2001).
Along with the business practices and values significant amount of research have been conducted
in the context of cross-cultural negotiations. The cross-cultural differences in the negotiation
game can be conceptualized along four basic dimensions: collectivism-individualism, power
distance, communication context, and the conception of time (Cohen, 1997- as cited by
Bazerman, Curhan, Moore and Valley, 2000). The time factor becomes important in the context
of cross border acquisitions as people belonging to different cultures have different perceptions
related to time, while in some cultures people prefer to start and finish meeting on time
(Example: USA), in other people may prefer to take time of their own (Example: Latin America)
(Mayfield, Mayfield, Martin, Herbig, 1997). The time factor also refers to relationship dynamics
of negotiations. While in a more collectivist culture, people may prefer to develop relationships
during negotiations, people in more individualistic culture like USA may not prefer to bring
relationship dimension in the negotiations (Mayfield, Mayfield, Martin, Herbig, 1997). The study
by Gulbrow and Herbig (1999), found that the negotiators from more collectivist culture would
devote more time to non-task negotiating activities and positioning activities. Similarly the
people from high power distance cultures were found to spend less time compromising and less
persuasion was observed in people from more masculine culture. The analysis by George, Jones
and Gonzalez (1998) lists three categories of differences which can affect the negotiator
emotions, these include: individual differences (affective dispositions, experiences in previous
cross-cultural negotiations), cross-cultural differences (Internalized cultural values and norms,
Emotional expressions, Linguistic style) and contextual differences (Relationship between the
negotiating partners, level of trust and conditions surrounding the negotiations). The norms and
values related to the negotiations differ according to the culture, for example the study by Weiss
and Stripp (1985, as referred to by George, Jones and Gonzalez, 1998) lists differences in the
negotiations norms as: perceptions about negotiation to be strategic or synergetic, criteria for
selecting the negotiator, importance given to relationship building, concern for protocol and
formality etc. The way emotions are expressed in the various cultures may differ, for example the
face expressions and hand gestures may convey different meanings in different culture. The
study by Weber and Hsee (1998), points towards significant differences in the risk perceptions
across cultures that might play an important role during business negotiations across coutries.

Cross-cultural training and its objectives


The cross-cultural training in general can be defined as “Any intervention aimed at increasing an
individual’s capability to cope with and work in foreign environment” (Tung, 1981, in Zakaria,
2000). Hence cross-cultural training involves all the methods like lectures, simulation etc. used
to make the person familiar with a different culture. The term cross-cultural training hence is
broad enough to include differences in areas like language abilities, business etiquettes, beliefs
and values, social system, negotiating styles etc. of any culture. The cross-cultural has also been
defined as “Formal methods to prepare people for more effective interpersonal relations and job
success when they interact extensively with individuals from cultures other than their own”
(Brislin and Yoshida, 1994). The term job success here seems to be slightly ambiguous, as the
factors defining success on an expatriate assignment can include organizational values, earning
respect from peers and subordinates, technical skills, interpersonal and relationship management
skills etc. The advantages from cross-cultural training have been listed as following :
1. A means for constant switching from an automatic, home culture international
management mode to a culturally adaptable and acceptable one
2. An aid to improve coping with unexpected events and cultural shock in a new culture
3. A means to reduce uncertainty of interactions with foreign nationals
4. A means for enhancing expatriates coping abilities

Hence cross-cultural training can be seen as a tool for improving the corporate culture and
practices by constantly learning through induction of foreign nationals in the organizations.
Further the cross-cultural training will help to reduce the psychological stress and cultural shock
which often lead to failure of expatriates.

Design of cross-cultural training:


