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SPACE CEPSTRUM 1

Felicitation to SASTRA

शा ा स कर्ला: नवीन प गा:


िवज्ञान िवद्या तथा |
प्र यक्ष पिरशो ने न िवदष
ु ान
छात्रा विलना ध्रुवं ||
कोक् यथर्ः अपेिक्षत िवदधती
िम योप ् योग क्षमं म |
ध या शा क्य मे य पुणक
र् या
तेजीयते शोभना ||

SPACE CEPSTRUM 2
From the Editor’s Desk
Greetings Reader!
The Inception of the student’s association -SPACE has perked up
all those enervated electrons lodging within people. CEPSTRUM is a ven-
ture which led to the fission of nucleus present within each cell of those
nuclear sapiens. As the Editors of this magazine, we would like to thank
you all for your contributions.
We would also like to acknowledge the instrumental roles played
by the Dean, Prof. M. Narayanan and Dr. M.Sridharan, President
SPACE in the production of this magazine and thank them for their con-
tinued help.
As you will see in the following pages, there is huge potential wait-
ing to be tapped within each of us. We not only received articles pertain-
ing to Electronics and Communication, but also write-ups regarding the
impact of Carnatic music on our lives to Entrepreneurship and how to
tackle the GMAT. This confirms what we already know that we are capa-
ble of doing much more than what we are doing now. CEPSTRUM is testa-
ment to that.
The Editorial team have ensured that CEPSTRUM will interest
even the layman. Within these covers, we have answered a few questions
on the working of some of our day-to-day technologies, given an insight
into the mind boggling innovations we see today, unraveled the secrets of
the Hawk-Eye and the Human Area Network amongst a variety of topics
that are sure to keep you enthralled. To top it all, we have included puz-
zles at the end to keep you mentally agile.
It is with deep regret that I confess all submitted articles could not be pub-
lished in this edition. No contribution is less than the other, but tough de-
cisions had to be made. On the whole, we are proud to present to you a per-
fect package for fun and intellectual fodder.

- SAI SRINIVAS KRISHNAN


P.L.PRASANNA KUMAR
(Editor’s in Chief)

SPACE CEPSTRUM 3
From Secretary , SPACE

Every good endeavour begins with God’s Blessings. Hence at the outset,
being the student’s secretary of the ECE association-SPACE, it gives me im-
mense pleasure in invoking God’s blessings upon us all in making this maiden
annual magazine-“CEPSTRUM” a splendid success. CEPSTRUM has been a
result of combined efforts put up by many students of the association. We are
more than happy to bring forth our magazine right on schedule, all credits to
the students for their spirited contributions.

I would like to congratulate and thank the whole team of CEPSTRUM for
all the energy and enthusiasm they have exhibited in publishing this magazine.
For any work to be successful determination and the willingness to work is a
prerequisite and this was found in the team.

I wholeheartedly thank the team of editors who have spent their sleepless
nights for their painstaking efforts in filtering the galore of articles.
Last but not the least, without the kind support and encouragement of our
President, Vice-Presidents and the team SPACE without which you wouldn’t
have been reading this column!!

We hope this edition of CEPSTRUM succeeds in delivering the content in


the most entertaining manner and reaches all section of students.
May God bless us all to attain the vision of our lives.

S.Praveen Raj
(IV yr E.C.E)

SPACE CEPSTRUM 4
CONTENTS

• SAGA OF COLOURS 6
• DIGITAL JEWELRY 9
• SILICON DREAMS 11
• TRAIL BLAZERS 12
• BRAND LOGOS 14
• GPS 18
• SPECTRUM ALLOCATION 23
• CARNATIC WRITE –UP 25
• RED TACTON 29
• MEMRISTOR 30
• GMAT 37
• FLASH DEVICE 41
• NOISE CANCELLATION 44
• HAWK EYE 49

SPACE CEPSTRUM 5
SAGA OF COLOURS - Krishna Chaitanya III yr

Speaking of colors is not as coordinate representations of light technologies such as print-


simple as it seems! It intertwines points in an RGB color model ing inks.
physics of light, the physiology which is a popular way of repre- Color mixing can be
of vision and our psychological senting colors). done by taking any one set of
perceptions. Colors have been first-order colors and producing
used in psychology for mental Colors can be considered 9 sets of second-order which
and physical healing. They have in three sets which you may call then total the sum of colors to 12.
been used across almost all cul- as primary colors. The set one Of course hundreds of thousands
tures and countries to represent considered as primary depends of colors can be produced by
certain beliefs and ideas. For ex- on the application and situation. mixing various proportions of
ample: Indians consider white as RGB (Red / Blue / Green), primary colors.
the color representing peace, saf- CMY (Cyan / Magenta / Yel- Though traditionally
fron for sacrifice, green for hap- low), YRB (Yellow / Red / RGB is considered as primary
piness and likewise red has been Blue) colors, this discussion is about
considered as the color for dan- RGB is used by most electronic the usage YRB for producing
ger all over the world and hence and transmissive-light technolo- second-order colors just to com-
it is used in painting “danger” gies such as TV and film, and pound the statement that any set
boards, important instructions CMY (actually CMYK includ- can be taken as first-order colors.
that are not supposed to be ing Black) is used with reflected
missed etc., Although many such
things are formulated based on
aesthetic appeal made by the
color, some have scientific ex-
planations too. It plays a wide
role of in science, entertainment,
psychology, photography, art.

Colors interlaces phys-


ics of light, physiology
of vision and our psy-
chological perceptions
In order to understand this
one should know the basics of
Blue Primary
colors, like, “how can they be
Blue-Violet 75% / 25% mix of Blue and Red
defined scientifically?” .And Violet 50%/50% mix of Blue and Red
classification of colors, nomen- Red-Violet 25% / 75% mix of Blue and Red
clature of colors and so on... Red Primary
which would be discussed under Red-Orange 75% / 25% mix of Red and Yellow
“Theory of colors”. Orange 50%/50% mix of Red and Yellow
Yellow-Orange 25% / 75% mix of Red and Yellow
The image is called the Yellow Primary
color wheel and can also be con- Yellow-Green 75% / 25% mix of Yellow and Blue
sidered as a derivative of HSV Green 50%/50% mix Yellow and Blue
(the most common cylindrical- Blue-Green 25% / 75% mix of Yellow and Blue

SPACE CEPSTRUM 6
Complementary colors: These two images intercepted by Some interesting facts
two eyes in two different ways about complementary col-
  A complementary color is with regard to the position of col-
an important idea in perceiving ors:
ors in the picture.
colors as it tricks our eye. Before NASA has used the anaglyph • When you stare at a certain
elaborating the idea, it has to be picturing technology to map sur- object (of a primary color) for
noted that a complementary color face of mars in its various rover long and divert your sight sud-
for a specific color in the color denly, you will notice the same
missions in order to enable scien-
wheel is the one which is directly tists and researchers to have a 3D object flashing before your eyes
opposite to it in the same wheel. view of terrain. but with a complementary color.
And technically, a complemen- • When you observe the
These days in picturing 3D mov-
tary color for a primary color is shadow formed by an apple, you
ies, technique of polarization is can observe the hint of its com-
the one which is produced by
being used which works this way plementary color.
mixing the other two colors in
the set chosen. For example: - film is shot using two cameras • Complementary colors
Complementary color for red is resembling our two eyes one when seen together in equal pro-
cyan as shown in the figure. capturing the picture in vertical portions compounds their bright-
An anaglyph movie  polarization and other, horizontal ness. Examine the adjacent pat-
tern:
 

While anaglyph is a 
popular practice to rep­
resent 3D on 2D, an­
other popular method is 
stereogram which re­
quires no equipment to 
watch 3D effects. 

How does a stereogram 
work? 
Stereography
(stereo=repetition) is a scien-
polarization. While viewing, au- tific way to represent 3D in 2D
requires a complementary  dience will be given goggles
which requires no instruments
color set to produce a 3­D  which has vertical polarity filter but tricks on how to look at a
effect.   for one and horizontal for the stereogram. The illusion of depth
Consider the film shown below. other. This way, a perfect 3D im- in a stereogram is made by intel-
When anaglyph glasses which age is produced. This has been in ligent mixture of color combina-
have red and cyan filters for left tions and vision physics. A
and right respectively are worn, stereogram consists of a repeated
the shade of red in the picture is pattern of images or textures in
filtered by red filter and only which the distance with which
cyan is visible and similarly for
the other eye, the shade of cyan the pattern repeats is consider-
is filtered and only red is visible. able (too high nor too low).
These two images intercepted by
SPACE CEPSTRUM 7
When we try to look at some- And now if such displaced im-
thing we try to focus both of our ages have a coincidence in pat-
eyes in unison onto that particu- terns, we can feel a 3D or reality
lar thing. And now if the object
effect in a 2D picture.
is close enough, try watching the
object with one eye closed at a
GUIDELINES FOR
time, what you watch is linear
displacement in the position of STEREOGRAM :
the object with respect to your 1. Do not focus on the image
eyes. Now, in order for you to as such. Instead, imagine a
feel 3D effect on a 2D paper, we hypothetical object behind
need to provide the eyes with the image and look at that.
two displaced images of the 2. If you feel you are having
same object (the same way we two images before you,
perceive in reality). In order to linearly displaced, you are
do that, stereo grams with re- looking in the right way.
peated patterns are used. When 3. For better results try look-
you try to focus on some object ing through the centre of
(imaginary) which is behind the the image.
stereogram, you observe your
eyes processing the displaced
images together.

Try the below stereogram and feel the 3D for yourself.

SPACE CEPSTRUM 8
- Paturi Mrudula III yr.
DIGITAL JEWELRY
problem of forgotten pass- tooth technology, to perform

T he computer
mania has de-
veloped to an
extent enabling us to wear
wireless computers. The
words. They have the poten-
tial to be one whole replace-
ment of your driver’s li-
cense, key chain, business
cards, credit cards, health
the functions of a conven-
tional mobile.
The functions of different
pieces in jewelry phone are:
Earrings- Speakers embed-
insurance ded into these earrings
card, cor- will be the phone's re-
porate se- ceiver.
curity Necklace- Users will talk
badge, and into the necklace's em-
loose cash. bedded microphone.
Soon, cell Ring - The most interesting
phones will piece of the phone, this
take a to- "magic decoder ring” is
tally new equipped with light-
form, ap- emitting diodes (LEDs)
pearing to that flash to indicate an
fashion Wave of "Digital have no form at all(pun in- incoming call. It can also
Jewelry" looks to be the tended). Instead of one sin- be programmed to flash
next sizzling fashion trend gle device, cell phones will different colors to iden-
of the technological wave. be broken up into their basic tify a particular caller or
Shrinking size of computer components and packaged indicate the importance
devices and increased effi- as various pieces of jewelry. of a call.
ciency has encouraged sev- Together, the digital-jewelry Bracelet – It’s equipped
eral companies to produce cell phone will work just with a video graphics ar-
fashion jewelry with embed- ray
ded intelligence. The con-
cept behind this is to enable
wireless communication by
means of jewelry. By the
end of the decade, everyone
would be wearing their
computers instead of sitting
in front of them.
“Digital jewellery” is
a nascent catchphrase for like a conventional one. (VGA) display which
wearable ID devices that IBM has developed a proto- could be used as a caller
contain personal informa- type mobile phone that con- identifier that flashes the
tion like passwords, identifi- sists of several pieces of name and phone number
cation, and account informa- digital jewelry which could of the caller.
tion there by solving the work together with Blue
SPACE CEPSTRUM 9
With a jewellery Company’s Track Point these tiny devices.
phone, the keypad and dial- technology to wirelessly The impetus of mak-
ing function could be inte- move the cursor on a com- ing digital jewelry is ‘coz,
grated into the bracelet, or puter-monitor display. wireless devices are getting
else can be dumped alto- (Track Point is the little but- harder to use because of
gether by using voice- ton embedded in the key- small screens and tiny in-
recognition software for board of some laptops). puts, say IBM representa-
making calls. The ring that IBM Researchers have tives. They are trying to re-
flashes for phone calls could transferred this Track Point invent the interface of cell
also inform you about the e- technology to a ring, which phone and personal digital
mail piling up in your inbox. looks something like a black assistant and make them
The connected high- -pearl. The ring has a little more transparent.
tech fashion is being devel- black ball on top that users "Technology to make this
oped under the auspices prototype is here today,"
of IBM's Pervasive Com- says Michael Karasick,
puting division. Its ambi- chief technology officer
tion is to network every- and director of architec-
thing under the sun, rang- ture for IBM's Pervasive
ing from nose rings to Computing division. He
coffee pots and car ste- also admits that IBM
reos and then link each of still has a few technol-
them to one colossal ogy wrinkles like the
IBM network. invention of a powerful
IBM unveiled a Watchwill swivel to move the cur- enough miniature recharge-
sor, in the same way that the
Pad, a personal information able battery for its army of
manager that resides on TrackPoint button on a lap- tiny Internet-enabled wear-
top is used.
your wrist. The watch prod- able etc which are yet to be
uct can synchronize data This Track Point ring ironed out. After all, who
and images with a handheldwill be very valuable when wants to have to recharge
device or PC via wireless monitors shrink to the size your earrings while you're at
of watch face. In the coming
connections. They have also work..?
developed a sugar cube- age of ubiquitous comput-
Who will make, mar-
sized wearable camera thating, displays will no longer
ket, sell these types of de-
mounts onto eyeglasses forbe tied to desktops or wall
vices is also far from clear.
screens. Instead, you'll wear
taking digital pictures any-
Wired clothing, such as
the display like a pair of
time anyplace. Then there's
jackets lined with cell
sunglasses or bracelets. Re-
the wallet-sized Person Area
phones and cloth that can
Network(PAN) device searchers are overcoming
display digital images, is be-
several obstacles facing
which uses natural electrical
ing developed by a players
conductivity of the human these new wearable dis-
ranging from Levi Strauss to
plays, the most important of
body to transmit digital data.
Xerox. But IBM's jewelry
which is the readability of
The mouse-ring that takes functional fashion to a
information displayed on
IBM has developed use the new level.
SPACE CEPSTRUM 10
Kumaresh.P III yr
SILICON DREAMS
or not, this is one of the most lu- metrics as Finger Printing, Iris
Recently, in a casual con- crative areas of business in elec- Scanning etc.) These are high
versation Prof. M.Chandrasekhar tronics. Building and servicing a end companies specializing more
( SEEE) accounted that he’d Power Supply System (say UPS, on the design side. They produce
been to his Alumni meet in or RPS) is by itself a reasonably the final Design which is meticu-
Chennai recently. Recollecting good revenue generator. Just lously accurate and detailed. The
fond memories, he told us that count the number of such sys- actual Production is outsourced
most of his classmates from col- tems in our labs and the amount to other small Industries.
lege had become successful en- that is allotted for its annual
trepreneurs and had set up busi- maintenance (Seriously, ask 5. IC Fabrication:
nesses of their own. His friends around for the actual cost. You’ll Now this, is a total stranger
from Mechanical Department faint) and you’ll be convinced. to India. We consume ICs at an
had set up Precision Forges, exorbitant rate. But production
those from Electrical offering 2. Testing of Built sys- wise, India has seen neither a
consultancies for field problems, tems (Testing Proce- strong contender in opening a
Civil people had come up with large scale fabrication unit, nor
giant conglomerates of Construc- dures):
the amount of innovation and
tion Companies, and so. This left Most of the Electronic Sys-
research that has to go into it to
us with a little nagging thought. tems designed and built (say a
make it feasible and economical.
What about Electronics? Why simple Controller based circuitry,
The day India sees an indigenous
aren’t we hearing enough about through Fuzzy controlled Em-
IC Fabrication Industry, would
those guys as successful entre- bedded Systems, to ARM, RISC
be the day of pinnacle of glory
preneurs? But then, that’s not based Projects) have bugs. De-
for Indian Electronickers, and
the truth. There’s equal, if not bugging those hardware bugs is a
the complete fulfillment of the
better scope for Electronics to major source of income for In-
Silicon Dreams.
become a successful Economic dian Electronic companies.
Industry. Termed as “Testing Procedures”,
The list is endless; a little
this branch has sets of protocols,
talk with any of the professors in
The term “Silicon Valley” and is a branch of study on its our building will fill one’s head
refers to a locality of IT Compa- own. with a variety of ideas. So, the
nies in California, United States. next time you sit for placement,
Its Indian counterpart is said to 3. Manufacturing: or make a career choice, take a
be Bangalore. Though the IT Relays, Solenoid Valves, minute and check out the other
people seem to have generously Capacitors, Resistors, and odd. options open.
borrowed the term “Silicon” (But not IC’s): Though Taiwan
from us -the Electronics people, I leads in this industry (It’s Cot-
think it rightfully belongs more tage Industry there!), a good pro-
to us, than to them. And it’s high portion of it is manufactured Two roads diverged in a
time that India considered build- back here at home. In spite of a wood, and I-
ing up an Electronics Industry, very low margin, it is still a gross I took the one less travelled
much more powerful than its cur- revenue generator due to sheer by,
rent state. Below listed are few hugeness of the volume of con- And that has made all the
of the common areas that invite sumption by our domestic mar-
good scope for Industrialists in ket.
difference.
Electronics sector.
4. Design Solutions: -Robert Frost, The Road
1. UPS, RPS manufactur- Like say, a Security Sys- Not Taken.
ing and service: Believe it tem Interface (Smart Cards, Bio-

