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Guide to Growing Mango

The Philippines is known for its excellent fruit products. The carabao mango, better known as Manila Super
Mango, makes the country competitive in the world market. The major importers of mango are Japan,
Singapore, and Hongkong.

The Manila Super Mango is one of the world's best varieties. Other popular varieties are Pico and Katchamita.
Our mango industry supports some 2.5 million farmers and farm family members.

Tagged as "sure export winner", there is a projected export increase at 13% annually. It is exported in its fresh
or processed form. Mango is known for its versatility as all stages of fruit development is suitable for
processing.

"Carabao" (Kalabaw) variety size: medium to large, about 240 g, shape oblong, skin smooth, yellow and thin,
flesh yellow, very tender and melting; flavor very delicate, aromatic and spicy, fiber medium coarse but short
and confined almost entirely to the edge of the seed. Eating quality excellent.

"Pico" variety size: medium to large, about 230 grams, shape oblong more distinctly flattened than the
"carabao", skin smooth light orange yellow thick and tough; flesh rich orange yellow, tender, richer and sweeter
than the "carabao" but not melting and lacks the spicy delicate aroma that distinguishes the "carabao" mango,
fiber fine and short, confined almost entirely to the edge of the seed. Eating quality good.

Distribution

Mango is believed to have originated from the Indo Pakistani and the Malay Peninsula or Indo-China. It is
grown extensively in Egypt, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Kenya, Tanzania, Nigeria, South Africa,
Australia, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, China, Israel, Mexico, Cuba and the West Indies.
Central and Southern Luzon, Central and Western Visayas, and the Ilocos provinces are the main mango
production areas in the Philippines.

Uses

• Wood : furnitures, doors, Mindoro casings, floors, plywood, turnery and boxes.
• Leaves : eaten as vegetable and fodder for animals; also used to treat chicken pox.
• Fruit : fruits are eaten fresh, dried, frozen, or canned and are made into pickles, juice, puree, nectars,
scoops, jam, vinegar, wine, brandy, and ice cream flavoring. Tannins and astringents can be extracted
from the green fruits.
• The fibers of the seedhusk make soft, fine pliable brushes. The kernel can be fed to pigs or, after soaking
in water to remove astringents, ground into flour and used like wheat flour.
• Peelings of the fruit contains high quality pectin.
• As dye : They yield a yellow textile dye (a xanthene derivative). In India, the yellow coloring in the
leaves, bark and fruit is a dye called "peori dye".

Ideal Mango Growing Conditions

• Elevation is lower than 400 m above sea level. Fruit maturity is delayed at higher elevations.
• Rainfall
o Minimum of 2-3 months dry period (less than 50 mm rainfall per month) at fruiting until harvest.
o Less than 200 mm rainfall and/or 15 rainy days per month at flower induction.
• Relative Humidity is lower than 80% mean RH at flowering until harvest.
• Soil Moisture
o Moist (<1> 10 atm.) at fruit maturation until harvest (110-130 days after flower induction).
o Near source of water for irrigation during dry months.
• Soil pH
o pH range of 5.5-7.0.
o Apply lime in soils with lower pH and use ammonium sulfate as N source at pH>7.
• Soil depth, texture and fertility
o Deep (over 50 cm) and well-drained clay loam or lighter soil texture.
o Soil analysis: Organic Matter (>2%); P(>15 ppm); K (>100 ppm); Ca (>2000 ppm); Mg (>200
ppm).
• Full sunlight, long sunny days (high solar radiation) at flowering and fruiting.
• Topography is flat to rolling preferably below 20º slope.
• Mean temperature range of 24ºC to 29ºC.
• Preferably free from typhoon or seldom between October to January; protected from dry and hot Easter
lies between January to March.

Site requirements

Distinct wet and dry season, at least 5 months dry period; elevations below 600 m (although mangoes are
known to thrive in the Cavite highlands); welldrained, deep loamy soil and pH range of 6 to 8; latitudinal range
is from 30 degrees north to 30 degrees south latitude.