The issues or focus points are very important in the cross-cultural as it is required to choose
between culture specific or culture general training, which areas of the culture to focus upon and
what are the personal requirements of the person who might have to deal with a situation like this
or who is shifting to a different culture for work. The study by Hun and Jenkins (1998) mentions
following issues for the cross-cultural training:
� Different aspects of time like punctuality- The time factor here involve two dimensions
that are punctuality and relationship dimension. While in some cultures like USA starting
and ending on time are very important in others like South American countries that may
be considered exceptional. Some cultures prefer to take time for relationship building,
which may not be acceptable at all in others. Hence cross-cultural barriers related to time
need to be taken care of.
� Linguistic barriers- The English is being used for most transactions but then usage of
English tends to change with the country contexts. For example the pronunciation in
India is significantly different from the American way. Secondly certain terms may have
different meaning in different languages; hence context also plays an important role. In
case of countries with different language the expatriates must be trained in opening
dialogues and discussions with the help of translators.
� Different business practices, like conduct in meeting and unstructured and open
discussion. Hofstede’s (2001) dimensions like power distance can play an important role
in situations like conduct during the meetings. In cultures with lower power distance the
employees may tend to call their bosses with their first names while this may be
impossible in cultures with higher power distances. Hence developing a first hand
knowledge about the practices is very important.
� Cultural stress (ambiguity and difference of perceptions)- The training should also involve
methods to counter stress and to interpret situations. The expatriates will have to
understand the situations on their own and then form perceptions. The training should
avoid any kind of stereotyping where trainees may be lead to believe certain things about
any culture. The culture may broadly explain value system of a community or country but
every individual is different. Hence any individual with a pre-formed notion about the
culture will be shocked to see people different from his beliefs leading to lot of confusion
and stress.
� Body language and greetings- The way emotions are expressed in the various cultures
may differ, for example the face expressions and hand gestures may convey different
meanings in different culture.

The cross-cultural training should have components related to both general orientation and
specific skill development (Harrison, 1994). The component of general orientation here consists
of self assessment (dealing with change, stress management and identifying attributes) and
cultural awareness (general dimensions, national values and work place incidents). The specific
development on the other hand consists of knowledge acquisition (area studies, language studies
and host attitudes) and skills training (case studies, area simulation and behavior modeling).
Hence the training should focus on providing trainee the knowledge about national cultures and
attitudes in the host country in the first phase while in second phase the trainee should be made
to go through a rigorous process of handling the situations in a simulated environment. This will
help the trainee to acquire hands-on experience. The paper by Nicola (1993) suggests following
issues for cross-cultural training:
1. Feed back
2. Getting beyond culturally determined stereotypes
3. How to raise and deal with cultural stereotype
4. How to counsel employees
5. Coaching and team building
6. Resolving conflicts (those including various ethnic groups at work place)
7. Counseling so as to go beyond all kinds of stereotypes and perceptions.

After the internet revolution things have vastly changed for various organizations. For example
many firms use internet as a medium to coordinate between different employees working in
different locations as a team like one of the team members would be in India, other one might be
in Europe and third one in North America. The group dynamics in these situations becomes very
important; hence the employees must also be trained at handling people from diverse cultures at
the same time ensuring equal treatment and opportunities for all. One of the most important
factors that is often forgotten while designing the training programs is the requirement of the
employees, the design of training program should be made keeping in mind the length of stay in
the host country, type of function he will have to perform, degree of socialization required by the
employee and the personal characteristics of the employees (extraversion, interpersonal skills
etc.). Hence cross-cultural training program should be customized for each employee to certain
extend. It’s not only the employee who needs to be trained; the family of employee should also
be trained on certain issues like cultural differences. Many firms have started giving due
importance to the training of spouse because the socialization of expatriate and job success to a
large extent will depend upon socialization of his family.
The training methods:
The cross-cultural training evolved with usage of lecture method (originated from
university of Illinois- as referred by Bhawuk and Brislin, 2000). This development was followed
by usage of contrast American method which was named as this method was used to train for
contrasting cultural experiences. The scenarios and cultural assimilators were later additions to
the methods. The self reference criterion method was developed from cultural analysis system
developed in 1966. The first usage of the cultural assimilators was on the American soldiers in
1972. The existence of cultural general assimilator is relatively new with usage starting in 1986.
The experiential and area simulation were developed in 70’s.
The various cross-cultural training methods can be explained as follows (as described by
Bhawuk and Brislin, 2000):
1. Cultural assimilator: The cultural assimilator is a tool that consists of a number of
real life scenarios describing puzzling cross-cultural interactions and expectations.
The scenarios here can be defined as critical incidents which describe interactions
between host and expatriates which involve misunderstanding related to cultural
differences.
2. Contrast American method: This method involves demonstration of behaviors that are
completely opposed to what is seen in the current context of culture. This was used by
Stewart in America to train people going abroad hence was named contrast American.
3. Self reference criterion (SRC): Unconscious reference to one’s own cultural values in
communication with people who are from other cultures. This method was developed
by Lee (1966), who proposed 4 step procedures to overcome self reference criteria.
The first step involves defining any problem of situation in terms of the expatriate’s
own culture, followed by definition in the terms of host culture. The bias created by
SRC is analyzed and removed in third stage which is followed by solution of the
simplified business problem.
4. Area simulation: The simulation is creating natural situation of interaction with
people from other culture. This can be achieved using some actors who will interact
with the trainee according to some predefined script.
5. Cultural self awareness model: The cultural awareness model includes usage of video
tapes with themes and role plays. If the trainee is able to understand how his culture is
different he would be able to accept the differences encountered in the real life
interactions in a better manner.