SPACE CEPSTRUM 11
CEOs -THE TRAIL BLAZERS SAI SRINIVAS KRISHNAN
III YR E.C.E

CEOs can have a powerful with unauthorized or stolen many different businesses, most
effect on the companies they cards. Hock then focused on ex- of them based in manufacturing.
oversee. A bad CEO, or even an pansion, decentralizing the man- Welch stuck to a single message:
indifferent CEO, can quickly agement process and allowing if GE did not evolve and start
bring a good company down, member banks to compete with growing, the company would be
while a good CEO can transform each other for the same sales ter- left behind. Welch came up with
a mediocre company into a busi- ritory. a strategy to make GE work like
ness that attracts only the best a smaller, hungrier company,
employees. This concept, based heav- while still enjoying market domi-
Dee Hock - Visa ily on evolutionary concepts of nance. GE exited many of the
When Dee Hock came onto self-organizing systems and traditional markets in which it
the scene, many people thought chaos theory, was in stark oppo- had competed for years
that credit cards had already sition from the patriarchal top- (consumer appliances, air condi-
reached their apex. Since the in- down models of corporate man- tioning), and entered completely
troduction of the Diners Club agement that ruled up to then. new areas like medical technol-
and the BankAmericard, the Visa quickly spread nationwide, ogy, finance, television and ser-
credit card industry had broken and then internationally, even as vices. Welch believed that if he
wide open. It was the success of more and more merchants were had the right people, each new
the BankAmericard in the 1960s goaded and pressured into ac- venture could result in success.
that prompted more banks to cepting the company and its sys-
jump in the credit card pool and tem. By letting the member To increase productivity,
issue cards. banks compete, Hock increased Welch fired the bottom 10% of
the rate of acceptance, as many his managers and employees
Cards were mailed en of those banks had existing busi- each year during the early 1980s
masse to everyone including tod- ness relationships with local mer- - a strategy that earned him the
dlers, pets, inmates and the dead. chants and far more bargaining moniker "Neutron Jack," as he
As a result, fraud became ram- power than any centralized or- would eliminate the people while
pant and even legitimate transac- ganization would've had. leaving the buildings intact. He
tions couldn't be properly sorted also had GE cut all businesses
out with the huge inflow of paper In 1976, the organization that weren't considered in the top
work. As a result of this may- was renamed Visa, and it was two in their markets. Welch's
hem, member banks were losing both the largest and hungriest of massive housecleaning project
money in a big way. When Dee the credit card issuers. Seeing his included removing the layers of
Hock took over the organization vision of a universal currency bureaucracy that build up in any
in 1970, he began to implement well on its way to fruition, Hock large organization, making the
his vision for consumer credit. stepped down in 1984, but Visa flow of ideas much faster. GE
has continued to grow using the soon became one of the most
Hock's vision was to make model of controlled chaos that he coveted places to work.
plastic a universal currency, but introduced.
first he had to make it a proper The soft economic moat
domestic one. Under Hock, the Jack Welch – General created by GE's corporate culture
organization led the way into Electric led to dominance in its core op-
electronic processing for transac- Jack Welch's first chal- erations, as well as new business
tions, to cut processing time from lenge as CEO of General Electric acquired in the 1980s. However,
five minutes to 56 seconds. It was convincing the company that this dominance was, once again,
also limited fraud by detecting it it needed change. General Elec- limiting the room left for growth.
sooner and reducing repeat fraud tric was large and dominant in Being in the top two companies

SPACE CEPSTRUM 12
in a certain market may mean McDonald brothers and Kroc franchisees too much. Many of
profitability, but also means the struggled to make the remaining McDonald's game-changing
company's growth is dependent 1.4% cover the overhead. ideas filtered up from franchisees
on the advancement of the mar- Less than six years later, trying different things, including
ket. Kroc's parent company was on national advertising campaigns,
the edge of insolvency, despite the Big Mac and the company's
Welch and his management strong sales growth at its fran- spokesclown, Ronald McDonald.
team redefined goals to get chises. Kroc wanted to keep
around this barrier. GE had been good relations with the fran- McDonald's went public in
focusing so tightly on a specific chises. He wanted to treat the 1965, and the company quickly
market, such as airline engine franchises like business partners, began to fill the domestic market.
maintenance in the U.S. that it rather than milking them for in- Kroc set his sights overseas,
easily became one of the top come as some companies did. opening up franchises - and buy-
companies. It reworked its nar- ing land - in Japan, Germany,
row definitions within each busi- One of Kroc's managers London and almost everywhere
ness' market so that no division came up with the idea of acting else imaginable at the time. Eve-
controlled more than 10% of the as the landlord for franchises. rywhere McDonald's spread,
entire company. Under Welch, The parent company would buy Kroc instituted the same mix of
GE grew from a $14-billion prospective land and rent it to standardized fare and local entre-
company to a $400-billion one. franchisees. This would also preneurial spirit. Stepping down
solve the problem of franchisees as president in 1968, Kroc
Ray Kroc – McDonald's setting up helter skelter, some- watched McDonald's spread
Ray Kroc straddles the fine times infringing on each other’s across the globe. Kroc passed
line between CEO and entrepre- sales territory. With a new sub- away in 1984; one year before
neur, but for our purposes he'll sidiary, Franchise Realty Corpo- McDonald's entered the Dow
be regarded as a CEO. In 1954, ration, the parent company based on the strength of its multi-
Kroc, then a milkshake machine started to see more revenue. billion dollar real estate holdings.
salesman, was curious about
what the McDonald brothers Keeping his franchise fees Bottom-line:
were doing to require twice as low, Kroc decided to use the in- The common link between
many milkshake machines as any flow of cash to bring the same Hock, Welch and Kroc is vision.
other restaurant. What he found standardization to the hamburger
All three saw a strong future for
was a clean restaurant with a as Henry Ford did to the automo-
cheap, nine-item menu and al- bile. Kroc opened Hamburger their companies, and were able to
most no tables. Working class University to train operators in bring others on board to realize
families would drive up, order management and scientific preci- that future. This ability to both
their food and drive away with sion. All McDonald's hamburg- set and realize goals is what sets
the meal in a few minutes. ers would have the same diame- the very best CEOs apart from
ter, fat content and amount of
the rest. In a time when many
Kroc was entranced and pickles, just as every outlet had
the same basic menu and proce- CEOs are falling short of the ex-
approached the brothers about
franchising. It turned out that dures. Kroc even opened an pectations stemming from their
they'd sold a few franchises with R&D department to look into compensation, it's refreshing to
mixed results, but they allowed food storage and other areas. see that the right person can
Kroc to give it another try for make a difference, no matter how
0.5% of the sales from franchi- Kroc wanted all franchi- big or small the company be-
sees. Kroc began selling fran- sees to focus on quality, service,
neath him may be.
chises for $950 - an extremely cleanliness and value. But de-
low price - and collecting 1.9% spite his exacting standards,
of sales. 0.5% of this went to the Kroc didn't want to lose the en-
trepreneurial edge by restricting
SPACE CEPSTRUM 13
CORPORATE BRAND LOGO EVOLUTION Karthik.S III yr

hand-built computer Apple I. laced with cyanide. Turing is re-

H ave you ever


wondered why
the Apple in the
Apple logo looks bitten at one
end? Did you know that IBM
The logo designed by Jobs and
Wayne was a complicated pic-
ture of Isaac Newton sitting un-
der a tree. This had, with the in-
scription: “Newton … A Mind
garded as the father of com-
puters. Janoff, however, said in
an interview that though he was
mindful of the “byte/bite” pun
(Apple’s slogan back then: “Byte
was formerly known as ITR? Forever Voyaging through into an Apple”), and had de-
Have you ever wondered how Strange Seas of Thought … signed the logo so as to “prevent
the innumerous number of cor- Alone.” the apple from looking like a
porate logos that you see regu- cherry tomato.
larly ended up looking the way Apple II was successful
they did? Well, it’s all a part mainly because it had colored When Apple launched the
of evolution of the corporate graphics. Great and simple de- new iMac in 1998, they changed
image. sign has always been the USP their logo to a monochromatic
(Unique Selling Proposition) for apple logo, almost identical to
It is a well-known fact that Apple, and their logo is no ex- the rainbow logo. Now, the Ap-
the logo of a company is one of ception. However, Steve Jobs ple logo comes with nice gradi-
the key components in identify- hired Rob Janoff to simplify the ent chrome silver design. It is
ing the image of a brand and a logo, which turned out to be a one of the most recognized brand
key factor in communicating great idea. Rob created the symbols in the world today, and
with the target audience. Many ‘Rainbow Apple’ which was the the shape is what identifies the
well-known corporate brand logo for company till 1998. company more than the color
changes their logo to achieve the
perfect identification because There are many rumors as Pepsi :
identity’s creation is not an occa- to why Rob had chosen to create
sional activity, but a permanent such a logo. One of them says Pepsi, one of the biggest soft
one. Let’s take a look at the In- that the Apple was a tribute to drinks company today, was first
teresting stories behind the logos Newton (discovery of gravity started by Caleb Bradham in
of some of the most popular from an Apple), and since the 1890’s. Initially named as Brad’s
brands in the world. USP for Apple at that time was drink the name was quickly
colored graphics, it had the rain- changed to Pepsi-Cola, which is
Apple : bow colors. Another explanation visible in the first logo designed
exists that the bitten apple pays in 1898. Finally in 1903, the
Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and homage to the Mathematician name was trademarked and has-
Ronald Wayne had together Alan Turing, who committed sui- n’t been changed till date.
setup Apple in 1976, to sell their cide by eating an apple he had In the early years, Brad made

SPACE CEPSTRUM 14
custom logos for the brand as it of the Pepsi Globe instead of the Mozilla Firefox :
became more famous. In 1933, bottle cap in 1973. The typeface
the company was bought by Loft, was made smaller so as to fit in An open source web browser,
Inc. which came up with the the globe. The Pepsi Globe was created by Dave Hyatt and Blake
‘Refreshing and Healthy’ logo. “boxed in”, with a red bar com- Ross, was first of all named as
However, the major break- ing in from the left and a light- Phoenix, which is visible in their
through in the Pepsi logo design blue bar coming in from the first logo in 2002. Due to some
came in the 1940’s. Walter right. trademark issues, the name had
to be changed to Firebird, but
Mack, the CEO of Pepsi In 1991, the typeface was then the name was chosen so that
came up with the idea of a new moved from inside the globe. they would be able to retain the
bottle design, with a crown hav- The red bar was lengthened and same logo.
ing the Pepsi logo. The ‘Pepsi the typeface came on the top of Unfortunately, this name also
Globe’ emerged when USA was the globe. In 1998, the white had certain trademark issues.
in WWII, and to support the background in the logo was re- Then, they finally got lucky and
country’s war efforts, Pepsi had a placed by the blue color, which chose the name Firefox, which
blue, red and white logo. also resulted in dropping the red has become one of the most used
horizontal band. The globe now browsers worldwide. In 2003, the
This logo became hugely had 3D graphic and larger than now famous logo was designed
popular, and went on to be the earlier versions. It might be that by professional interface de-
identifier for the company. As a since, Pepsi and the globe touch signer John Hicks.
result, in 1950 and 1962, this each other for the first time in the The logo depicted a Firefox en-
bottle cap with the swirling blue logo, the name ‘the Pepsi Globe’ gulfing the whole world, which
and red became prominent in the was given to the logo. also signifies the global reach
company logo. During the After 1998, it seems that Pepsi that the company strived for.
1960’s when it became even had decided to give the globe There has been a minor change
more popular, the script was more prominence than the script in the logo since then, with the
changed from the curly red, and itself. So, the globe came on top colors of the continents using a
the main attraction was on the of the script in 2003, and in their lighter blue color, just to differ-
bottle cap in the logo. current logo they have done entiate them better from the
away with the script altogether. oceans.
We see the first appearance

SPACE CEPSTRUM 15
Nokia :

Nokia, the mobile handset manufacturing giant is actually named after a village in Finland. The
Nokia Corporation was formed as a merger of Finnish Rubber Works (which also used a Nokia brand),
the Nokia Wood Mill, and the Finnish Cable Works in 1967. The company has sold a variety of products
in the past including television, shoes, car tires and others. The evolution and the meaning of the logo
are unclear due to the changing business over the years.