Propagation

Mango may be propagated both sexually (seed) and asexually (vegetative). The latter is preferred since trees
grown from seeds: (1) take a longer time to bear fruit, (2) grow excessively large and (3) are difficult to
manage. Cleft grafting is most successful and popular under local conditions. Extracted seeds from ripe fruit
easily lose their viability and should be sown immediately in nursery beds about 10 cm apart and 1.3 cm deep.
Seeds will germinate 1-4 weeks after sowing.

Management

Seedlings are usually transplanted in nursery rows when the second or third leaf has turned dark green.
Seedlings are very sensitive to shock at this stage and should be handled with care. Spacing is 30 to 60 cm apart
to facilitate watering, grafting and other activities. When the stems are of pencil size or larger, they may be
grafted. Young mango stocks may also be grown in containers measuring 15 to 30 cm in diameter and 20 to 25
deep and filled with sowing medium (consisting of one third sand, one third soil and on third compost).

Watering should be done regularly and fertilized with soluble fertilizer after the first 2 months. Shade should be
provided at the start and hardening may be started after the 2nd flush of leaves turns dark green. Stocks will
reach graftable size when the stem diameter is 1 cm or when seedlings are 6 to 7 months. Watering of the stock
should be done regularly. If successful, next growth in the scion will begin 2 to 3 weeks.

Transplanting should be done during the rainy season. Spacing is 14 x 14 m. During the first dry season, the
trees should be watered frequently.
Fertilization

The following is a general fertilization guide for mango.

Pest and Diseases

Mango hoppers (Idioscopus clypealis Leth., Chunroceros nieveosparsis Leth., Typhlocyba nigrobilineata Mel.
Homoptera)

Control: Spray with any of the following insecticides: Sevin, Hytox, Diazinon 20 EC, Malathion, Gusathion or
EPN 30.

Mango twig borer (Niphonodea albata Newm. and N. capito Pasc.)

Coleoptera Control: Cut off affected shoots and twigs and burn or spray with any of the following insecticides:
Malathion, Sevin, Diaznon or EPN 300. Fruit flies (Dacus dorsalis Henl, D. cucurbitae Coz.)

Control:

• a) Bait sprays such as Dipterex, Sevin or Malathion mixed with Protein Hydrolsate. The proportion is 10
tbsp of the toxicant to 15 tbsp. Protein Hydrolsate in 5 gallons of water.
• b) Wrapping or bagging. Individual fruit is wrapped with newspaper.
• c) Sanitation: Collect fallen fruit and dispose them into a deep pit or spray with Malathion.

Phenology

Flowering occurs in mid dry season. January to March induced trees are harvested in 110 to 120 days.
September to November induced trees are harvested in 135 days. Full bloom occurs 4 to 4 weeks after spraying.
Mango may bear anytime of the year in areas with no distinct dry season.

Note: All the costing below are based on 1998 prices. To get the current approximate costing, multiply the given cost with 7%
(average annual inflation rate), or a total of 58% for the past 8 years.

Establishing a Hectare of Mango Nursery

Nursery business is a very lucrative aspect in mango production, with a rate of return to total operating cost
(RRTOC) of 255%. However, a nursery operator should know the following information to be able to produce
good quality planting materials.
The required structures and facilities (based on 1998 prices) include a nursery shed (storage room or potting
area), a compost pit, and a water system which involves a tube well, and a pump, pressure tank, and fittings.
These cost a sub-total of P135,000.

For equipment and tools, you need about 2 wheelbarrows, 6 shovels, 4 bolos, 4 pruning shears, 10 grafting
knives, 2 knapsack sprayers, 1 lawnmower, and a 100m watering hose with 1.27cm diameter. These cost about
P22,520.

The needed supplies and materials include black plastic bags, urea, insecticide, fungicide, river sand, bamboo
poles, ice candy plastic bags, ice plastic bags, garden soil, compost, and scions, approximately costing
P1,219,950.

For labor, you need people for land clearing and leveling (this includes preparation of seedbeds), hauling,
dehusking, and sowing seeds, plastic bagging of seedlings, watering, applying fertilizer, weeding, spraying,
gathering and wrapping scions, grafting stocks, and removing from plastic wrap and covering living grafts.
These amount to P1,278,040. All the said requirements cost P2,655,510.