(1) fact-oriented training; (2) attribution training, associated with the culture assimilator to enable
trainees to internalize values and standards of the host culture; (3) cultural awareness training,
the study of the trainee’s home culture and its effect on his/her behavior to enable the trainee to
understand the nature of cultural differences; (4) cognitive-behavior modification, to assist
trainees to be able to obtain rewards and avoid punishment in the host culture; (5) experiential
learning, active participation learning about a specific host culture; and (6) interaction learning,
for trainees to feel more comfortable with host nationals and to learn details about life in the host
country. Language training aids in communications demonstrate an attitude of attempting to
learn about the host culture enables one to be polite and permits understanding”.

The impact of cross-cultural training on the employee performance


Many research studies have focused on the impact of cross-cultural training on variables like
adjustment and performance of the employees. The Meta analysis by Morris and Robie (2001)
found the correlation of cross-cultural studies to be 0.26 for performance and 0.13 for
adjustment. This has been totally opposite to the results of the earlier studies like the one by
Deshpande and Vishwesveran (1992, in Morris and Robie) found the correlation with
performance to be .39 and 0.43 with adjustment. The study by Morris and Robie(2001) examined
16 studies for expatriate adjustment and 25 studies for performance. The author also cites the
results of studies by Black (1988) and Earley (1987) who found the correlation to be 0.42 and
0.57 for adjustment. The correlation with performance in the same studies was 0.08 and 0.79.
Hence there is lack of consistency in the results.
The study of Gullahorn and Gullahorn (1966, cited by Caligiuri et. al. 2001) “found that cross-
cultural adjustment process leads to a U-shaped curve of adjustment where the bottom of the
curve is the strongest point of culture shock. This U-Curve Theory of Adjustment (UCT) has
been one of the most consistently used theories, a rare case of theoretical perspective applied to
cross-cultural research, although no in-depth and comprehensive reviews of the empirical
literature related to UCT exist”. Grove and Torbiorn (1985 cited by Caligiuri et al, 2001)
proposed that cross-cultural, or intercultural, training should attempt to bring about changes in
three psychological constructs, ‘applicability of behavior, clarity of mental frame of preference,
and level of mere adequacy’. The study by Worchel and Mitche (1972, cited by Bhawuk and
Brislin, 1992) found use of cultural assimilator to be effective on the American soldiers( in
Greece) in enhancing there productivity, adjustment, enjoyment of tour of duty and interpersonal
behavior. The literature review by Zakaria (2000) found substantial positive relationship between
cross-cultural training and adjustment. He cites works of Bochnar (1982) and Backer (1984) who
found cross-cultural training to be useful for cross-cultural interaction. The papers by Caligiuri
et.al. (2001) suggests development of training programs that will ensure that expatriates have
realistic expectations. The study by Brewster and Pickard (1994) found that cultural training was
more effective for younger people and people with no prior experience. Some studies like study
of American expatriates in Mexico (Edmund, 2002) did not find a significant relationship
between cross-cultural training and expatriate failure rate. Similarly the study by Selmer (2001)
of didn’t find relationship between the pre-knowledge about culture and practices of Hong Kong
and their ability to get along with their host country subordinates. In contrast the study by
Eschbach, Parker and Stoeberl (2001) found cross-cultural training effective in reducing time
required to adjust and achieve cultural proficiency. Hence the studies broadly support the
effectiveness of cross-cultural training in improving the expatriate efficiency.