Computer Animation : Charitha III yr…!

C omputer Ani-
mation is the
art of creating
moving images via com-
medium, such as film. It is
also referred to as CGI
(Computer-generated im-
agery or computer-generated
achieved in television and
motion pictures. Computer
animation is a digital suc-
cessor to the art of “stop
puters .It is a branch of com- imaging), especially when motion animation of 3D
puter graphics and anima- used in films. models” and “frame-by-
tion. Increasingly, it is cre- frame animation of 2D illus-
ated by means of 3D com- To create the illusion trations.”
puter graphics, though 2D of movement, an image is
computer graphics are still displayed on the computer For 3D animations,
widely used for low band- screen then quickly replaced objects (models) are built on
width and faster real-time by a new image that is simi- the computer monitor
rendering needs. lar to the previous image, (modelled) and 3D figures
but shifted slightly. This are rigged with a virtual
The target of the ani- technique is identical to the skeleton. For 2D figure an-
mation is mostly another illusion of movements imations, separate objects

SPACE CEPSTRUM 16
(illustrations) and separate are being presented to the Up). The movie Final Fan-
transparent layers are used, end-user audience. Low tasy: The Spirits Within is
with or without a virtual bandwidth animations trans- often cited as the first com-
skeleton. Then the limbs, puter-generated movie to
mitted via the internet (e.g.
eyes, mouth, clothes, etc. of 2D Flash, X3D) often use attempt to show realistic-
the figure are moved by the software on the end-users looking humans. However,
animator on key frames. computer to render in real due to the enormous com-
The differences in appear- time as an alternative to plexity of the human body,
ance between key frames streaming or pre-loaded human motion, and human
are automatically calculated high bandwidth animations. biomechanics, realistic
by the computer in a process The modelling of hu- simulation of humans re-
known as tweening or man facial features is both mains largely an open prob-
morphing. one of the most challenging lem. Another problem is the
and sought after elements indistasteful psychological re-
Finally, the animation computer-generated im- sponse to viewing nearly
is rendered. For 3D anima- agery. Computer facial ani- perfect animation of hu-
tions, all frames must be mation is a highly complex mans, known as "the un-
rendered after modelling is field where models typicallycanny valley." It is one of
complete where as in 2D include a very large number the "holy grails" of com-
of animationputer animation. Eventually,
variables. the goal is to create software
where the animator can gen-
One open erate a movie sequence
challenge in showing a photorealistic hu-
computer man character, undergoing
animation is physically-plausible motion,
a photoreal- together with clothes, photo-
istic anima- realistic hair, a complicated
tion of hu- natural background, and
mans. Cur- possibly interacting with
vector animations; the ren- rently, most computer- other simulated human char-
dering process is the key animated movies show ani- acters. This could be done in
frame illustration process, mal characters (A Bug's a way that the viewer is no
while tweened frames are Life, Finding Nemo, Rata- longer able to tell if a par-
rendered as needed. touille, Ice Age, Over the ticular movie sequence is
Hedge), fantasy characters computer-generated, or cre-
In pre-recorded pres- (Monsters Inc., Shrek, Teen- ated using real actors in
entations, the rendered age Mutant Ninja Turtles 4, front of movie cameras.
frames are transferred to a Monsters vs. Aliens), an- Complete human realism is
different format or medium thropomorphic machines not likely to happen very
such as film or digital video. (Cars, WALL-E, Robots) or soon, but when it does it
The frames may also be ren- cartoon-like humans (The may have major repercus-
dered in real time while they Incredibles, Despicable Me, sions for the film industry.

SPACE CEPSTRUM 17
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM Sailesh Kumar III yr

W e know that
with the help of
GPS, we can be
guided to the desired destina-
tion. Here is how it works....
fails). Each of these satellites cir-
cles the globe at about 19,300
km, making two complete rota-
tions every day. The orbits are
arranged so that at anytime and
the three or more satellites that
are within coverage. If you
know you are 10 km from satel-
lite A in the sky, you could be
anywhere on the surface of a
anywhere on Earth, there are at huge, imaginary sphere on Earth
The Global Positioning least four satellites visible in the with a 10 km radius. If you also
System (GPS) is a space-based sky. know you are 15 km from satel-
global navigation satellite system
(GNSS) that provides reliable A GPS receiver's job is to
location and time information in locate four or more of these sat-
all weather and at all times and ellites, figure out the distanc-e to
anywhere on or near the Earth each, and use this information to
when and where there is an un- deduce its own location. This
obstructed line of sight to four or operation is based on a simple
more GPS satellites. It is main- mathematical principle called
tained by the United States gov- Trilateration.
ernment and is freely accessible
by anyone with a GPS receiver. In order to make this sim-
GPS was created and realized by ple calculation, then, the GPS
the U.S. Department of Defense receiver has to know two things: lite B, you can overlap the first
(USDOD) and was originally run • The location of at least three sphere with another, larger
with 24 satellites. It was estab- satellites above you  sphere. The spheres intersect in a
lished in 1973 to overcome the The distance between you and perfect circle. If you know the
limitations of previous naviga- each of those satellites  distance to a 3rd satellite C, you
tion systems. The GPS receiver figures both of get a third sphere, which inter-
these things out by analyzing sects with this circle at two
In addition to GPS other high-frequency, low-power radio points. The Earth itself can act as
systems are in use or under de- signals from the GPS satellites. a 4th sphere. Only one of the two
velopment. The Russian Global Better units have multiple receiv- possible points will actually be
Navigation Satellite System ers, so they can pick up signals on the surface of the planet, so
(GLONASS) was for use by the from several satellites simultane- you can eliminate the one in
Russian military only until 2007. ously. space. When you measure the
There are also the planned Chi- distance to four located satellites,
nese Compass navigation system Radio waves are electro- you can draw four spheres that
and Galileo positioning system magnetic energy, which means all intersect at one point. Here
of the European Union (EU). they travel at the speed of light the sphere is actually the cover-
First of all Global Positioning (about 186,000 miles per second, age range of the satellite. Three
System is vast, expensive and 300,000 km per second in a vac- spheres will intersect even if
involves a lot of technical inge- uum). The receiver can figure out your numbers are way off, but
nuity, but the fundamental con- how far the signal has travelled four spheres will not intersect at
cepts at work are quite simple. by timing how long it took for one point if you've measured in-
the signal to arrive. correctly. Since the receiver
This System (GPS) is actu- makes all its distance measure-
ally a constellation of 32 Earth- The satellite, immediately ments using its own built-in
orbiting satellites (24 in opera- after receiving the signal sent by clock, the distances will all be
tion and three extras in case one the GPS receiver starts locating proportionally incorrect.

SPACE CEPSTRUM 18
Generally three satellites
are essential to locate the posi-
tion, but the GPS receivers look
for four or more satellites in or-
der to improve accuracy and pro-
vide precise altitude information.

The length of the delay during


the transmission and reception is
equal to the signal's travel time.
The receiver multiplies this time
by the speed of light to determine
how far the signal travelled. As-
suming the signal travelled in a
straight line, this is the distance
from receiver to the satellite.
In order to make this measure- this, it resets its clock to be in mation it receives from four lo-
ment, the receiver and the satel- sync with the satellite's atomic cated satellites. The delay varies
lite both need clocks that can be clock. The receiver does this depending on where you are on
synchronized down to the nano- constantly whenever it's on, the Earth, which means it's diffi-
second. To make a satellite posi- which means it is nearly as accu- cult to accurately factor this into
tioning system using only syn- rate as the expensive atomic the distance calculations. Prob-
chronized clocks, you would clocks in the satellites. lems can also occur when radio
need to have atomic clocks not signals bounce off large objects,
only on all the satellites, but also In order for the distance such as skyscrapers, giving a re-
in the receiver. But atomic clocks information to be of any use, the ceiver the impression that a satel-
are too expensive for everyday receiver also has to know where lite is farther away than it actu-
consumer usage. the satellites actually are. This ally is. On top of all that, satel-
isn't particularly difficult because lites sometimes just send out bad
Effective solution to this the satellites travel in very high almanac data, misreporting their
problem: Every satellite contains and predictable orbits. The GPS own position.
an expensive atomic clock, but receiver simply stores a database
the receiver itself uses an ordi- that tells it where every satellite Differential GPS (DGPS)
nary quartz clock, which it con- should be at any given time. helps correct these errors. The
stantly resets. The receiver looks basic idea is to gauge GPS inac-
at incoming signals from four or Things like the pull of the curacy at a stationary receiver
more satellites and gauges its moon and the sun do change the station with a known location.
own inaccuracy. So the receiver satellites' orbits very slightly, but Since the DGPS hardware at the
sets its clock to that time value, the Department of Defense con- station already knows its own
and it then has the same time stantly monitors their exact posi- position, it can easily calculate
value that all the atomic clocks in tions and transmits any adjust- its receiver's inaccuracy. The sta-
all of the satellites have. The ments to all GPS receivers as tion then broadcasts a radio sig-
GPS receiver gets atomic clock part of the satellites' signals. nal to all DGPS-equipped receiv-
accuracy for free. ers in the area, providing signal
correction information for that
The receiver can easily cal- Differential GPS : area. In general, access to this
culate the necessary adjustment So far, we know how a correction information makes
that will cause the four spheres to GPS receiver calculates its posi- DGPS receivers much more ac-
intersect at one point. Based on tion on earth based on the infor- curate than ordinary receivers.

SPACE CEPSTRUM 19
The most essential function • Your average speed  use one or more of GPS's three
of a GPS receiver is to pick up • A dashed line trail showing basic components: absolute loca-
the transmissions of at least four you exactly where you have trav- tion, relative movement, and
satellites and combine the infor- elled on the map time transfer.
mation in those transmissions in • The estimated time of arrival Cellular telephony:
order to figure out the receiver's at your destination if you main- Clock synchronization en-
position on Earth. tain your current speed ables time transfer, which is criti-
cal for synchronizing its spread-
GPS receiver with built-in Applications :  ing codes with other base sta-
maps for drivers tions to facilitate inter-cell hand-
Once the receiver makes this cal- off and support hybrid GPS/
culation, it can tell you the lati- cellular position detection for
tude, longitude and altitude (or mobile emergency calls and
some similar measurement) of its other applications. The first
current position. To make the handsets with integrated GPS
navigation more user-friendly, launched in the late 1990s. The
most receivers plug this raw data U.S. Federal Communications
into map files stored in memory. Commission (FCC) mandated
the feature in either the handset
You can use maps stored in or in the towers (for use in trian-
the receiver's memory, connect gulation) in 2002 so emergency
the receiver to a computer that services could locate 911 callers.
can hold more detailed maps in Third-party software developers
its memory, or simply buy a de- later gained access to GPS APIs
tailed map of your area and find from Nextel upon launch, fol-
your way using the receiver's lowed by Sprint in 2006, and
latitude and longitude readouts. Verizon soon thereafter.
Some receivers let you download
detailed maps into memory or While originally a military Disaster relief/emergency ser-
supply detailed maps with plug- project, GPS is considered a dual vices: Depend upon GPS for lo-
in map cartridges. -use technology, meaning it has cation and timing capabilities.
significant military and civilian
A standard GPS receiver applications. Geofencing: Vehicle tracking
will not only place you on a map GPS has become a widely de- systems, person tracking sys-
at any particular location, but ployed and useful tool for com- tems, and pet tracking systems
will also trace your path across a merce, scientific uses, tracking, use GPS to locate a vehicle, per-
map as you move. If you leave and surveillance. GPS's accurate son, or pet. These devices attach
your receiver on, it can stay in time facilitates everyday activi- to the vehicle, person, or the pet
constant communication with ties such as banking, mobile collar. The application provides
GPS satellites to see how your phone operations, and even the 24/7 tracking and mobile or
location is changing. With this control of power grids by allow- Internet updates even when the
information and its built-in ing well synchronized hand-off tracker leaves a designated area.
[47]
clock, the receiver can give you switching. Farmers, surveyors,
several pieces of valuable infor- geologists, and countless others
mation: perform their work more effi- Geotagging: Applying location
• How far you've travelled  ciently, safely, economically, and coordinates to digital objects
• How long you've been travel- accurately. such as photographs and other
ling  documents for purposes such as
• Your current speed Civilian  creating map overlays.
(speedometer)  Many civilian applications

SPACE CEPSTRUM 20
GPS Aircraft Tracking Embedded GPS receivers able to include: 
withstand accelerations of 12,000
• GPS tours: Location de- g or about 118 km/s2 have been
termines what content to display; developed for use in 155 mm • Galileo – a global system
for instance, information about (6.1 in) howitzers. being developed by the European
an approaching point of interest. Union and other partner coun-
• Map-making: Both civil- • Search and Rescue: Downed tries, planned to be operational
ian and military cartographers pilots can be located faster if by 2014.
use GPS extensively. their position is known.
• Navigation: Navigators • Beidou – People's Republic
value digitally precise velocity • Reconnaissance: Patrol of China's regional system, cov-
and orientation measurements. movement can be managed more ering Asia and the West Pacific.
• Phasor measurement closely.
units: GPS enables highly accu- • COMPASS – People's Re-
rate time stamping of power sys-   GPS satellites carry a  public of China's global system,
tem measurements, making it set of nuclear detonation de­ planned to be operational by
possible to compute phasors. tectors consisting of an opti­ 2020.
• Recreation: For example, cal sensor (Y­sensor), an X­
geocaching, geodashing, GPS ray sensor, a dosimeter, and  • GLONASS – Russia's global
drawing and way marking. an electromagnetic pulse  navigation system IRNSS – In-
(EMP) sensor (W­sensor),  dia's regional navigation system,
• Tectonics: GPS enables that form a major portion of  planned to be operational by
direct fault motion measurement the United States Nuclear  2012, covering India and North-
in earthquakes. Detonation Detection Sys­ ern Indian Ocean.
tem. 
Military • QZSS – Japanese regional
Other systems :Other satellite  system covering Asia and Oce-
As of 2009, military applications navigation systems in use or  ania.
of GPS include: various states of development  This is all about GPS.
• Navigation: GPS allows sol-
diers to find objectives, even in EARS ARE TOO PRECIOUS -Manikandan , III yr
the dark or in unfamiliar terri- Ear acts as a transducer to convert sound waves in the air to
tory, and to coordinate troop and electrical signals that could be translated by brain into meaningful
supply movement. In the US sound signals. Tiny hair cells present in our inner ear aids in hearing.
armed forces, commanders use If these cells are exposed to noise (which we consider to be music)
the Commanders Digital Assis- that are too near and too loud it might lead to NIHL(Noise Induced
tant and lower ranks use the Sol- Hearing Loss ).
dier Digital Assistant. Sound is measured in units called decibels. The decibel level
• Target tracking: Various starts at zero which is near total silence. This is the weakest sound
military weapons systems use that an ear can hear. Normal conversation is around 65decibels. Our
GPS to track potential ground favourite MP3 player set at maximum level can produce roughly 105
and air targets before flagging decibels. But the safer limit is 85 decibels.
them as hostile. An ambulance siren is 120 decibels and is much more in-
tense than the weakest sound. Very high intensity “impulse” noise
• Missile and projectile guid- like explosion or gunshots is around 150 decibels can damage hear-
ance: GPS allows accurate tar- ing instantly. The louder the sound and the higher the decibel, the
geting of various military weap- shorter time it takes for the damage to occur.
ons including ICBMs, cruise “Hearing is the soul of knowledge and information of a
missiles and precision-guided higher order. To be cut off from hearing is to be isolated indeed” -
munitions. Artillery projectiles. Helen Keller