To get the work done right, you need to follow these steps. First, collect and prepare the seeds, and prepare the
seedbeds as well. Sow the seeds in the seedbed and make sure that shade is provided. After a while, bag the
seedlings and care for them well. Once the seedlings are ready, they should be grafted, then cleft-grafted.

Establishing and Maintaining a Hectare of Mango Scion Grove

An essential need in clonal propagation of mango is to have a reliable and accessible source of quality 'Carabao'
mango scions to be mass propagated. By establishing a mango scion grove in one area of the nursery and
maintaining it properly, this need is answered.

The required supplies and materials (based on 1998 prices) include grafted 'Carabao' mangoes, complete
fertilizer, insecticide, fungicide, rope, bamboo stakes, meter stick, spades, triangular frame, and compost,
amounting to P40,480.

You also need manpower to do the land-clearing, plowing and harrowing, laying out, digging of holes and basal
fertilization, fertilizer application, planting, staking or propping, watering, spraying, and weeding. All that labor
cost about P32,630. Summing it up, you need to shell-out P73,110 for establishing a mango scion grove.

To maintain the mango grove, another set of equipment and tools (also based on 1998 prices) are needed. You
need a power sprayer, weighing scales, lawn mower, spades, pruning shears, plastic containers, and bolos.
These cost P29,350.

The needed supplies and materials for 10 years include complete fertilizer (costing P68,880), fungicide
(P30,000), and insecticide (P15,600). All these supplies and materials cost P97,480.
Labor requirements for 10 years (this includes pruning, fertilization, irrigation, weeding, and pest control) cost
P239,720.

The cost and return analysis (based on one hectare) for 10 years will a cost a total of P4,164,000 for gross
income, P500,000 for land rental, P139,210 for supplies, P272,350 for labor, a depreciation of P52,830,
P231,452 for interest on capital. All these cost a total of P1,195,842.

Establishing a Hectare of Mango Orchard

Mango has wide soil and climatic adaptation, but ideally, a site should have (a) at least five months of dry
period, (b) an elevation below 600 m, and (c) be well-drained, have deep loamy soil, and a pH range of 5-5.8.
Planting distance should vary from 10-14 m depending on growing conditions, slope, farm mechanization, and
plan for systematic pruning and tree thinning. Wider spacing can be adopted if growing conditions and cultural
practices are favorable for growth and development. The planting distance we used here is 10 m.

The required supplies and materials (based on 1998 prices) include grafted "Carabao" mangoes, complete
fertilizer, insecticide, fungicide, rope, bamboo stakes, meter stick, triangular frame, and compost. These cost
P13,723.

For labor, you need people for land clearing, plowing and harrowing, laying out, digging holes and basal
fertilization, fertilizer application, planting, staking or propping, watering, spraying, and weeding. All these cost
P14,040.

The technology required in establishing an orchard is the same as in establishing a mango scion grove, except
for planting density and the required inputs. The total cost of establishing a hectare of mango orchard (based on
1998 prices) is P27,763.

Pruning

Pruning is important in mango production because for one, it helps in sanitation by removing dead and disease-
infected branches. Sanitary pruning should be done after harvesting. Moreover, pruning helps in forming a
desirable canopy shape. This should be done during the earlier stages of the tree to direct its form to a desirable
one.

The needed tools (based on 1998 prices) are pruning shears, and pruning saws, which amount to P3,120. For 15
years, you need supplies of paint or coal tar, and paint brushes. By the 15th year, paint or coal tar will cost
P160, while paint brushes cost P175. As for labor, you need to shell-out P910 by the 15th year.

By the 15th year, depreciation cost will be P624, supplies and materials will cost P175, and labor will cost
P910. The total cost for pruning will be P1,709 per hectare, and P17.1 per tree.

Weeding

Weeds significantly affect crop production, but they are seldom discussed in other mango production guides.
Weed control is needed especially during the early stages of production, as they compete with mango trees for
light, water, and nutrients which are required for crop growth and development.

Three rotary grass cutters which cost P24,000 (based on 1998 prices) are needed. A native tool called "panabas"
is also needed, which will cost P400 by the 15th year. Labor will cost you P2,600 by the 15th year.

