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O 
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@ Its just a repetition of what we had in the third
semester (Electron Devices)
@ But
@ With simple additions needed exclusively (!?) for
VLSI design

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º

@ Well it is a three terminal device
@ The third extra terminal is far more important than the 2 terminal
device (diode)
@ The 3rd terminal is helpful in creating a controlled source
@ The concept is the usage of voltage between the two terminals to
control the current flowing in the third terminal
@ This is the basis for Y  design (?!)
@ The second most important application is that the current in the
third terminal can be made to vary from zero to maximum value
@ This makes the transistor to act as a p 

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º
Y  p 
@ We will discuss this later

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@ There are two types of MOSFETs
@ Enhancement type MOSFET and Depletion type
MOSFET

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@ There are 2 types of Enhancement type MOSFETs
n-type and p-type
@ Accordingly it is referred as nMOS and pMOS

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@ ‰MOS transistor is built on a p type substrate

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@ Due to this construction, MOSFET is also referred
to as IGFET ʹ Insulated Gate Field Effect
Transistor
@ The oxide layer between the Gate and the
substrate makes the input current extremely
small of the order of femto Amperes

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@ Looking at the structure again, we see that the
body (substrate) forms pn junction with source
as well as with the drain

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@ The pn junctions formed can be eliminated by
simply connecting source (S) with body (B)

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@ We had it already

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@ With no Gate voltage, VGS = 0 & Drain and Source
grounded

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@ The pn junctions formed prevent the current
conduction from source to drain
@ The resistance offered is too high in the order of
tera ohm

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@ With Gate voltage applied (VGS = some value)

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@ Increasing VGS above a certain value
@ To effect the formation of channel between
source and drain, VGS has to increased beyond a
certain amount called threshold value (Vt)
‰ 
D   
 
     
        
           
   

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@ Applying a small voltage between Drain and
Source (VDS)

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Π
 
@ The Voltage between drain and the source (VDS)
drifts the electrons from the drain to the source
@ For this to happen, channel has to be created
which is taken care by the Gate to Source voltage
(VGS) being greater than the threshold voltage
(Vt), often referred to as   Y or
 Y

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Π
 
@ Suppose that the voltage between drain and
source (VDS) is low in the order of, say, few tens
of mV
@ This causes drain current (ID) to flow from Drain
to Source (opposite to the actual flow of
electrons)

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Π
 
@ Drain current ID is dependent on VDS, as is must
be the case
@ An important thing to note here is that Gate to
Source Voltage (VGS) plays an important role in
deciding the magnitude of drain current flowing

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Π
 
@ The current ID is dependent on VDS, as is must
be the case
@ An important thing to note here is that Gate to
Source Voltage (VGS) plays an important role in
deciding the magnitude of drain current flowing

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Π
 

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Π
 
@ We can conclude that, for current to flow
through the channel,
@ First, the channel has to be induced,
accomplished by over drive voltage
@ Thus increasing the voltage above the threshold
voltage enhances the voltage, hence
 Y     mosfet
@ Also, note that drain current is proportional to
over drive voltage and gate to source voltage
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w 
@ Œalculate from the above figure used for
illustration, the slope offered by the
characteristics for four values shown
@ Œomment on the characteristics

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   !

@ Œarefully note down what happens to MOSFET͛s


conduction
@ Before that, let us do some work with respect to
voltages between the terminals of the device

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   !

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!  !     

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!  !      !  

@ The derivation can be better understood and
carried out with the understanding of the
construction, we had earlier
@ We know, vGS is applied between Gate and
Source, and this vGS should be greater Vt
@ Also vDS is applied between Drain and Source

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!  !      !  

@ Œonsidering operation in the triode region, we
have,
@ vGS > Vt and vDS < vGS ʹ Vt
@ These are the voltage levels at the terminals
@ Before going into the actual derivation, let us
refresh our basics slightly and then concentrate
on the drain current expression

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à Ypp    
@ The capacitive effect of the MOSFET is due to the
gate oxide whose thickness is given by tox
@ If the capacitance per unit gate area is given as
Œox, then 2 ox
C ox
t ox
@ Where, 2 ox is the permittivity of the silicon oxide
Xå Xåå
2 ox 2 m    åm   åm D 
à  à 
   à 
à Ypp    

@ ÷ 
  
  
@ ÷  
    
X
tox åmn  Cox   åm D 
   ’  o 
à  à 
   à 
à Ypp    

@    

à  à 
   à 
!  !      !  


@   !