SPACE CEPSTRUM 21
THE BRACHISTOCHRONE PROBLEM Jagannathan II Yr

In the academic circle question in Acta Eruditorum. He Leibniz was


pertaining to India, if someone is said that whoever communicated the first in
asked ‘Who found calculus?’ we to him the solution, he shall pub- solving the
spontaneously get the answer, licly declare him worthy of problem fol-
‘Newton’. But is it really so? In praise. This famous problem is lowed by
this context, I would like to pre- called ‘The Brachistochrone Newton and
sent an important piece of history Problem’. The statement of the L’Hospital.
and then, the reader is free to de- problem is as follows: This episode did not please New-
cide whether or not Newton “Given two points A and B in a ton and he still accused Leibniz
found calculus. It happened in vertical plane, what is the curve of plagiarism. But one important
the seventeenth century when traced out by a point acted on point that must be noted is that,
Gottfried Leibniz published his only by gravity, which starts at A the notations that are used in cal-
paper on calculus in 1686. He and reaches B in the shortest culus for differentiation, namely
had supposedly begun working time.” ‘d’ is the notation found by Leib-
on this in 1976. Leibniz persuaded Johann niz and not Newton. This nota-
In 1676, when Leibniz Bernoulli to allow a longer time tion is so powerful and beautiful
came to London, he was shown for solutions to be produced than that even though it is an opera-
unpublished papers raising ques- the six months he had originally tion, it behaves as a fraction.
tion on who really found calcu- intended so that foreign mathe- Plagiarism was not new
lus. At that time, an intellectual maticians would also have a among renowned scholars. For
war broke out between the two chance to solve the problem. example, even Galileo is accused
over who had originally discov- Five solutions were obtained,
of plagiarism for his work on fal-
ered calculus. Leibniz was sup- Newton, Jacob Bernoulli, Leib-
ported by the fact that he used niz and de L'Hospital solving the ling bodies which had been per-
the notations of calculus much problem in addition to Johann formed by several others before
before Newton and he developed Bernoulli. he did. But his name still stands
it independent of Newton’s According to Newton's as the person who did the experi-
work. biographer Conduit, he solved ment. It is because they had al-
Newton, on the other hand, the problem in an evening after ready created an aura for them-
did not have any proof that he returning home from the Royal
selves that they are never ques-
developed calculus before Leib- Mint. But this had not been
niz. As the fight went on, Leibniz proven. The May 1697 publica- tioned of their genuineness. This
made a big mistake by sending a tion of Acta Eruditorum con- may have been the case with cal-
letter to Royal Society of London tained Leibniz's solution to the culus too as Newton was famous
to look after this issue. At that brachistochrone problem on page during his time after publishing
time, Newton was the president 205, Johann Bernoulli's solution his famous work ‘Principia
of The Royal Society of London. on pages 206 to 211, Jacob Ber- Mathematicia’ and also, he influ-
That committee never asked noulli's solution on pages 211 to
Leibniz to give his version of the 214, and a Latin translation of ential positions in the scientific
events. The report of the commit- Newton's solution on page 223. community. But till today, even
tee, finding in favor of Newton, Johann Bernoulli said “My elder after 300 years after the death of
was written by Newton himself brother made up the fourth of Newton, this controversy is not
and published as "Commercium these, that the three great nations, resolved. One can say that the
Epistolicum". Germany, England, France, each probability of Leibniz being the
In 1796, a great mathemati- one of their own to unite with
founder of calculus is more but
cian of that time Johann Ber- myself in such a beautiful search,
noulli made an attempt to solve all finding the same truth.” can never be sure of it.
this issue. In June, he posed a This clearly shows that

SPACE CEPSTRUM 22
SPECTRUM ALLOCATION IN INDIA: Valliappan II Yr

“SPECTRUM” generally ing, it is important to assign the licenses


refers to the electromagnetic spectrum of common frequen- started with the fourth 4 MHz for
spectrum containing different cies, which are used throughout GSM and the second 5 MHz for
wavelengths. In India, the radio the world. Secondly, for mobile CDMA. It might still be up to the
frequencies are used in different phones, which are compatible sixth 2 MHz, 5 MHz for CDMA
types of services, such as space with GSM 900/1800 bands, are and GSM operators, depending
communications, mobile com- not suitable for operation in other on the availability and capacity
munications, broadcasting ser- radio frequency bands. of the operator to justify the
vices by satellite radio services, need. Additional spectrum might
satellite Aviation Administration, Wireless Planning and Co- be established with respect to the
defense communications, etc. ordination (WPC) wing of com- increase in number of users.
The usage of spectrum is lost if munication, created in 1952, the
not used effectively. The Spec- national regulatory authority re- However, due to flooding
trum allocated to the Indian tele- sponsible for radio spectrum of more than 570 license applica-
communications operator is the management spectrum, includes tions for EMS, which in Decem-
most popular one and it is insuf- the licenses and meet the needs ber 2007, DOT dissociated spec-
ficient to meet the needs of the of all wireless users in country. trum for telecommunications li-
mobile users. Around WPC is divided into major sec- censes has agreed to implement
650,000,000 mobile users are tions like Licensing and Regula- policies to begin spectrum allo-
present as on date. This has af- tion (LR), New Technology cation. It depends entirely on the
fected the quality of customer Group (NTG) and Standing Ad- WPC wing of Ministry that pre-
service and has resulted in poor visory Committee on Radio Fre- sents the transport costs for spec-
voice quality, “drop-call” and quency Allocation Table trum licenses. In 2008, the De-
messaging services to mobile (SACF). SACF makes recom- partment of Transportation has
services in India. mendations on major frequency revised the criteria for allocating
allocation issues, formulation of additional spectrum. It allows the
frequency allocation plan, mak- subscriber base required for addi-
Significance of the spec- ing recommendations on various tional frequencies in different
questions of the International environments at times had run
trum: Telecommunication Union
Spectrum is important and 05:58.
(ITU), to solve problems for dif-
is necessary to ensure that the
ferent wireless users.
operation is provided without
any interference to radio ser- 3G and BWA spectrum:
Fourth spectrum Telecom
vices. All countries share the
India operating in India is GSM Over the years, the government
electromagnetic spectrum, and
900MHz, 1800 MHz and 800 has taken steps to develop poli-
they have the right for making
MHz CDMA technology works. cies to ensure the efficient use of
optimum usage of their spec-
Minimum amount of spectrum spectrum, which is a scarce re-
trum. However, to facilitate in-
required for the launch of GSM source. But the effort of the De-
ternational cooperation for trade,
service is 4 to 400MHz partment of Transportation and
telecommunications, transporta-
tion, communication and mutual training has led to inconsisten-
I n 2002, the government cies. Therefore, the government
protection against interference,
introduced the subscriber linked has decided to auction the 3G
all countries agreed on the Con-
spectrum allocation process, and BWA spectrum in an open
vention of International Tele-
which provides a maximum allo- and transparent form, which led
communication Union. As wire-
cation of 125 MHz of spectrum the government to earn 67,719
less technologies provide oppor-
per operator in each service area. INR (15 U.S. 05 billion U.S. dol-
tunities for international roam-
The initial allocation of spectrum lars) and 3G spectrum 38,543

SPACE CEPSTRUM 23
INR (8th U.S. $ 6 billion) for the Frequency bands allocated to different radio ser-
BWA spectrum.
vices in India are given in the table.

Ser No. Radio Service Frequency Band


Conclusion:
Entrepreneurs need addi- 1 Radio Navigation 9 – 14 kHz
tional spectrum to improve the 2 Mobile (Distress 495 – 505 kHz
quality of services. The govern- & Calling)
ment should develop a spectrum 3 Broadcasting 535 – 1605.5 kHz
that promotes the efficient use of
spectrum by the development of
4 Maritime Mobile 2065 – 2107 kHz
market incentives and differen- 2170–2178.5 kHz
tial pricing of spectrum in con- 2190.5 – 2194
gested areas. Open and transpar- kHz
ent auction format ensures that Fixed, Mobile, 610 – 806 MHz
the government understands the 5 Broadcasting Ra-
best price on the frequency of
market forces and at the same dio Astronomy
time to reduce and more effec- 6 Mobile, Fixed, 890 960 MHz
tively use the spectrum for tele- Broadcasting
com operators. 7 Mobile satellite 942 – 960 MHz
Source: telecommunications plan
8 Radio Location 1350 – 1400 MHz
National Frequency Allo- 9 Mobile, Fixed, 1710 – 1930 MHz
cation Plan (NFAP) will serve Space operation,
as the basis for the development
and manufacture of wireless
space research
equipment and spectrum use in
the country.

SPACE CEPSTRUM 24
IMPACT of CARNATIC MUSIC  Sai Venkatesh IV yr

EMOTIONS IN CAR‐ Then a quantifying scheme was


INTRODUCTION:  applied to the swara emotions,
NATIC MUSIC 
The major aspect of music based on a few basic emotions
that affects emotions is melody. The analysis is based on 2
strong grounds. such as joy, surprise, fear and
In Carnatic music the concept of
melody is seen in ragas. There One of the universal truths sympathy. Graph theory was ap-
are 7 swaras in music, the saptha of music all over the world is plied for this purpose. The
swaras. They are SA, RI, Ga, that any note and its fifth note swaras of a raga were considered
Ma, Pa, Dha and Ni. Each swara (like SA and Pa) or any note and
to be the vertices of a graph and
excepting SA and Pa admit of 2 its 4th note (like SA and Ma)
when sounded in concurrence then the normalized average of
variations each. And with the the edges would give the per-
exception of SA, Pa and Ma, produces harmony. Hence these
notes when present in a raga pro- centage value of the emotions.
each swara also has a 3rd varia-
tion, the Vivaadhi swara. Ragas duce joyous emotions. This concept was then extended
are formed by the combination of Based on the rendering of to ragas. The result was that each
some of these swaras, with char- songs by various artists, and ei- raga could be expressed as a
acteristic gamakas and bhavas ther personally hearing or letting
“profile” consisting of certain
defining each raga. There are 72 others hear the songs and gather-
ing opinions on how they feel. values of emotions in percentage.
parent ragas, which have all the 7 A few examples are given below.
swaras (one variation in each Also, information can be ob-
swara) in both their ascent and tained on various blogs as to how
the users feel about the musical From the above table cer-
descent. These are the Melakar- tain points are evident:
tha ragas. Other ragas which can pieces.
By listening to these opin- Behag has more % of joy
be derived from these 72 are than Charukesi, consistent with
called Janya ragas or child ragas. ions, songs were segregated into
ragas, and ragas having certain the view that Behag is a happier
Ragas that use the vivaadhi notes raga.
are called Vivaadhi ragas. swaras in common expressed
certain common emotions. From Of all the samples,
these the emotions of swaras Bhoopalam has the highest % of

SPACE CEPSTRUM 25
sorrow, signifying its plaintitive and this method was much simi- SA has the lowest frequency of
nature. lar to the method adopted for ra- the 7 swaras. Similarly, Red has
Rasikapriya, a vivaadhi raga has gas. A few results are as follows the lowest frequency among the
a high % of surprise colors of the spectrum. Hence
Of the samples present here, Be- Consistent with the tradi- associate SA with Red and pro-
hag has the highest amount of tional view, minor chords are the ceed with corresponding fre-
heroism (veera rasa). most melancholic, followed by quencies, ending up with violet
Thus from the analysis, we can suspended chords, and the major for Ni. This was done for the 22
infer several known and un- chords are the happiest of them shruthis (a more comprehensive
known information about the all. list of notes).
emotion of a raga and also nu- Then various factors of Colors have been associ-
merically compare with any music affecting emotions were ated to emotions in ancient dance
other raga. studied and quantified, like texts such as Natya Sasra of
changes in pitch, tempo, rhythm, Bharata Muni. Since each raga is
EMOTIONS IN WORLD MUSIC  changes in dynamics and so on. associated with an emotion, we
Thus the above said analysis was can assign the corresponding
Then a detailed study was made extended to a universal analytic color to the raga.
on the other musical systems of approach for analyzing numeri-
the world from various sources cally the emotions of any musi- I would like to know how
on the internet like the Wikipe- cal piece from any part of the to proceed with this work and for
dia. world. this I request your valuable help
The observation recorded was and guidance. I will send the
that the only feature missing in RAGAS AND COLOURS  complete version if you give per-
carnatic music was chords. Approaches were also made to mission.
Hence a method of analyzing the identify each raga with a distinct
emotions of chords was devised, color. 2 methods are possible:

SPACE CEPSTRUM 26
STUDY OF STARS - Krishna Chaitanya III yr
How do you measure the As they are very far, the requires that the object’s right as-
size of a star? estimate its mass? light is getting faded and abso- cension and declination be re-
know how far it is? When you lute brightness cannot be seen as corded accurately so that we
are asked how far is place-A such. know the object’s precise location
from place-B (assuming these The popular method of on the celestial sphere.
two places are on Earth), you say Parallax is used to determine the
some x km. When you are asked, distance of about 4000 stars TEMPERATURE, SIZE and
how do you know that? You try which are not too far from earth. MASS:
to say that I measured it when I This technique for measuring
Now that we know the distance
travelled by bike or you can say astronomical distances is very
and the apparent brightness (as
any measuring technique includ- important because it is a geomet-
seen by the naked eye), we can
ing geo-mapping. But, you have ric method and independent of
find the absolute magnitude by
never been to a star, nor did any the object being observed. The
fixing a standard distance at
machine, nor anything that we principal of parallax can easily
which it is defined. It is chosen to
know. Still, how are we so cer- be demonstrated by holding your
be 10 parsecs. (Parsec=parallax +
tain about the parameters of a finger up at arm’s length. Close
seconds). Parsec precisely means
star? one eye, then the other and no-
the distance at which a star makes
DISTANCE AND LUMINOS- tice how your finger appears to
one second parallax. i.e.,
ITY:
1/1296000 part of a circle. At this
When you look at a star,
distance, sun has 4.86 magni-
what you see is its apparent
tudes.
brightness which is measured
in terms of magnitude, rather Parsec precisely means the
than its absolute brightness. distance at which a star makes
The scale is same as that of one second parallax.
old catalogues which assigned
1st magnitude to the brightest As we can observe the
and sixth magnitude to the just color of the star, we can find out
visible. At any point, a given its temperature. Once the tem-
difference in magnitude corre- perature is known, intensity of
sponds to definite ratio in radiation can be found out as it
brightness. Suppose, some star varies as the fourth power of tem-
X is 5 magnitude times brighter move in relation to the back- perature. Absolute magnitude
than star Y, it is said to be 100 ground. This occurs because found out earlier is used to find
times brighter than star Y. If any each eye sees a slightly different how much energy is being emitted
star is brighter than 1st magni- view because they are separated per square unit per second. The
tude, a negative value is assigned be a few inches. ratio of these two gives the sur-
to it. For example, Sirius has - face area of the star and hence we
If you measure the distance be-
1.52 and Sun has -26.72 magni- can find diameter of the star.
tween your eyes and the distance
tude of brightness. your finger appears to move,
What is the brightest star in Mass of the start can be
then you can calculate the length found out, in most cases, only
the sky? Well, it depends on of your arm. This same principal when there is any significantly
whether we are talking about ab- can be used on a larger scale to
solute or apparent brightness. large heavenly body in the vicin-
calculate the distance to an ob- ity. The mass of the star varies in
ject in the sky, only we use dif- direct proportion with the absolute
Sun is apparently bright, ferent points on the Earth’s orbit magnitude. This is also called
but not brighter than many instead of looking through alter- mass-luminosity law. Thus we
other stars which are farther nate eyes. Calculating parallax find the details of a star which is
SPACE CEPSTRUM 27
HAVE YOU MET " RONJA "..?!! Oishee Sarkar II yr.
Most of us have studied other side of the link. It is ca- ability possible and
or at least heard of fiber optics pable of delivering steady equivalents are provided
communication, but have you connectivity with little mainte- where applicable
heard of optical communica- nance and can be run freely • Innovative approach is
tion without the fiber cables? without a need of authorities' used to speed up the
approval. Also a possibility of work and make it con-
Free Space Optics is interference and eavesdrop- venient. Sector codes
an optical communica- ping is negligible. Dropouts are present to make the
tion technology that uses light are infrequent and determined population easy. Drilling
propagating in free space to solely by weather and are is simplified by drilling
transmit data between two thus foreseeable. templates - just print and
points. The technology is use- no measurement is nec-
ful where the physical connec- He who wants to enjoy essary in the workshop!
tions by the means of fiber the adrenaline sport of driving • The device is based on
optic cables are impractical primitive retail parts into flaw- the KISS rule (Keep It
due to high costs or other less cooperation to provide Short and Simple) which
considerations. the uncurbed full duplex con- makes the device plug-
"Free space" means air, outer nectivity experience must and-play immediately
space, vacuum, or something withstand these nuisances: after the building pro-
similar. It is the opposite of • Ronja is somewhat la- vided the user hasn't
a fiber optic ca- bour expensive. Things botched anything.
ble or transmission line. have been made much • The design is rugged
easier by putting the and over-dimensioned to
Ronja (Reasonable Opti- most complicated elec- withstand variations in
cal Near Joint Access) is a tronics on a PCB. The the components. As a
User Controlled Technology cost of parts is negligible consequence, the result-
(like Free Software) project of in comparison with the ing device is rock solid in
optical point-to-point data link. labor, for example the steady performance and
The device has 1.4km range components for the provides outstanding
and has stable 10Mbps full whole Ronja 10M Me- electromagnetic interfer-
duplex data rate. Ronja is an tropolis cost just 85 ence immunity and elec-
optoelectronic device that you USD. tromagnetic compatibil-
can mount on your house and • The user must possess ity. It withstands -20°C
connect your PC, home or of- certain basic manual as well as direct sunlight
fice network with other net- skills as soldering, drill- and heat with obvious
works. Or you can use it as a ing, painting, and techni- margin. During a light-
general purpose wireless link cal drawing/schematic ning storm, lightning
for building any other network- reading. But people with- strike in proximity usu-
ing project. The material costs out any previous experi- ally doesn't generate
are very low. The operation is ence with soldering have even a single lost bit.
immune to interference and built a piece that worked • In case of device failure
quite reliable - interrupted only on the first try! the measuring points
by dense fog. • The user must not cut can be inspected and
the corners during the bad components re-
One Ronja device is a building but there are placed without a need to
single long-distance optical also certain conven- throw the whole device.
transceiver that is capable of iences:
running against the same or • The parts were chosen
compatible device on the to be of the widest avail-
SPACE CEPSTRUM 28
THE REAL HUMAN NETWORK: Prajitha ,III yr

Technology is making of the human body comes rent to flow into a person’s
many things easier. So far into contact with a RedTac- body from the transceiver.
technology has produced ton transceiver. Physically When communication oc-
LAN, MAN, WAN, INTER- separating ends the contact curs, displacement current is
NET & many more but here and thus ends communica- generated by the electrons in
is the new concept of “RED tion. Using RedTacton, the body because the body is
TACTON” which makes communication starts when subjected to minute electri-
the human body as a com- terminals carried by the user cal fields. However, such
munication network named are linked in various combi- displacement currents are
HAN (Human Area Net- nations according to the very common in everyday
work). user's natural physical occurrences which we all
movements. Communica- experience.
NTT lab from Japan is tion is possible using any
currently testing & develop- body surface, such as the ADVANTAGES OVER
ing this revolutionary tech- hands, fingers, arms, feet, BLUETOOTH:
nology. We may have imag- face, legs or torso. RedTac- Body-based network-
ined the future as a place ton works through shoes and ing is more secure than
crawling with antennas and clothing as well. broadcast systems, such as
emitters, due to the huge It’s named "Tacton" be- Bluetooth, which have a
growth of wireless commu- cause in this technology, range of about 10m.
nications. And it is seems communication starts by
that the current means of touching (Touch), leading to Network congestion
transferring data might al- various actions (Act on). due to fall in transmission
ready have a very serious The color red was added to speed in multi-user environ-
competitor which is none convey the meaning of ment is avoided.
other than the Human body. warmth in communication.
Combining these phrases led APPLICATIONS:
Red Tacton is a new to the name, "RedTacton". It can be used to avoid
human area networking accidental medical inges-
technology that uses the sur- Communication is tion, where an alarm sounds
face of the human body as a done by using an electric automatically.
safe, high speed transmis- field induced on the surface In marketing, touch ad-
sion path. It uses the minute
of the body. The transmit- vertising is possible so that
electric field emitted by the
ting and receiving electrodes the advertising matched
surface of the human body. of the RedTacton transceiver with the consumer’s infor-
Technically, it’s completelyare completely covered with mation is identified.
different from wireless and insulating film, so that the Personalization of mo-
infrared. body of the person acting as bile phones and even auto-
the transmission medium is mobiles can be used for se-
A transmission path is completely insulated. This curity and confidential data
formed at the moment a part makes it impossible for cur- management.
SPACE CEPSTRUM 29
Potential use as communication method with outer space and under water and even
for communication with devices inside the human body.
Thus to conclude, when we compare Red Tacton with other technologies present to-
day, it can give a better performance over others and we can say that to connect the net-
work within short distances Red Tacton is best.
In this technology there is no problem of hackers as our body is itself a media.

Shobitha M
MEMRISTOR :
III YR

Is a computer mean- is this property of memristor that


ingful without RAM? It looks gives it its name. So, when did it The element developed
like RAMless computer tech- come into the world? The exis- at HP Labs is a switching mem-
nique is on the way. Memristor is tence of a memristor was formu- ristor based on a thin film of tita-
said to be the basic element that lated in theory in a 1971 paper nium dioxide. It has two elec-
will bring about this revolution. by Leon Chau, who is an IEEE trodes, a Ti (Titanium) and a Pt
So, what is a memristor? It is a Fellow and a professor in the (Platinum), both of 5nm thick-
passive two terminal device electrical engineering and com- ness and between them a 50nm
whose resistance changes ac- puter sciences department at the thin film of titanium dioxide is
cording to the current that passes University of California, Berke- inserted. This titanium dioxide
through it. The resistance of the ley, which he joined in 1971. It has two layers. One has a slight
device increases when the cur- existed in theory for nearly 37 depletion of oxygen atoms. This
rent passing through it, in one years and it was on April 30, difference in oxygen atoms act as
direction, increases. If the current 2008 that a team at HP Labs an- charge carriers and the depleted
passes through it in the reverse nounced the development of a layer has a much lower resis-
direction then its resistance de- memristor. A memristor is said tance than the non-depleted
creases accordingly. More im- to be the 4th basic element after layer. When an electric field is
portantly, if the power supplied resistors, inductors and capaci- applied, the oxygen vacancies
to it is turned off, it can remem- tors. drift thereby changing the bound-
ber its last
resistance
value
based on
the current
flow and
voltage
drop
across it
until the
next time
it is turned
on. Be it a
day or a
week!!

Interesting
isn’t it? It

SPACE CEPSTRUM 30
ary between the high and low
resistance layers. This way the
resistance of the film is depend-
ent on the charge that passes
through it in a particular direc-
tion. When direction of current is
reversed the resistance of film is
also reversed accordingly.

The practically devel-


oped memristor is different from
the theoretically suggested mem-
ristor. In theory the device is said
to use magnetic flux and stores
charge like a capacitor. Practi-
cally a resistance dependent on
current flow has been obtained.
The memristors are said to be
faster and cheaper, occupying
lesser space. It can bring down
the size and cost of many devices
and can also enhance their effi-
ciency.
When can we see mem-
Now, what is possible What can a memristor do ristor in circuits? HP has in-
with a memristor? A lot of in a pc? It can wipe out the pres- vented a crossbar-latch technol-
things. First it can change the ence of a RAM in the computer. ogy using memristors. These are
very basic idea of using only As a memristor can remember said to have potential to replace
transistors as building blocks of the data even after the power is transistors in some applications.
all ICs. Making smaller and turned off, we will be able to re- The crossbar latch consists of a
smaller transistors in order to turn to the same data when the single line crossed by two con-
create ICs like processors and supply is given again. A lot of trol lines. Depending on voltage
controllers to implement many space can be saved by removing sent through these lines they can
features in one chip has been a the separate memory module of perform 3 main operations-AND,
trend for many decades now. But RAM. In many devices, the OR and NOT. HP’s goal is to
as the size of transistors de- speed and efficiency of operation offer memristor based circuits by
creases, the problem of heat dis- can be enhanced by replacing 2012. Recent reports suggest
sipation increases. Such a prob- transistors with memristors. In that memristors may replace
lem can be countered by replac- the present times, though a mem- DRAM (Dynamic Random Ac-
ing transistors with memristors. ristor can replace the number of cess Memory) and hard disks by
The efficiency of a memristor is transistors in a circuit, we do not 2014-2016. With the use of
found to increase with a decrease have a physical memristor that memristors, there is a possibility
in its size. This can work like a resistor or ca- for the development of com-
can lead to vast pacitor if implemented separately puters that can think like human,
implementation in a circuit, i.e it needs to be cou- depicting our neural system. The
in nanoelectron- pled with a transistor for opera- development of memcapacitors
ics. This is the tion. We can expect the devel- and meminductors may also hap-
symbol of a oped version of an independent pen in near future.
memristor. memristor in the near future.

SPACE CEPSTRUM 31
Abhinaya E III Yr
THE MYSTERY OF THE MISSING NEUTRINOS : Abhinaya J III Yr
A neutrino is an elementary par- experi-
ticle that travels close to the ments
speed of light, is electrically neu- found that
the number
tral with very small but non-zero
of electron
rest mass. We know that the sun neutrinos
shines by converting hydrogen to arriving
helium. By this theory four hy- from the
drogen nuclei called protons (p) Sun was
are changed in the solar interior between
into a helium nucleus (4He), two one third
and one
anti-electrons (e+, positively
half the
charged electrons), and two elu- number
sive and mysterious particles predicted
called neutrinos by the
Standard
Solar
Model
(SSM). higher-energy solar neutrinos
that had been investigated previ-
The first results of Ray's ously in Japan with the Kamio-
About 100 billion neutrinos experiment were announced in kande. The Canadian detector is
from the Sun pass through your 1968. This discrepancy became called SNO for Solar Neutrino
thumbnail every second, but you known as the solar neutrino Observatory. For their first meas-
do not feel them because they problem or the mystery of the urements, the SNO collaboration
interact so rarely and so weakly missing neutrinos. used the heavy-water detector in
with matter. Neutrinos are practi- In 1989, a new experimen- a mode that is sensitive only to
cally indestructible; almost noth- tal group called Kamiokand used electron neutrinos. The SNO sci-
ing happens to them. For every a large detector of pure water to entists observed approximately
hundred billion solar neutrinos measure the rate at which elec- one-third as many electron neu-
that pass through the Earth, only trons in the water scattered the trinos as the SSM. The Super-
about one interacts at all with the highest-energy neutrinos emitted Kamiokande detector, which is
stuff of which the Earth is made. from the Sun. The water detector primarily sensitive to electron
Because they interact so rarely, was very sensitive, but only to neutrinos but has some sensitiv-
neutrinos can escape easily from high-energy neutrinos that are ity to other neutrino types, ob-
the solar interior where they are produced by a rare nuclear reac- served about half as many events
created and bring direct informa- tion in the solar energy produc- as were expected.
tion about the solar fusion reac- tion cycle. This experiment con-
tions to us on Earth. There are firmed that the number of neu- If the standard model of
three known types of neutrinos. trino events that were observed particle physics was right, the
was less than predicted by the fraction measured by SNO and
Nuclear fusion in the Sun theoretical model of the Sun and
the fraction measured by Super-
produces only neutrinos that are by the description of neutrinos.
Kamiokande should be the same.
associated with electrons, the so- All the neutrinos should be elec-
In 2001, a new detector,
called electron neutrinos . located in Canada, was able to tron neutrinos. But the fractions
Starting in the late 1960s, several study in a different way the same were different.