RESEARCH SCOPE & METHODOLOGY

Materials and Methods:


• Research Design : Descriptive
• Sampling Technique & Research Instrument :

• Scaling Technique
• Tools for data collection : Questionnaire

DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

Organization and teamwork

Regression
Variables Entered/Removedb

Variables
Model Variables Entered Removed Method

1 VAR00001a . Enter

a. All requested variables entered.

b. Dependent Variable: VAR00002

Model Summary

Std. Error of the


Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Estimate

1 .498a .248 .244 .49561

a. Predictors: (Constant), VAR00001

ANOVAb

Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression 14.438 1 14.438 58.781 .000a

Residual 43.721 178 .246

Total 58.159 179

a. Predictors: (Constant), VAR00001

b. Dependent Variable: VAR00002

Coefficientsa

Standardized
Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients

Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig.

1 (Constant) 1.019 .132 7.747 .000

VAR00001 .481 .063 .498 7.667 .000

a. Dependent Variable: VAR00002

Correlation between Organization and Teamwork is .498 which shows significant results.
Teamwork between the employees in an organization affects the working in an organization.
Hence, organization is dependent on teamwork spirit between the employees.
Organization and individual

Variables Entered/Removedb

Variables Variables
Model Entered Removed Method

1 VAR00001a . Enter

a. All requested variables entered.

b. Dependent Variable: VAR00003

Model Summary

Adjusted R Std. Error of the


Model R R Square Square Estimate

1 .586a .343 .340 .44037

a. Predictors: (Constant), VAR00001

ANOVAb

Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression 18.055 1 18.055 93.103 .000a

Residual 34.520 178 .194

Total 52.575 179

a. Predictors: (Constant), VAR00001

b. Dependent Variable: VAR00003

Coefficientsa

Standardized
Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients

Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig.

1 (Constant) .934 .117 7.988 .000

VAR00001 .538 .056 .586 9.649 .000

a. Dependent Variable: VAR00003


Correlation between organization and individual is .586 which shows significant result.
Organizational success depends on the individual’s abilities and skills and attributes.

FINDINGS

1. Team members are held accountable for the decisions they make.
80

60

40

20
Count

0
strongly agree agree moderate disagree

Team members are held accountable for the decisions they make.

2. Your department encourages teamwork.

90

80

70

60

50

40
Count

30
strongly agre e agree moderate

Your department encourages teamwork.

3. The alignment good between different departments needs to be coordinated.


100

80

60

40

20
Count

0
strongly agree moderate strongly disagree
agree disagree

The alignment good between different departments needs to be coordinated

4. You are satisfied with the spirit of teamwork within your company.
120

100

80

60

40

20
Count

0
strongly agree moderate disagree strongly disagree

You are satisfied with the spirit of teamwork within your company

5. Company policies and procedures make sense to you.

100

80

60

40
Count

20
strongly agree agree moderate

Company policies and procedures make sense to you


6. Individual differences respected in your organization (e.g.,gender,race educational
background, etc.)

70

60

50

40

30

20

10
Count

0
strongly agree agree moderate disagree

Individual differences respected in your organization

7. Is there any discrimination or harassment in the company.


80

60

40

20
Count

0
strongly agree agree moderate disagree

.Is there any discrimination or harassment in the company.

8. The company is flexible with respect to your family responsibilities?


100

80

60

40

20
Count

0
strongly agree moderate strongly disagree
agree disagree

The company is flexible with respect to your family responsibilities?

9. You receive enough opportunity to interact with other employees on a formal level.

70

60

50

40

30

20

10
Count

0
strongly agree moderate strongly disagree
agree disagree

You receive enough opportunity to interact with other employees on a for

10. You feel secure about your jobs at this company.


100

80

60

40

20
Count

0
strongly agree agree moderate disagree

You feel secure about your jobs at this company.