By the 15th year, depreciation cost for weeding is P4,800, P400 for tools, P2,600 for labor, and P1,500 for fuel
(for rotary grass cutter). The total cost of weeding is P9,300 per hectare, and P93.0 per tree. These computations
are based on planting density of 100 trees/ha (spacing of 10 m x 10 m).

Fertilization

Fertilization gives plants the nourishment they need as nutrients are continuously depleted from them. Trees
induced to flower yearly become unproductive eventually, and if not fertilized and managed properly, they may
suffer from die-back.
The tools needed (based on 1998 prices) include a weighing scale, crowbars, and shovels, which altogether cost
P2,000. By the 15th year, fertilizer will cost P5,500, while labor will reach P1,105. Also by that year, the
recommended amount of fertilizer will be 5.50 kg.

Cost of fertilization by the 15th year will have a depreciation cost of P400, fertilizer costing P5,500, and labor
with P1,105. The total cost of fertilization will be P7,005 per hectare, and P70.0 per tree. These computations
were based on planting density of 100 trees/ha (spacing of 10 m x 10 m).

Irrigation

It is necessary to irrigate young mango trees during the first three years after field planting for fast development.
It is also essential during the dry season, but as soon as the young trees have been established, they may be
allowed to depend on the rain. However, irrigating during the dry season will help in their development up to
the fruiting stage. With good growth, mango trees develop deep tap root system and may not require irrigation
in subsequent dry seasons. Irrigating trees at the flowering and fruiting stages also significantly increases the
number of fruits per panicle, minimizes fruit drop, and increases the fruit size. Normally, flowering and fruiting
coincide with the summer season in the Philippines.

A set of water pump and fittings which cost P30,000 (based on 1998 prices) is needed. The tools required are a
garden hose, shovels, and hoes which cost P4,400. By the 15th year, labor will cost P3,250.

Depending on the age of the tree and topography, water can be applied either by canal method, through holes, or
by basin method.

By the 15th year, depreciation cost will be P2,880, fuel will cost P2,500 (included cost of diesel and oil for
lubricants), and labor is at P3,250. The total cost of irrigation will be P8,630 per hectare, and P86.3 per tree.
These computations were based on planting density of 100 trees/ ha (spacing of 10 m x 10 m).

Flower Induction

Carabao mango may be a highly seasonal fruit, producing mostly in April and May, but with the use of
potassium nitrate (KNO3) as flower inducer, it is now possible to induce these mango trees to flower and
produce practically all throughout the year. However, trees could respond to chemical inducers with flushes, or
have no response at all, instead of flowers. Factors can be used to select trees which are likely to flower. These
are the age of the tree, age of shoots and months of flower induction, including appearance of shoots or leaves,
bearing history, vigor of the shoot, concentration of the flower inducer, and weather conditions/ soil moisture
tension.

The equipment and tools needed (based on 1998 prices) are a power sprayer, plastic drums, and a pressure hose.
These cost P14,500. By the 15th year KNO3 would cost P2,200. Labor would cost P1,365.

The depreciation cost of flower induction will be P1,900, KNO3 will cost P2,200, and labor will cost P1,365.
The total cost of flower induction is P5,465 per hectare, and P54.7 per tree.

The recommended schedule of spraying varies per region. For Ilocos and Central Luzon, it's from September to
February. In Cagayan Valley, spraying is recommended from December to February. For Southern Luzon, it's
time to spray from October to February, while the schedule for Western Visayas is from August to March. In
Central Visayas, and Western and Northern Mindanao, spraying is recommended from February to November.
Fruit Bagging

Fruit bagging is worth applying in other mango-producing provinces of the country aside from Cebu, because it
improves fruit quality and reduces rejects from 60% to 15% of the total harvest.

The needed supplies and materials (based on 1998 prices) are a bamboo ladder, stapler and wire, newspaper
print, coconut midrib, and rope. By the 15th year, cost of ladders will be P450, staplers will cost P270,
newsprint will cost P275, coconut midrib will cost P1,000 and rope will cost P540. The total cost of materials is
P1,995.