SPACE CEPSTRUM 32
Combining the SNO and the Super-Kamiokande measurements, the SNO collaboration determined
the total number of solar neutrinos of all types (electron, muon, and tau) as well as the number of just
electron neutrinos. The total number of neutrinos of all types agrees with the number predicted by SSM.
Electron neutrinos constitute about a third of the total number of neutrinos. SNO measurements alone
show that most of the neutrinos produced in the interior of the Sun, all of which are electron neutrinos
when they are produced, are changed into muon and tau neutrinos by the time they reach the Earth.
The muon and tau neutrinos were not detected by the earlier experiments. This lack of sensitivity
to muon and tau neutrinos is the reason that these experiments seemed to suggest that most of the ex-
pected solar neutrinos were missing. But the SNO collaboration had some sensitivity to muon and tau
neutrinos in addition to their primary sensitivity to electron neutrinos.
Solar neutrino research shows that neutrinos can change their personalities or types. The mathe-
matical description of this malady determines quantities that we hope will be useful clues in the search
for a more general theory of how fundamental particles behave.

How stock markets work Brain Teasers :


Once upon a time in a village, a man appeared and an-
nounced to the villagers that he would buy monkeys for 1. Your system has CPU, ALU and two
$10 each. The villagers seeing that there were many 8bit registers. There is no external
monkeys around, went out to the forest, and started
memory. Can you swap the contents of
catching them. The man bought
thousands at $10 and as supply the registers ?
started to diminish, the villagers
2. There are 3 switches in one room that
stopped their effort. He further
announced that he would now control 3 electrical lamps located in the
buy at $20. This renewed the ef- other room..You are allowed to spend
forts of the villagers and they 5 minutes in the room with switches,
started catching monkeys again. change their position as you want.
Soon the supply diminished even Then you should go to the room with
further and people started going back to their farms. The
lamps and tell exactly what switch
offer increased to $25 each and the supply of monkeys
became so little that it was an effort to even see a mon- controls every lamp. You can't return
key, let alone catch it! The man now announced that he to the room with switches.
would buy monkeys at $50 ! However, since he had to
go to the city on some busi- 3. You have four people at a bridge with
ness, his assistant would now one flashlight only. One HAS to carry
buy on behalf of him. In the a flashlight as they cross, but only two
absence of the man, the assis- can cross at a time. It only takes one
tant told the villagers: "Look at minute for one of the persons to cross.
all these monkeys in the big Another takes 2 minutes. Another 5.
cage that the man has col-
And the last 10 min. If the person who
lected. I will sell them to you
at $35 and when the man re- takes 1 minute goes with the person
turns from the city, you can sell them to him for $50 who takes 10, It automatically takes 10
each". The villagers rounded up with all their savings minutes. How many minutes will it
and bought all the monkeys. Then they never saw the take them all to cross at the quickest?
man nor his assistant. Again, only monkeys everywhere!
Now you have a better understanding of how the stock
market works - Ragavendra Abhishek, III yr

SPACE CEPSTRUM 33
CROSSWORD
Across:
1.Transfers resistance as
nothing significant is sent
to other regions (10)
7. Apply negative poten-
tial at its base and make it
active (3)
8. Scientist splits capaci-
tance at the factory with
queen (6)
9. Opposition to flow of
current as imp dances end-
lessly (8)
12. An informal type of
shirt with protective layer
used to attenuate (1-3)
13. What is common be-
tween Nyquist, Bode, Po-
lar? (4)
15. Type of coffee allows different frequency ranges through (6)
16. What happens when you put + and – together (5, 7)
18. Child, why ‘Make.Believe’ with this huge electronics organization (4)
19. Wireless Fidelity (2-2)

Down:
2.French scientist helps us measure current (6)
3. Process of taking examples from the signal for possible reconstruction (8)
4.Digital logic using transistors (3)
5.Burden to which output of circuit is taken (4)
6. Scientist whose frequency helped us sample without aliasing (6)
7. Y ____, ABCD ______, Hybrid _____ and (9 across) _____ help us analyze two-port
networks (10)
10. Expel electrons from this part of the transistor (7)
11. Endless cold and trenches gives us an oscillator (8)
14. First of all, my only son… (3)
15. … uses a gate, sink and source (3)
17. O! Pam, please compare, within, these two values (2-3)

SPACE CEPSTRUM 34
04. THIS IS A MOD-2N
COUNTER.

05. NAME OF THIS


DIODE.

06. TWO WAY SATELLITE


GROUND STATION WITH
SMALLER DISH ANTENNA.
07. RATIO OF PEAK AND
VALLEY OF STANDING
WAVE.
08. A SEMICONDUCTOR DE-
VICE WITH ONLY ONE JUNC-
TION CONSISTING OF ONE
EMITTER AND TWO
BASES.
09. PRIMARY PROTOCOL IN
INTERNET LAYER OF INTER-
NET PROTOCOL SUIT.
10. USED TO COPY A FILE
FROM ONE HOST TO AN-
OTHER OVER A TCP-BASED
LEFT TO RIGHT: NETWORK.
01. BIDIRECTIONAL THYRISTOR. 11. THIS ARCHITECTURE HAS SIMPLIFIED INSTRUC-
02. A DIODE THAT HAS A POOR REVERSE RECOVE- TION SET AND ENHANCED
RYTIME. PERFORMANCE(jumbled).
03. ONE OF THE TWO’S COMPLEMENT PARALLEL
MULTIPLIER.
RIGHT TO LEFT:
04. UNWANTED ECHO THAT CAN OBSCURE TAR-
01. COMBINING THOUSANDS OF TRANSISTORS IN A
GETS.
SINGLE CHIP(jumbled).
05. MAXIMUM DISTANCE OF THE SATELLITE FROM
02. INSTRUCTION IN 8085 TO EXCHANGE THE CON-
THE CENTER OF EARTH.
TENTS OF TOP OF STACK AND HL
06. THIS IS USED TO REMOVE UNWANTED FRE-
REGISTER PAIR.
QUENCIES FROM THE SIGNAL.
03. THIS IS MODULATED WITH AN INPUT SIGNAL
07. THIS FORMULA IS USED TO CALCULATE SNR OF
FOR CONVEYING INFORMATION.
A MULTISTAGE AMPLIFIER.
04. Bi-PHASE-L CODING.
08. THIS IS KNOWN AS BACK DIODE WHEN USED IN
05. AVR RISC-BASED MICROCONTROLLER.
REVERSE DIRECTION.
06. A VOLTAGE CONTROLLED TRANSISTOR.
09. TO OVERCOME ALAISING THE SAMPLING SIG-
NAL SHOULD SATISFY THIS
CRITERIA. DOWN TO UP:
10. A REGISTER USED FOR SERIAL COMMUNICA- 01. NON-MASKABLE HARDWARE INTERRUPT IN 8085.
TION IN 8051. 02. MEASURE OF HOW MUCH A SIGNAL IS CONTAMI-
11. THE EXACT POINT AT WHICH THE DEVICE NATED BY NOISE(jumbled).
CHANGES MODES. 03. DIODE THAT HAS A METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR
12. THIS THEOREM CAN CONVERT ANY LINEAR JUNCTION.
CIRCUIT TO AN EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT 04. GATE THAT GIVES OUTPUT HIGH ONLY WHEN
WITH SINGLE CURRENT SOURCE AND PARAL- BOTH INPUTS ARE SAME.
LEL RESISTANCE. 05. CPLD DEVICE WITH FIXED-OR AND PROGRAM-
13. THESE WAVES DO NOT EXIST IN A RECTANGU- MABLE-AND ARRAY.
LAR WAVEGUIDE. 06. PROCESS OF TRANSFERRING AN ON-GOING CALL
FROM ONE CHANNEL TO
ANOTHER.
UP-DOWN:
07. INDICATES THE MAXIMUM NO.OF.DIGITAL IN-
01. REFERRED AS “ROOT OF UNITY COMPLEX”
PUTS THAT A LOGIC GATE OUTPUT
MULTIPLICATIVE CONSTANTS IN
CAN DRIVE.
BUTTERFLY OPERATION OF FFT COMPUTATION.
08. INSTRUCTION IN 8086 THAT ROTATES BITS RIGHT
02. RANK+-------=NO.OF.COLUMNS IN A MATRIX.
03. THIS ARCHITECTURE HAS SEPARATE PROGRAM WITHOUT CARRY.
AND DATA MEMORY. -K.NISHA. & R.ASWITHA.(IV yrs)

SPACE CEPSTRUM 35
SPASER NANOLASERS Yamini III Yr

A tantalizing goal in the quest to make computer processors smaller and faster is to achieve
computing with light instead of the relatively slow electrons. The major obstacle for this has been the
inability to make lasers tiny enough so as to fit several thousand of them easily on a chip. To solve this
issue, research on Spasers are being carried out. The spaser is a proposed nanoscale source of optical
fields that is being investigated in a number of leading laboratories around the world. If realized, spasers
could find a wide range of applications, including nanoscale lithography, probing and microscopy.

WHY TO GO FOR SPASERS?


The size of a conventional laser is dictated by the wavelength of the light it uses, and the distance
between the reflective surfaces can't be smaller than half the wavelength of the light--in the case of visi-
ble light, about 200 nanometers.
The "beauty" of the spaser is
that it gets around this limitation
by using plasmons (In physics,
a plasmon is a quantum of
plasma oscillation. The plasmon
is a quasiparticle resulting from
the quantization of plasma os-
cillations just as photons and
phonons are quantizations of
light and mechanical vibrations,
respectively. Thus, plasmons
are collective oscillations of the free electron gas density, for example, at optical frequencies. Plasmons
can couple with a photon to create another quasiparticle called a plasma polariton). Light will produce
plasmons even in structures much smaller than its wavelength. Spasers can be made as small as one
nanometer. Also, while the best consumer electronics operate at speeds of about 10 gigahertz, optical
devices can operate at hundreds of terahertz. Optical devices are, however, difficult to miniaturize be-
cause photons can't be confined to areas much smaller than half their wavelength. But devices that inter-
act with light in the form of surface plasmons can confine it within much tighter spots.

SPASER
A spaser is the nanoplasmonic counterpart of a laser, but it (ideally) does not emit photons. It is
analogous to the conventional laser, but in a spaser photons are replaced by surface plasmons and the
resonant cavity is replaced by a nanoparticle, which supports the plasmonic modes. Surface plasmons
are oscillations of electrons that form at the junction between an insulator and a metal. The free electrons
in the metals oscillate when light falls on them. But when the metal borders a dielectric, the movement
of the electrons is curtailed because they cannot enter the dielectric. This forces the electrons to move in
dense waves along the junction.
The principle is similar to that of laser with the only difference that in a spaser, it is the waves of
electrons which are amplified and then converted to light. The challenge is to make sure that this energy
does not dissipate rapidly from the metal surface.

APPLICATIONS
The spaser works about a thousand times faster than the fastest transistor, while having the same nano-
scale size. This could pave the way towards ultrafast optical computing and also to build ultrafast ampli-
fiers, logic elements, and microprocessors working about a thousand times faster than conventional sili-
con-based microprocessors.

SPACE CEPSTRUM 36
UNRAVELING GMAT Sathyan IV Yr

To justify this topic, the words and account for 14 of Total Score
article needs to answer two im- the 41 questions. The topics The total score is available
portant questions, “What is are fairly general and a few at the end of the test. It is com-
GMAT?” and “Why GMAT? examples are philosophy, his- posed of the quantitative and ver-
These questions require vast an- tory, business issues etc. bal sections and the score ranges
swers. from 200 to 800. About two-
Quantitative Section thirds of test takers score be-
So what’s the GMAT? The quantitative section tween 400 and 600. The AWA
The GMAT or Graduate consists of 37 multiple choice scores will be available sepa-
Management Admission Test is a questions, which must be an- rately after two weeks time, and
computer-adaptive standardized swered within 75 minutes. There will be graded on a scale of 0 to
test which aims to measure your are two types of questions: prob- 6. This score does not contribute
analytical and reasoning skills. lem solving and data sufficiency. to the total score of 800, and is
Almost all Business schools use viewed separately.
the GMAT as one of many selec- • Problem solving assesses
tion criteria for admission into your mathematical ability and For most Business schools,
graduate business administration accounts for 22 of the 37 ques- there is NO minimum score. The
programs. tions. schools generally publish on
The exam measures verbal, • Data sufficiency tests your their website, the average GMAT
mathematical, and analytical ability to discern what data are scores of the previous batch of
writing skills over a period of 4 necessary for quantitative students, and that will give you
hours. Now lets deal with each analysis and accounts for 15 of an idea of your score’s competi-
section. the 37 questions. tiveness. For example, the aver-
age GMAT score for Harvard
Verbal Section Analytical Writing Assess- was 700. But that does not mean
This section has 41 ques- ment (AWA) that you will be admitted with a
tions and there are 75 minutes to AWA is composed of two 700+ score or you will be re-
answer them all. The verbal sec- writing exercises that test your jected for having 500+. Each ap-
tion is divided into three parts, ability analyze an issue and plication is viewed on a case by
Sentence Correction, Critical evaluate an argument. In the case basis and your overall pro-
Reasoning and Reading Compre- first, the test taker must analyze file is what matters the most.
hension. an argument and in the second,
• The Sentence Correction analyze an issue. Each essay Things to know:
section tests a test taker's must be written within 30 min-
knowledge of English gram- utes and is scored on a scale of • If you answer a question
mar, usage, and style. It ac- 0–6.Several writing topics are correctly, the subsequent ques-
counts for 13 to 16 of the total publicly available at : tion will be marginally more dif-
41 questions in this section. www.mba.com/mba/ ficult.
• Critical Reasoning tests TaketheGMAT/Tools/ • If you give a wrong an-
logical thinking and evaluation AWATopics.htm swer, the next one will be easier.
with available data. It accounts • A few questions within the
for 12 to 14 of the total 41 There are 2 optional breaks test do not contribute to your ac-
questions in this section. that can be taken in between dif- tual score and are used only for
• Reading Comprehension ferent sections, each lasting for administrative purposes. There is
tests the ability of a person to about 8 minutes. So in all, the no way of differentiating these
read critically. Passages range total time to complete the test is questions with those that will
from approximately 200 to 450 almost 4 hours. actually contribute to your score.