11. You would recommend this company as a career to your friends.


100

80

60

40

20
Count

0
strongly agree agree moderate disagree

You would recommend this company as a career to your friends


12. Is there any better system prevailing in some other organization?

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10
Count

0
Missing strongly agree agree moderate disagree

Is there any better system prevailing in some other organization

The business objective of any company is to manufacture and market products that would sustain
and create value for the consumers, stockholders, employees, business partners, and the economy
of India over a long and significant period of time. In this regard, any company in India is
conscious of the fact that its success is the reflection of the professionalism, conduct and ethical
values of the entire management and employees of the company. The company aims to make
sure that the company’s operations and processes would be characterized with the highest
standards of ethical and responsible conduct. In addition to this, the significant and distinct
characteristic of a company can be observed through its Corporate Business Principles and
Management and Leadership Principles (2007). Based on Nestle’ India’s Business Principles, it
can be perceived that the business practices of the company, particularly in terms of their
respective decisions are characterized by the typical Asian traditions, beliefs, and practices.
Being typically Asian, Indian workers in the company work altogether and collectively. Indians,
like the rest of the other Asian nations tend to increase their interactions with one another, as
with any other Asians, collectivism and group participation is an important aspect of work
and interaction. On the other hand, being Western, the culture in UK and US may not be as
similar as the culture in India. This is because British and American employees, in general, are
individualistic, independent, frank, and very open-minded individuals. Unlike the Indian
employees, British and American employees may be somewhat more individual and more
independent, thus, require less interaction from coworkers and other colleagues. British and
American employees are performance-driven and goal-oriented, thus, chatting during working
hours are not their required form of interaction in the working environment.

Another distinct data or characteristics that can be seen in a company are the differences
between employee’s languages, religions, cultural beliefs, economy, politics, and social status.
The major religion of India is Hindu, while majority of the British citizens are Christians. In
terms of cultural beliefs, Indian beliefs are rooted from their religion, Hindu, thus, their practices
and values as well. This is also similar with the British, whose beliefs and cultural practices stem
from Celtic and Christian beliefs. In terms of social, economic, and political status, India is
considered a developing country, given its population and way of life, while the United Kingdom
is regarded as one of the most powerful developed countries in the world. As such, in incidence
of cross-cultural communication, discrimination, conflict, misunderstanding, and cultural
ethnocentrism may exist.

In the event that a British national works in the Indian branch manufacturing plant, and
vice versa, it can be assumed that problems and issues can be encountered, due to differences of
approaches, culture, and language involved. In this regard, it can be assumed that changes in
cross cultures may entirely affect business practices of an organization, even despite the
influence and guidance of its mother company. This is because the approach of each company is
customer-oriented, and based on the needs, preferences, and tastes of its consumers. In this
regard, the tastes, needs & wants significantly different in India & United Kingdom. In addition,
some products in the United Kingdom may not be present or available in India.
CONCLUSION

Based on the findings, it can be perceived that cross-cultural communication in the


Companies is little challenging. A number of problems can be encountered in terms of cross-
cultural communication in the company. Primarily, challenges in terms of language barrier and
culture shock can be encountered. Language barrier and culture shock can be regarded as serious
problems in terms of cross-cultural communication, as both problems leads to other serious
complications in the organization, such as having no improvements in terms of team
development and organizational interaction. In this regard, teamwork gets threatened, thus,
affecting the tendency for the members of the organization to bond and coexist peacefully.
Another impact of cross-cultures in international business is diversity. It has been reported that
many are experiencing diversity but failing to really manage it. Managing diversity by
developing reasonable perspectives and plans on how to attract, retain, and fully utilize a new
and diverse workforce is the critical challenge faced by the organizational leaders. Indeed, there
is a dramatic difference between understanding the foundations and dynamics that drive such a
movement (such as workforce diversity) and engaging in the difficult activities that must be
promoted to respond to and deal with the effects of that movement. Working in a different
country for someone who is foreign is easier said than done. Although the managers undergo
international training in the company’s home country and are equipped with the skills needed to
manage a diverse and culturally diverse workforce, the real thing would still be slightly different
in reality. There are just some things that could not be learned in trainings and in books; these
things are learned only through experience.

Another impact of cross-culture in an international business organization is the increased


incidence of discrimination, inequality and racial maltreatment. One possible issue related to this
is the unequal payment between men and women. Due to this, working families lose about
$4,000 annually, according to a research performed by an institute for women. In addition to this,
an average woman loses over $455,000 of her income over her lifetime, only because of this
wage gap. This issue on pay inequality really hurts the working families the most. According to a
survey by the AFL-CIO, 62 percent of the working women earn half or more than half of their
family’s income. Thus, due to the wage gap, the economic stability of their families, as well as
their children’s health, is now being threatened. Only if they were being paid equally will their
financial situation improved. Nevertheless, unequal pay does not just hurt women. It also pushes
the wages throughout the economy down, as women are becoming a bigger part of the workforce
nowadays. It is also a broad issue about the economic justice for working families and the basic
freedom from want or poverty. Therefore, this is a serious issue, which needs to be properly
addressed.