Labor for 15 years will cost P7,800. Total cost of fruit bagging is P9,795 per hectare, and P97.95 per tree.

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is the proper selection and use of suitable pest management practices to
reduce pest injury at levels below those causing significant loss. Specifically, it aims to increase profit through
the improvement of fruit yield and quality by reducing pest damages and reducing the cost of pest management.
Furthermore, IPM also aspires to improve sustainability of mango production, by reducing the harmful effects
of pesticides such as pesticide resistance and hazards to humans and the environment.

Developing an IPM program depends largely on the proper identification of pests; thorough knowledge of their
biology, ecology, and epidemiology; and understanding crop phenology and cultural requirements.

It uses two management strategies, namely: reduction of initial disease inoculum or pest population, and
reduction of the rate of disease infection or pest reproduction. These can be achieved through an integration of
cultural practices, pesticide management, and mechanical control.

The known major diseases of mango in the Philippines are anthracnose, diplodia stemend rot, scab, and sooty
mold. The major insect pests of mango include the tipborer, leafhopper, mango fruitfly, twig borer, mango pulp
weevil, capsid bug, and seed borer.

Cultural practices that could be used as IPM interventions include pruning, sanitation, fruit bagging, and
fertilization and irrigation.

For the early induction schedule, the cost of insecticide, fungicide, and adjuvant per hectare of mango (based on
1998 prices) by the 20th year will be P17,850, P37,650, and 5,625 respectively. Labor will cost P3,900, while
other costs will be at P5,000, for a total of P70,025. For the late induction schedule, cost of insectide, fungicide,
and adjuvant per hectare will be P23,350, P17,850, and 2,812.50 respectively. Labor will cost P3,900 and other
costs will be at P5,000. Total cost for late induction will be P52,912.50. The average cost for early and late
induction is P61,468.75.

Harvesting

The common way to determine whether fruits are ready for harvest is by counting the number of days from
potassium nitrate spraying. This maturity index is usually used along with examining the shape and observing
the other visual characteristics of the fruit. The tell-tale signs include the following: (a) flattened shoulders at
the stem-end, (b) fullness of cheeks, (c) "bloom" or presence of white powdery deposits on the peel, (d) yellow-
green pedicel-end in some of the fruits, (e) and yellowing of the pulp.

The required supplies and materials (based on 1998 prices) are a bamboo ladder, picking pole, rope, newsprint,
and kaing.
By the 15th year, picking poles will cost P180, newsprint will cost P300, and a kaing will cost P10,000. Total
cost is P10,480. Labor will cost P5,200. By the 15th year supplies and materials cost P10,480, and labor will
cost P5,200. Total cost of harvesting is P15,680 per hectare, and P156.80 per tree.

Field Packinghouse

Mango fruit is highly perishable and has a relatively shorter shelf life compared to other crops. It is also prone
to rough handling which may results to "condition" effects. It is therefore necessary that the fruit reach the end
of the postharvest chain as early as possible to prevent deterioration in quality during transport.

To know whether the fruits are already mature for harvesting, some indices are used. These are (a) the color of
the rind, fruit stem, and pulp; (b) form or shape of the fruits; (c) specific gravity; (d) sound of the fruits when
tapped lightly; (e) dry matter and total acid contents of the juice; and (f) number of days from flower induction
which can be historically or actually determined by the use of the heat units.

Mango fruit is highly perishable and has a relatively shorter shelf life compared to other crops. It is also prone
to rough handling which may results to "condition" effects. It is therefore necessary that the fruit reach the end
of the postharvest chain as early as possible to prevent deterioration in quality during transport.

To know whether the fruits are already mature for harvesting, some indices are used. These are (a) the color of
the rind, fruit stem, and pulp; (b) form or shape of the fruits; (c) specific gravity; (d) sound of the fruits when
tapped lightly; (e) dry matter and total acid contents of the juice; and (f) number of days from flower induction
which can be historically or actually determined by the use of the heat units.

For more information, contact:

Department of Agriculture.
Elliptical Road, Diliman, Quezon City
(0632) 928-8741 to 45
Web: www.da.gov.ph