SPACE CEPSTRUM 37
• Leaving any question un- far. Deciding to write the GMAT to study business?
answered will hurt your score is a lot more complicated than • Do you know what type of
more than answering them incor- other exams, and requires you to job (very specifically) you
rectly. carefully plan out the next ten want to have in the busi-
• Scores are valid for 5 years of your life. What do you ness industry?
years. want to study? Where do you • Do you dream of working
• You can register for the want to study? Which function do for a particular company in
test, choose the test centre and you want to work in? And the sector where you would
pay the fees at www.mba.com “Why?” for each question. like to work?
• Do you know where you
Books to follow: In India, it’s common for would like to study/work?
people to study MBA right after
There are several books out finishing their undergraduate de- The reason I ask all these
there but I will list those books gree, but it is the exact opposite in questions is because one needs to
that I have used and can vouch all the other countries. The aver- be very sure before going down
for. age age of students studying MBA this path. If you have answered
in most of the B-Schools ranges yes to all or most of the above
1. Kaplan 800 from 25 to 30. They have several questions, then you might like to
2. Kaplan Premier Program years of work experience and the study the new “Masters in Man-
3. Official Guide (OG) Edi- classes are designed such that the agement” course that is being
tion 12 or later. students not only learn from the offered at several highly ranked
4. OG Quantitative work- professors but also from one an- universities.
book other.
5. OG Verbal workbook The Masters in Manage-
6. Manhattan GMAT books So do you just work in the ment or MSc. In Management
7. Critical Reasoning Bible IT industry for a few years and (MiM) is a course that has been
then study an MBA? That is one around in the Europe for a long
A few of these you can option. But the problem with that time and is growing in fame in
find on the internet, and as for option is, you will be part of a ex- the U.S. The main difference be-
the rest, you can find them at tremely large “Indian, IT, mid tween MBA and MiM is the age
many bookstores. Ideally, the 20s” demographic. It will be group of students. Most of the
preparation time shouldn’t take much harder for you to gain ad- MiM students have little or no
you more than 2 months, but it mission at top universities, when work experience and are fresh
depends on each individual. there are several others applying undergrads, with a desire to
with similar profiles. The key to move into the business industry.
Visit sites like gaining admission is to stand out Course-wise, both MBA and
www.beatthegmat.com or of the crowd. So unless you do MiM are very similar, though the
www.gmatclub.com. They have something substantially different MiM might be more theoretical
vast information on the tests and from others, getting a top MBA and specialized. Job designations
admissions with several will not be easy. are also different and it wouldn’t
“personal-experience” stories. be fair to compare as we are talk-
There is a way to circum- ing about two completely differ-
“Why write the GMAT?” vent this problem. But this ent set of people, work experi-
Now isn’t that a million method is only for those who an- ence-wise.
dollar question…. The general swer “yes” to all of the following For further details, e-mail:
notion people have is GMAT/ questions: hicklypups@gmail.com.
.
CAT=Business Degree=Big
• Do you not like their current His score is (720/800) and has se-
bucks $$. cured admission in E.M.LYON b-
Most of the people with line of work/ studies ( IT in
school FRANCE.
such equations do not get very this case ), and really want

SPACE CEPSTRUM 38
ADAPTIVE SIGNAL PROCESSING SriRam.K III Yr

signals involved, and then pro- Adaptive signal processing deals


Signal processing deals ceeds to design systems that opti- with the design of adaptive sys-
with the extraction of informa- mize some statistical criterion. tems for signal-processing appli-
tion from signals. The devices The resulting optimal designs cations. Related issues arise in
that perform this task can be are, in general, complex to im- control design, where the objec-
physical hardware devices, spe- plement. tive is to alter the behavior of a
cialized software codes, or com- Moreover, in many situa- system, and lead to the study of
binations of both. Some notable tions a design that is motivated adaptive control strategies; the
applications, in areas ranging by statistical considerations may main issue is the stability of the
from biomedical engineering to not be immediately feasible, be- system under feedback.
wireless communications, in- cause complete knowledge of the
clude the suppression of interfer- necessary statistical information The operation of an adap-
ence arising from noisy measure- may not be available. It may tive system can be illustrated
ment sensors, the elimination of even happen that the statistical with a classical example in sys-
distortions introduced when sig- conditions vary with time. It tem identification. The figure
nals travel through transmission therefore may be expected, in below shows a plant (or system)
channels and the recovery of sig- these scenarios that the perform- whose input-output behavior is
nals embedded in a multitude of ance of any statistically based unknown and may even be time
echoes created by multipath ef- optimal design will degrade as variant. The objective is to de-
fects in mobile communications. the real physical application de- sign an adaptive system that pro-
viates from the modeling as- vides a good approximation to
STATISTICAL BASED SYS- sumptions. the input-output map of the plant.
TEM: For this purpose, the plant is ex-
Any functional system is ADAPTIVE BASED SYSTEMS cited by a known input signal,
expected to meet certain per- AND ITS OPERATION: and the response is taken as a
formance specifications. The re- Adaptive systems are de- reference signal. Moreover, a
quirements, as well as the design vices that adjust themselves to an structure is chosen for the adap-
methodology, vary according to ever-changing environment; the tive system, say a finite-impulse
the nature of the end application. structure of an adaptive system response structure of adequate
One distinctive design methodol- changes in such a way that its length and it is excited by the
ogy, which dominated much of performance improves through a same input signal as the plant. At
the earlier work in the informa- continuing interaction with its each time instant the output of
tion sciences, especially in the surroundings. Its superior per- the finite-impulse response sys-
1950s and 1960s, is based on sta- formance in non-stationary envi- tem is compared with the refer-
tistical considerations. This ronments results from its ability ence signal, and the resulting er-
framework assumes the avail- to track slow variations in the ror signal is used to change the
ability of information in advance statistics of the signals and to coefficients of the finite-impulse
about the statistical nature of the continually seek optimal designs. response configuration. This
learning process is continued
over time, and the output of the
adaptive system is expected to
provide better tracking of the
plant output as time progresses,
especially when the structure of
the plant is time invariant or var-
ies only slowly with time.

SPACE CEPSTRUM 39
GRAPHENE : Sri Harsha P.V II Yr

Carbon is the basis of all makes it the thinnest material single sheets of graphene are
known lives on earth. It is essen- ever discovered. Good at con- hard to produce, and even harder
tial to all known living systems, ducting both heat and electricity to make on top of an appropriate
and without it life as we know it better than copper, graphene has substrate.
could not exist. The major eco- been discovered to be stronger
nomic use of carbon other than than diamond. Graphene differs Researchers are looking
food and wood is in the form of from most conventional three- into methods of transferring sin-
hydrocarbons, most notably the dimensional materials. Intrinsic gle graphene sheets from their
fossil fuels and methane gas. graphene is a semi-metal or zero- source of origin (mechanical ex-
Gem quality diamond is used in gap semiconductor. Experimen- foliation on SiO2 / Si or thermal
jewelry, and Industrial diamonds tal results from transport meas- graphitization of a SiC surface)
are used in drilling, cutting and urements showed that graphene onto a target substrate of interest.
polishing tools for machining had remarkably high electron According to a January 2010 re-
metals and stone. In many ways mobility at room temperature, port, graphene was epitaxially
carbon has become an essential with high reported values. grown on SiC in a quantity and
element to mankind’s growth. with quality suitable for mass
Additionally, the symmetry production of integrated circuits.
Yet again carbon has sur- of the experimentally measured
prised the scientific community conductance indicated that the Graphene nanoribbons
with its new found form gra- mobility’s for holes and electrons (GNRs) are essentially single
phene. Graphene as a material is were nearly the same. All the layers of graphene that are cut in
completely new, not only the properties of semi-conductors a particular pattern to give it cer-
thinnest but also the strongest hold good in the case of gra- tain electrical properties. Their
ever discovered. This material phene. Due to its high electronic 2D structure, high electrical and
first came into light in 2010 quality, graphene had attracted thermal conductivity, and low
when two Russian born scientists the interest of technologists who noise also make GNRs a possible
Andre Geim and Konstantin No- saw it as a way of constructing alternative to copper for inte-
voselov from the University of ballistic transistors. Graphene grated circuit interconnects. Sili-
Manchester, for their work on exhibited a pronounced response con which has been the master
graphene, were awarded the No- to perpendicular external electric base of present day electronics
bel Prize. Owing to carbon’s un- fields, allowing one to build might be replaced soon with this
usual electronic spectrum, gra- FETs (field-effect transistors). new competitor. With the advent
phene has led to the emergence of nano-technology and this
of a new paradigm of relativistic However, current graphene breakthrough in electronics, sci-
physics. transistors showed a very poor entists expect to make nano-
on-off ratio. Researchers are try- electronic devices that are sub-
ing to find ways for improve- stantially faster, thinner and
ment. But the smallest transistor more efficient than current sili-
so far, one atom thick and ten con based devices.
atoms wide, was made of gra-
phene. Graphene has the ideal Discovered only four years
properties to be an excellent ago, graphene is now used in
component of integrated circuits. prototype transistors and memo-
Its high carrier mobility and low
ries in lab benches. We engineers
noise added to the above fea-
One atom thick planar tures, allowing it to be used as a need to devise methods to make
sheet of sp-2 bonded carbon FET channel. The issue is that it go to store shelves.

SPACE CEPSTRUM 40
...BACK IN A ……...
We have all made formation
FLASH
stored,
ShivaPrakaash II yr

less storage device called the


use of USB flash drives, memory communicates with the com- “Time Capsule”. We are part of a
cards etc. among other storage puter or other devices and generation that is become faster,
devices. All these storage de- controls the reading, writing lighter and wireless at a very
vices make use of the concept of and erasing. quick pace. The future is in our
“Flash memory” – which, in a hands.
nutshell, are storage chips which Principle:
can be electrically erased and Floating Gate: The FG transistor is used in two
reprogrammed. Flash memory is Flash memory stores forms to enable programming
basically a special type of information in an array of mem- and erasing of the memory:
EEPROM (Electrically erasable ory cells which are made from • The NOR Flash
and Programmable ROM). Floating Gate Transistors (these • The NAND Flash
The advantage of Flash memory resemble a standard MOSFET,
is that: but have 2 gates instead of 1). In NOR flash, each cell
• It is non-volatile – Each memory cell stores one bit has one end connected directly to
meaning it doesn’t re- of information – but recent de- ground, and the other end con-
quire power sources to velopments have seen such mem- nected directly to a bit line.
maintain the memory ory cells store more than one bit, This arrangement is called "NOR
stored on the chip known as Multi-Level cells. flash" because it acts like a NOR
• It has a faster access In this transistor, below the Con- gate: when one of the word lines
time trol Gate there is the Floating is brought high, the correspond-
• Better kinetic shock Gate (FG) which is electrically ing storage transistor acts to pull
resistance, which insulated on all sides by an oxide the output bit line low.
makes it durable and layer.
reliable Programming :
• It can withstand intense Due to its electrical A single-level NOR
pressure, extreme tem- isolation, the charges that are flash cell in its default state is
perature and immersion trapped there and do not dis- logically equivalent to a binary
in water charge for years. This charge "1" value, because current will
also decides the threshold volt- flow through the channel under
age of the cell. During read out, application of an appropriate
an intermediate voltage is ap- voltage to the control gate. A
plied. The current coming out is NOR flash cell can be pro-
converted into binary and repre- grammed, or set to a binary "0"
sented as information. value, by the following proce-
dure:
Nowadays, flash • An elevated on-voltage
memory is also being used in (typically >5 V) is applied to the
place of Hard Disk Drives CG 
(HDDs) in our computers and • The channel is now turned
The above picture is the in- laptops. They are called Solid on, so electrons can flow from
ternal structure of a USB State Drives (SSDs) as they con- the source to the drain (assuming
Flash Drive. sist of solid and immovable com- an NMOS transistor) 
The big chip is the Flash ponents as opposed to HDDs • The source-drain current is
memory. which use spinning disks etc. sufficiently high to cause some
The small chip is the control- Apple’s latest products make use high energy electrons to jump
ler – which manages the in- of these SSDs as well as a wire- through the insulating layer onto

SPACE CEPSTRUM 41
• electron injection 
Erasing :
To erase a NOR flash cell (resetting it to the "1" state), a large voltage of the opposite polar-
ity is applied between the CG and source, pulling the electrons off the FG through quantum tunneling.
Modern NOR flash memory chips are divided into erase segments (often called blocks or sectors). The
erase operation can only be performed on a block-wise basis; all the cells in an erase segment must be
erased together. Programming of NOR cells, however, can generally be performed one byte or word at a
time.

NAND flash also uses floating-gate transistors, but they are connected in a way that resembles a NAND
gate: several transistors are connected in series, and only if all word lines are pulled high (above the
transistors' VT) is the bit line pulled low. These groups are then connected via some additional transistors
to a NOR-style bit line array.

To read, most of the word lines are pulled up above the VT of a programmed bit, while one of them
is pulled up to just over the VT of an erased bit. The series group will conduct (and pull the bit line low)
if the selected bit has not been programmed.
NAND flash uses tunnel injection for writing and tunnel release for erasing. NAND flash memory forms
the core of the removable USB storage devices known as USB flash drives, as well as most memory
card formats and solid-state drives available today.

Nowadays, flash memory is also being used in place of Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) in our
computers and laptops. They are called Solid State Drives (SSDs) as they consist of solid and immov-
able components as opposed to HDDs which use spinning disks etc.
Apple’s latest products make use of these SSDs as well as a wireless storage device called the “Time
Capsule”. We are part of a generation that is become faster, lighter and wireless at a very quick pace.
The future is in our hands.

NAND Flash:

NOR Flash:

SPACE CEPSTRUM 42
Impact of wireless Technology on Future... Lalitha.M III Yr

Wireless technology refers to wireless devices which are used as a means of communi-
cations or it can be said that it is an alternative to wired communication devices; it can be in form of a
cell phone, radio or a wi-fi internet device. In this article, we are going to see how these wireless devices
will be impacting our future lives, in both negative and positive ways. First let us familiarize ourselves
with the benefits of wireless technology.

5G is the short form of fifth generation mobile devices. For cell phones, the technology has been divided
into generations starting from the first till the fifth generation. Currently, devices are available till fourth
generation. Very soon the fifth generation devices will also be available in the market. Now the question
in everyone’s mind is ‘what will the fifth generation devices be contacting?. Well that’s a secret!! Fifth
generation devices are expected to be released by the end of 2011. These cell phones will carry the most
advanced features which one would have ever imagined and are expected to have more than thousands
of applications in a single gadget.

In future, wireless internet devices will completely replace the wired internet devices as it will be of a
great advantage to both the service provider and the users. Wireless internet devices have already created
a symbol of style and status and this is a reason as to why people have moved or are willing to move to-
wards wireless devices. Also, they do not want to stay out dated.

The most common reason for the shift to wireless technology is that, at times it is very difficult to use
the wired networks; may be due to the high cost or because of the long time taken to setup wire based
networks. Also there was always a risk of wires getting damages. Wireless technology contains Speedy
healing of operating cost because there are hardly any maintenance required by the wireless devices, it’s
just a onetime investment. Even if a need occurs to maintain it, it is way cheaper than the maintenance of
wired networks. Wireless technology devices are easy to access due to their low cost; not only the big
businesses can acquire them but also small businesses. The greatest advantage is that they are easily
movable. These devices also have a huge coverage area. At an average they can cover an area from a
meter to fifty-five kilometers.