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º 
 
"

@ à       


 "#$
@ ÷  "#$   

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w 
@ D     
L m o  tox n  o n m    t m
@ %
  ×
ox  k n
@ D  &àD÷!"#$'o
#( 'o


 )à  %à
  
        !  
*% +((o,
@ D 
 )à - 

! +(((á    
%à

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@ C 2 ox 
åmXåå
ox  åmX D 
tox 
åmX
 åmX åmXå D  åmXå   åmXå D  o
  ’D  o
k n× onCox m     ’D  o
m åm o     ’D  o
m åm o     åmXå D  o

  D    å o D    å o º  
å åm
à  à 
   à 
  

@ D           %


 
å W
iJ k n× vGS X t 
L
@ )  iJ åmm o A
@ ÷  v]S  vJS î 
W o 
@ D    !
 m o 
@ à !
å o
åmm  o º åo º    vGS X m  
mo
à  à 
   à 
  

@ à !
Ë vGS X m  m Ë v]S åm V
@ " !
vJS î  vGS X t Ë vJS î  åm X m m 
@ vJS
 &àD÷! 
  

@ ÷       
W å
iJ k n× v]S X Vt vJS X v JS

à  à 
   à 
  

å
@ vJS  

 

vJS
W
@ ÷   
 iJ k n × vGS X t vJS
L
@ .     +(((" 
v]S
!  
 
@ D 
 
     
      
vJS å å
rJS Ë åmmm
W o
iJ kn× vGS X t  å o º   mo vGS X m 
L Ëv å  GS
à  à 
   à 
w 
@ D ( 'o
    ! tox ån
o n m    Cox k n×
    /
O GS X t
  -  
WL m
       !
J mA
vJS
"
 

 0

à  à 
   à 
  

@ 2 ox 
åmXåå
Cox   åmX D     ’D  o
tox å
åmX
k n× on ox m      ’D  o

m åm o      ’D  o

m åm o      åmXå D  o

å ´åmX´ D    å ´  o D    å ´  o º  

à  à 
   à 
  

@ D           %


 
å W
iJ k n× vGS X t 
L
@ )  iJ m A
@ ÷  V›V v]S X Vt
W
@ D    ! m

@ à !
X å
m åm å ´o º    m vGS X t  
à  à 
   à 
  

@ à !
Ë vGS X t  m  Ë v›V m V
@ " !
vJS î  vGS X t Ë vJS î  m 

à  à 
   à 
w 
@ O         
!  /  &àD÷  
O GS X t
  !    
vJS
 
  
 
rJS
    
ù × W
rJS å  kn V›V 
  
@ rJS
  
kn× åmm o A  V
 1!  
W  L åm
!   ( 2 
à  à 
   à 
  

@ vJS
&àD÷! 
  

@ ÷       
W å
iJ k n× vGS X t vJS X v JS
L
å
@ vJS  

 

vJS
@ ÷   

W
iJ k n× v]S X Vt vJS

à  à 
   à 
  

@ D 
 
     
      
vJS å å
rJS Ë rJS
iJ W åmmo A  V åm v]S X Vt V
kn× v]S X Vt 

å å
Ë rJS Ë rJS
åmmo A  V åm V V ›V åmmo A  V åm mV
ËrJS ká

à  à 
   à 
    
# $  
@ But practically, something else happens͙
@ The MOSFET which we discussed, has promised
to be perfect with      Y  and
also      Y 
@ Input impedance is infinite (Y  being
approximately  ), even though appears
impractical can be considered to be infinite
@ But the case of output impedance is p Y
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   à 

     

@ But in practice, something else happens͙
@ The MOSFET which we discussed, has promised
to be perfect with      Y  and
also      Y 
@ Input impedance is infinite (Y  being
approximately  )
@ But the case of output impedance is p Y

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   à 
  

@ Increasing vDS causes the channel to be pinched
off
@ This causes the current to attain the saturation
value
@ That is, iD is independent of the applied vDS
@ In practice, any increase in vDS about this
saturation value decreases the channel in such a
way that the pinch off point î   Y p
p 
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  $  "

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Π   "

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º 

#

 !
!

@ We have to replace L by L in the current


equation
@ The current equation is given by
å W å W
iJ k n× v]S X Vt  Ë iJ k n× vGS X t 
 L X L
@ ‰ow, a simple mathematical treatment,
å W å å W  
Ë iJ k n× vGS X t  Ë iJ k n×  å  v]S X Vt 
L L    
å X  L
 L  taking  V å
L
à  à 
   à 
º 

#

 !
!

@ ‰ow, assuming,
L vJS Ë L ×
vJS
@ Substituting, in the current equation, we get,
å W ×
vJS 
Ë iJ ×
kn å   vGS X t 
L L 
å W w×
Ë iJ k n× å   vJS vGS X t  taking  w
L 

à  à 
   à 
º 

#

 !
!

@ w is the process technology parameter with the


dimensions of V Xå (?!)
@ In terms of w, the drain current equation can be
given as
å W
iJ ×
k n v]S X Vt  å w vJS 


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   à 
Π
# $      # 

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   à 

     
"

@ From the previous discussion, we infer that the


MOSFET has finite output resistance given by

ù iJ
ro  
 v
 JS 
@ Simplifying , we get

ù k n×W Ë ro
å VA
ro w v]S X Vt   Ë ro
   w J
J

à  à 
   à