However, despite the different negative impacts of cross-culture in international business


organizations, it can be perceived that several advantages can also be listed. Among the
advantages include:

• Exposure to new languages, cultures, beliefs, and practices,


• Acquisition of a new language, becoming more open-minded with the culture of other
individuals,
• Becoming more understanding and patient, having more friends and teammates,
possible incidence for intermarriages, peaceful coexistence with one another, and
many others.

In this regard, it can be concluded that the performance of a particular branch of Nestle’ depends
on the type of culture it practices. As such, the type of language, interaction, practices, religious
beliefs, and value systems play a crucial role in the improvement of performance of the whole
organization. In addition, it can also be perceived that communication must be placed with high
and important regard, being one of the major means of interacting and relating with one another.

Globalization of business has come to stay. It is essential for any manager to understand the
dynamics of cross-cultural issues and needs. Cross-cultural impact on an organization includes
such aspects as (a) individual behavior, (b) group dynamics, (c) leadership, (d) environment, (e)
technology and organization structure. Culture differences influence perception of people about
work, group harmony, discipline, and other aspects of life, Ample evidence points to how
cultural differences in values, beliefs, traits, and decision styles influence different management
practices. For instance, the individualistic performance appraisal, compensation and reward
practices characteristic of the U.S. human resource system are not the norm in more
collectiveness Asian cultures.

It is imperative that employees who are to be expatriated are well informed regarding the
challenges they might face in a foreign land. Coping with a foreign culture both organizational
and national needs well-planned preparation. A well structured cross-cultural training will help
the employees to prepare for coping with the changes in the working styles, beliefs and values
they are expected to face. A large degree of uncertainty which an employee might face while
moving to a foreign land and culture can be reduced through organizational support in terms of
training. The huge cost that an organization might face due to expatriate failure is of high
concern. Preparing the employees for a foreign assignment is mutually beneficial to the
organization and the employee. For the employees, a well delivered training can help in
managing with the new situations, while for the organization this helps in getting the best of the
employee in terms of work output through maintaining the employee morale and motivation.
With the growing influence of foreign markets and increasing growth prospects for multinational
business models, it is of high importance that companies prepare their employees to be fit for
global assignments.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Given the many issues that can be encountered due to the presence of cross-cultures in an
international business organization, it can be suggested that certain solutions must be proposed
and implemented. Suggestions to improve the efficiency of operations of the company include

• Giving additional seminars and trainings to the personnel


• Creating safety measures, strengthening processes, learning new techniques
• Keeping the working environment safe
• Solving problems among employees, and
• Finding useful means to counter financial problems.

To improve its employees, the company can provide trainings and seminars that would further
widen the knowledge of its employees, thus, giving them sufficient information useful for
improving the operations of the company. The personnel is the main function in business
operations and would be the ones achieving the company’s long-term goals. This also involves
solving their problems that would lessen dissension and conflicts. Safety measures should also be
taken to prevent worries on the part of the employees in performing business operations. Fear
hampers efficiency, thus, crippling and slowing their productivity. Strengthening the operations
process could also be helpful, to achieve lesser mistakes and minimize operational costs. Another
helpful recommendation is finding useful means to counter financial problems, such as building
good relationships with shareholders and suppliers, revolutionizing its supply chain management,
lessening costs, and guaranteeing the availability of products, which would contribute to the
improvement of the quality of service of its employees.