Many people think that wireless technology is unsafe and to be honest that is true to a great extent. Al-
though you may have password protected network, it can be hacked. Apart from this, these devices carry
health related problems in some countries. With an intensive use of such device as compared to adults,
children are at a greater risk of brain related disease. Apart from this, the technology has badly affected
the youth all over the world. It has turned out to be a necessity rather than a need. Without such devices
it is impossible to imagine a life now. Teenagers spend most of their time playing games on the com-
puter or browsing the internet or chatting on their mobile phones. Physical activities have declined by 90
percent, which in future will cause more serious problems. Our future is completely depending on wire-
less technology devices because it has already become a part of our daily life.

Whether in the form of internet devices or cell phones, both have given us a great deal of advantages
which cannot be denied although it carries lots of disadvantages with it. But overall we can say that the
benefits are greater than the threats.

So yes!

The Future is wireless!!


SPACE CEPSTRUM 43
NOISE CANCELLATION HEAD - K.Shivaprakaash II yr
end of the cone is at-
On a 1978 flight to tached to the voice coil latter vibrates and transmits
Europe, Amar Bose, the and actually generates the
founder of Bose Corpora- sound waves. It does this by these vibrations to the dia-
tion, put on a pair of airline- vibrating rapidly in response phragm.
supplied headphones, only to the vibrating voice coil,
to find that the roar of the jet much the same way the Noise-cancelling
engines prevented him from three bones of the ear vi- headphones come in ei-
enjoying the audio. He brate in response to the ther active or passive types.
started making calculations movement of the eardrum. Technically speaking, any
right there on the plane to The vibration of the voice type of headphone can pro-
see if it was possible to use coil is made possible by two vide some passive noise re-
the headphones themselves fundamental properties of duction. That's because the
as a noise-reducing agent. magnetism: materials of the headphones
Bose introduced the first · themselves block out some
noise-cancelling headphones Identical magnetic poles sound waves, especially
a decade later. repel each other, while those at higher frequencies.
opposite poles attract The best passive noise-
To hear what's re- · Electric current flowing cancelling headphones,
corded on a record, cas- through a coil of wire however, are circum-aural
produces a magnetic types that are specially con-
sette, CD, DVD or MP3 structed to maximize noise-
field, with the direction
player, data stored on the of current flow deter- filtering properties. That
medium must be converted mining the polarity of means they are packed with
into sound waves. This re- the magnetic field layers of high-density foam
quires that the stored infor- or other sound-absorbing
mation be turned into an When a voice coil is material, which makes them
electrical signal, which then placed within the unchang- heavier than normal head-
phones. This results in a re-
must pass through ing magnetic field of a per- duction in noise of about 15
a transducer to convert the manent magnet, these two to 20 decibels (dB). But
transverse electrical wave properties are realized. considering jet engines cre-
into a longitudinal sound Switching the electrical sig- ate 75 to 80 dB of noise in-
wave that the ear can inter- nal that is pumped into the side the aircraft cabin, pas-
pret. Speakers play the role coil causes the North and sive models have some seri-
ous limitations.
of transducers in audio sys- South poles to switch back
That's where ac-
tems. and forth very rapidly. As tive noise-cancelling head-
the North and South poles of phones come in.
Dynamic Headphones the voice coil's magnetic Active noise-cancelling
field switch, they are at- headphones can do every-
Electrodynamic tracted and then repelled as thing that passive ones can
(or dynamic) headphones do -- their very structure
are made of three functional they interact with the per- creates a barrier that blocks
parts -- a voice coil, a per- manent magnet. Because the high-frequency sound
manent magnet and a cone- permanent magnet is fixed waves. They also add an ex-
like diaphragm. The narrow and the voice coil isn't, the tra level of noise reduction
SPACE CEPSTRUM 44
by actively erasing lower- Speaker - The "anti- DISADVANTAGES
frequency sound waves. sound" created by the noise-
How do noise-cancelling cancelling circuitry is fed While noise-cancelling
headphones accomplish into the headphones' speak- headphones do a good job
this? They actually create ers along with the normal distinguishing between the
their own sound waves that audio; the anti-sound erases audio a wearer wants to hear
mimic the incoming noise in the noise by destructive in- and the background noise he
every respect except one: terference, but does not af- or she wants to keep out,
the headphone's sound fect the desired sound waves some people say that they
waves are 180 degrees out in the normal audio. compromise sound quality
of phase with the intruding by muffling sounds. Users
waves. Battery - The term can also experience a
If you look at the illustration "active" refers to the fact change in air pressure, al-
below, notice that the two that energy must be added to though ports built into the
waves -- the one coming the system to produce the ear cup are meant to vent air
from the noise-cancelling noise cancelling effect. The trapped behind the speakers.
headphone and the one asso- source of that energy is a In spite of these drawbacks,
ciated with the ambient rechargeable battery. many people would never
noise -- have the same am- go back to normal audio
plitude and frequency, 180 headphones. That's because
degrees out phase resulting Using these compo-
noise-cancelling headphones
in destructive interference. nents, noise-cancelling do more than reduce noise.
The result: the listener can headphones are able to pro- They also help alleviate fa-
focus on the sounds he vide an additional reduction tigue when traveling, which
wants to hear. in noise of 20 decibels. can result from exposure to
low-frequency noise for an
Of course, several extended period of time.
components are required to
achieve this effect:

Microphone - A mi-
crophone placed inside the
ear cup "listens" to external
sounds that cannot be
blocked passively.

Noise-cancelling cir-
cuitry - Electronics, also
placed in the ear cup, sense
the input from the micro-
phone and generate a
"fingerprint" of the noise,
noting the frequency and
amplitude of the incoming
wave. Then they create a
new wave that is 180 de-
grees out of phase with the
waves associated with the
noise.

SPACE CEPSTRUM 45
Hats Off !!!!
We congratulate all these students on behalf of the Association –
SPACE, for their achievement.

Placed at

K.Nisha, IV yr

Amit Raj, IV yr

M.Sathyan, Iv yr
GMAT Score:720/800

Manish Mandloi, IV yr
GATE AIR : 155

SPACE CEPSTRUM 46
Hats Off !!!!
Placed at

Prashanth Srivastav, IV yr

Abhilash Swaroop, IV yr

Vavilla Harish , IV yr

Amrit Chatterjee, IV yr

Niveditha Reddy, IV yr
SPACE CEPSTRUM 47
Solutions
EXPLANATIONS
Across:
1.Transfers resistance as nothing signifi-
cant is sent to other regions (10)
Ans: Transistor
7. Apply negative potential at its base and
make it active (3)
Ans: PNP (direct)
8. Scientist splits capacitance at the factory
with queen (6)
Ans: Miller (Mill: Factory, Queen: ER )
9. Opposition to flow of current as an elec-
tronic imp dances endlessly (8)
Ans: Impedance (e (electronic) imp dance
jumble)
12. An informal type of shirt with protec-
tive layer used to attenuate (1-3)
Ans: T-Pad (T from T-Shirt and Pad: Pro-
tective layer) Down:
13. What is common between Nyquist, Bode, Polar? 2. French scientist helps us measure current (6)
(4) Ans: Ampere (Scientist and unit of current)
Ans: Plot 3. Process of taking examples from the signal for possi-
15. Type of coffee allows different frequency ranges ble reconstruction (8)
through (6) Ans: Sampling (Direct clue)
Ans: Filter (double definition: type of coffee and al-
lowing certain ranges) 4. Digital logic using transistors (3)
16. What happens when you put + and – together (5, Ans: TTL (Direct clue)
7) 5. Burden to which output of circuit is taken (4)
Ans: Short Circuit Ans: Load (Burden – Load, output taken through Load)
18. Child, why ‘Make.Believe' this huge electronics 6. Scientist whose frequency helped us sample without
organization (4) aliasing (6)
Ans: Sony (Child – Son, Why- y so Sony)
Ans: Nyquist (Direct)
19. Wireless Fidelity (2-2)
Ans: Wi-Fi 7. Y ____, ABCD ______, Hybrid _____ and (9 across)
_____ help us analyze two-port net-
works (10)
Ans: Parameters
10. Expel electrons from this part of the
transistor (7)
Ans: Emitter (Expel – emit)
11. Endless cold and trenches, we hear,
gives us an oscillator (8)
Ans: Colpitts (Endless Cold: Col,
Trenches: pits – sounds like pitts)
14. First of all, my only son… (3)
Ans: My Only Son (M.O.S)
15. … uses a gate, sink and source (3)
Ans: FET – Field Effect Transistor
17. O! Pam, please compare, within,
these two values (2-3)
Ans: O! Pam, please: Op amp

SPACE CEPSTRUM 48
HAWK EYE - R. Praveen Kumar & R. KousheekaRaam IV yrs
ments of angles and sides of the MHz frame rate, are placed
triangle formed by that point and around the playing field. They
Hawk eye is a computer two other known reference track the ball’s entire trajectory.
system used in cricket, tennis, points. The following formulae The cameras are used in two sets,
snookers and other sports to apply in flat or Euclidean geome- and a multi-channel frame grab-
visually track the path of try. They become inaccurate if ber handles each set of cameras.
the ball and display a record of distances become appreciable The images captured are then
its most statistically likely path compared to the curvature of the processed by software to produce
as a moving image. The pure earth, but can be replaced with a 3-D image. This is updated 100
tracking system is combined with
times every second. The
a back end database and ar-
system is able to locate the
chiving capabilities so that it
ball in 3-D and can predict
is possible to extract and
the motion with a claimed
analyze trends and statistics
accuracy of 5 mm.
about individual players,
games, ball-to-ball compari-
sons, etc. Hawk-Eye in Cricket:
It is in cricket, TV
Hawk-Eye is primarily used broadcasts made a name for
by the majority of television Hawk-Eye at first. The tech-
networks to track the trajec- nology was first used by
tory of balls in flight. It was Channel 4 during a Test
developed by engineers match between England and
at Roke Manor Research Pakistan on Lord's ground in
Limited of UK in 2001.Put 2001. The technology is
up for sale in September 2010, it used by broadcasters to re-
more complicated results derived solve LBW shouts, to generate
was sold as a complete entity to using spherical trigonometry.
Japanese electronics giant Sony easily-digestible statistics to en-
in March 2011. hance the viewing experience.
Technology: Viewers now expect Hawk-Eye
The Hawk-Eye system is to show whether a batsman
What is the principle be- not real-time, so play has to stop should have been given ‘in’ or
hind it? for the referee or another match ‘out’. The technology predicts
A Hawk-Eye system is official to review the disputed the path of the ball as it comes
based on the principle of play. According to Paul Haw- out of the bounce, thus determin-
“Triangulation”. Triangula- kins, the inventor of the system, ing whether the ball would have
tion is the process of determining the ball needs to be at least 25 hit the stumps. It can give a pre-
the location of a point by meas- percent visible to be foolproof. diction as accurate as 99.99 %.
uring angles to it from known
points at either end of a fixed The system rapidly processes the DeSpin:
baseline rather than measuring video feeds by a high Hawk-Eye DeSpin Graph-
distances to the point directly. speed video processor. Hawk ics demonstrate how far a deliv-
The point can then be fixed as Eye incorporates both image ery has deviated after pitching.
the third point of a triangle with analysis and radar technology. Whilst the blue trajectory below
one known side and two known Hawk-Eye takes two inputs represents a ball that does not
angles. The coordinates and dis- video provided by 6 different spin or seam, the red ‘actual de-
tance to a point can be found by cameras placed at 6 different livery’ shows just how much turn
calculating the length of one side places. The six fixed JAI mono- the spinner has achieved.
of a triangle, given measure- chrome cameras, with a 120

SPACE CEPSTRUM 49
Hawk-Eye in Cricket: Hawk-Eye in Football: variable. Tests have always been
conducted outdoors, encompass-
It is in cricket, TV broad- As with all Hawk-Eye ing situations that take the fol-
casts made a name for Hawk-Eye technology, every image is proc- lowing factors such aswind (and
at first. The technology was first essed by a
used by Channel 4 during a Test bank of com-
match between England and puters in real
Pakistan on Lord's ground in time. This
2001. The technology is used by data is then
broadcasters to resolve LBW sent to a cen-
shouts, to generate easily- tral com-
digestible statistics to enhance puter, which
the viewing experience. Viewers combines all
now expect Hawk-Eye to show the informa-
whether a batsman should have tion to deter-
been given ‘in’ or ‘out’. The mine
technology predicts the path of whether or

therefore camera wobble),bright


not the ball has sunlight at different times of the
crossed the day, shadows covering part or
line. As soon the majority of the court, dark or
as a ball has overcast conditions; artificial
been tracked floodlights.
across the goal The system receives information
line, the cen- from each calibrated camera to
tral computer provide 3D position of the ball.
will transmit This process is repeated for each
an automatic frame so that the 3D positions of
signal directly the ball can be combined to pro-
to the referee duce a single trajectory of the
the ball as it comes out of the to inform him whether or not a flight of the ball. The trajectory
bounce, thus determining goal has been scored. This infor- is then used to calculate at exact
whether the ball would have hit mation can be communicated to bounce contact area the ball
the stumps. It can give a predic- a watch or an ear piece as re- made with the court.
tion as accurate as 99.99 %. quired. The implementation of One thing is certain, Hawk-eye is
goal line technology using hawk far more accurate than human
DeSpin: eye is been debated. eye. Hawk‐Eye offers a unique
blend of innovation, experience
Hawk-Eye DeSpin Graph- Hawk-Eye in Tennis: and accuracy that has revolu-
ics demonstrate how far a deliv- tionized the sporting
ery has deviated after pitching. Hawk-Eye was first used in world. This technology helps to
Whilst the blue trajectory below tennis in the year 2004(US correct the incorrect decisions to
represents a ball that does not Open). In tennis, Hawk-Eye gen- the maximum extent possible in
spin or seam, the red ‘actual de- erates the impact of the ball any kind of game.  
livery’ shows just how much turn whether the ball is “IN” or
the spinner has achieved. “OUT”. Indoor venues are obvi-
ously easier in which to track
because conditions are far less

SPACE CEPSTRUM 50
CEPSTRUM TEAM
Sai Srinivas Krishnan (III yr E.C.E)
Prasana Kumar (III yr E.C.E)
S.Karthik (III yr E.C.E)
K.Shivaprakaash (IIyr E.C.E)
Chekuri Indira (III yr E.C.E)
V.Bavya (III yr E.C.E)
M.Lalitha (III yr E.C.E)
Yamini (III yr E.C.E)

SPACE CEPSTRUM 51
Take the first step in Faith, You don’t have to see the whole
Staircase, Just take the first step
-Justin Luther King

SPACE CEPSTRUM 52