Diversity management deals with the process of creating an organizational culture in which
workforce differences are understood and valued, and each individual has the opportunity to be
fully utilized. Although straightforward and seemingly simple, this definition signals some
powerful considerations and a necessary reorientation for many contemporary organizations.
Initially, managers must realize that diversity management does not compromise the
organization's focus on meeting its fundamental competitive goals. Customers must be served,
product quality must be ensured, and financial success must be achieved. However, because of
the range of needs associated with an increasingly heterogeneous workforce, the firm may have
to be quite creative and flexible in the policies and approaches it uses and the actions it tolerates
in meeting its competitive demands. Narrow bands of acceptable behavior may be expanded.
Limited, unnecessary zones of conformity may no longer be demanded or reinforced. In such a
case, differences are viewed not as obstacles to goal attainment, but as a mechanism that, when
properly energized, can enhance the organization's competitive presence. In short, diversity
management is concerned with establishing a new framework and approach, in which a new set
of core values governing the role of individual differences can be developed. This scenario may
demand a refocused or reoriented organizational culture. To be effective, this culture must enable
the full utilization of the talent that exists in the organization.

Lastly, it can be suggested that different activities for cultural, individual, group and
team building must be proposed and implemented in all the branches for better
communication and interaction. In this regard, all employees of the company will have the
chance to get to know themselves and their colleagues better, in order to further improve and
develop their communication and teamwork skills in the organization. As such, this will
contribute to the overall improvement of the organization’s performance in the market.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

• Aswathappa, K., Organisational Behaviour - Text and Cases, Himalaya


Publishing House, 1997.

• Baron, Robert A., and Greenberg, Jerald. Behavior in organizations – 9th


edition.

• Cross Cultural Psychology, Volume No.41, Page No.4, July 2010

• Fredric M. Jablin, Linda Putnam (2000). The new handbook of organizational


communication: advances in theory. p.146.
• Hatch, M. & Cunliffe, A., 2006
• Joseph Trimmer and Tilly Warnock, Understanding Others: Cultural and Cross-
Cultural Studies and the Teaching of Literature Urbana, IL: National Council of
Teachers of English, 1992.
• Lillian Margaret Simms, Sylvia Anderson Price, Naomi E. Ervin (1994). The
professional practice of nursing administration. p.121.
• Michael I. Reed (1985). Redirections in organizational analysis. p.108.
• Nelson, L.D., Quick, C.J., Organizational Behaviour-Foundations, Realities and
Challenge, South-Western College Publishing, Cincinnati, Ohio, 2000.

• Pearson Education Inc., New Jersey: 2008. p.248


• Wilson Harris, The Womb of Space (Westport: Greenwood, 1983): xviii.
• Understanding Others: Cultural and Cross-Cultural Studies and the Teaching
of Literature by Joseph F. Trimmer and Tilly Warnock (Paperback - Nov 1992)

• http://www.samsung.com/in
• http://www.matrix.in/
• http://www.ceasefire.in/

ANNEXURE
QUESTIONNAIRE

1. Team members are held accountable for the decisions they make.

• Strongly agree

• Agree

• Moderate
• Disagree

• Strongly disagree

2. Your department encourages teamwork.

• Strongly agree

• Agree

• Moderate

• Disagree

• Strongly disagree

3. The alignment good between different departments needs to be coordinated.

• Strongly agree

• Agree

• Moderate

• Disagree

• Strongly disagree

4. You are satisfied with the spirit of teamwork within your company.

• Strongly agree

• Agree
• Moderate

• Disagree

• Strongly disagree

5. Company policies and procedures make sense to you.

• Strongly agree

• Agree

• Moderate

• Disagree

• Strongly disagree

6. Individual differences respected in your organization (e.g.,gender,race educational


background, etc.)

• Strongly agree

• Agree

• Moderate

• Disagree

• Strongly disagree

7. Is there any discrimination or harassment in the company.

• Strongly agree
• Agree

• Moderate

• Disagree

• Strongly disagree

8. The company is flexible with respect to your family responsibilities?

• Strongly agree

• Agree

• Moderate

• Disagree

• Strongly disagree

9. You receive enough opportunity to interact with other employees on a formal level.

• Strongly agree

• Agree

• Moderate

• Disagree

• Strongly disagree
10. You feel secure about your jobs at this company.

• Strongly agree

• Agree

• Moderate

• Disagree

• Strongly disagree

11. You would recommend this company as a career to your friends.

• Strongly agree

• Agree

• Moderate

• Disagree

• Strongly disagree

12. Is there any better system prevailing in some other organization?

• Strongly agree

• Agree

• Moderate

• Disagree

• Strongly disagree

1. Any suggestions
_____________________________________________________________