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# ANALYSIS METHODS 32

V V Vasiliev

## 32.1 INTRODUCTION appropriate model for the structural element

A detailed analysis of composite structures can under consideration.
provide information about the stress-strain To start the analysis (Fig. 32.1), one must
state, strength, stiffness, stability and vibra- know the geometric configuration of the struc-
tional behaviour of structural elements. The ture, material properties, environmental and
analytic methods are those used in solid operational conditions along with the applied
mechanics; the equations are modified to loads. It must be noted that the available data
reflect the structural behaviour of composite on material properties and loading conditions
structures. These equations are based on a sys- affect accuracy, duration and cost of the analy-
tem of assumptions that take into account the sis. As an illustration, consider a cylindrical
key features of a structure and establish the shell loaded with a concentrated radial force.
The solution for this problem can be obtained

## EQUl L I BRI UM STRAIN-DI SPLRCEMENT

EQUATIONS EOURTIONS
LOROS

I I
ENUIRONMENTRL RNO
--+-b
I

+ OUERRLL STRRINS
OPERRTI ONRL
CONDITIONS
A N 0 MOOELS
GOUERNING
EQURTIONS
* RNO
OISPLRCEMENTS
A I
r I
CONSTlTUlTlUE
INLRMINRR
EQUATIONS

I EXPERIMENTAL
RNRLYSIS
I-- STRENGTH

EXPERIMENTAL
UERlFlCRTlON

Handbook of Composites.Edited by S.T. Peters. Published Fig. 32-1 Outline of analysis for composite StrUC-
in 1998 by Chapman & Hall, London. ISBN 0 412 54020 7 tures.
Introduction 737

in the form of a Fourier series that has a very the experimental method can not be used
poor convergence at the loaded point. for unique structural designs.
However, a closer inspection of the loading 0 To minimize the degree of uncertainty, a
conditions often shows that the concentrated second method is applied. According to this
force is the resultant of some distributed load method, the stiffness coefficients are calcu-
over an infinitesimal area; this distributed load lated from data that specify the composite
can then be expressed by the series with a material, ply co-ordinates, ply thickness,
finite number of terms to achieve convergence. ply orientation and mechanical properties
Operational requirements for the composite of individual plies. The latter, in principle,
structures are also of great importance. For can be predicted by analytical or numerical
example, a filament wound composite shell of methods of micro-mechanics of composite
revolution can be a model for either a gas pres- materials; these results, however, have
sure vessel or a solid propellant rocket motor more academic than practical value.
case for which, in contrast to the pressure ves- Idealized micro-mechanical models, that
sel, time dependent material properties need approximate the real structure of the mater-
not be considered. On the basis of this knowl- ial, do not account for material porosity,
edge, assumptions are formulated for the non-uniform fiber distribution, possible
model of the structural component under variation of physical properties in each
study. This model should consider only the batch of resin, variation in strength of the
key factors affecting the capability of the struc- resin/fiber interface and a number of other
ture and ignore the secondary effects that factors associated with the manufacturing
complicate the analysis without significant process; in many instances, the above varia-
improvement. tions can not be described in formal analytic
The next step implies analytical formula- terms.
tion of the problem, i.e. development of a
For important structures, usually, the mechan-
complete set of the governing equations with
ical ply-properties are experimentally
the pertinent boundary conditions. For struc-
determined by testing specifically fabricated
tural analysis, the governing set of equations
plates, rings, or tubular unidirectionally rein-
consists of equilibrium equations (or equa-
forced specimens produced by the same
tions of motion), strain-displacement and the
process as the structure under study'.
constitutive equations which are material
Once all of the pertinent data are together,
dependent. The constitutive equations include
the governing equations are solved by either
stiffness coefficients which are determined by
the analytic or the numerical methods applied
either of the following two methods:
in solid mechanics. The results by either
0 The first method is associated with direct method yield information on deformation,
experimental analysis of test specimens cut displacements, stiffness and strength. To eval-
out of the structure or its excess length. This uate stiffness, the calculated displacements
method is used mainly for structures in due to an applied loading can be used
mass production. For simple laminates (e.g. directly. Evaluation of strength requires trans-
for cross-ply laminates), this method gives formation of the calculated global strains to
rather accurate results while for the more ply strains in terms of principal material co-
complicated (e.g. including angle-ply lay- ordinates, determination of the ply stresses
ers) laminates, separation of a specimen can and application of some strength criterion.
cause a disruption in the material structure One must note that the numerous strength cri-
and induce specific edge-effects with ques- teria, that have been developed to date, are no
tionable mechanical properties. Obviously, more than analytical approximations of the
738 Analysis methods

## experimental results with a significant scatter.

Also, the failure of a composite material is a
rather complicated process that defies accu-
rate theoretical description. Therefore, the
strength of important structures should be
't SI

## always verified by testing either sub-scale or

full-scale models.
Finally, a thorough analysis of a composite
structure, based on macrostructural models,
effective stiffnesses and approximate displace-
ment fields, does not preclude the possibility
of a detailed analysis of inlaminar or interlam-
inar stresses. To accomplish this analysis, the
ply under study is separated out of the struc-
ture, loaded with unknown contact forces,
deformed in accordance with the known Fig. 32.2 Element of a composite structure.
global strains of the structure and described by
the proper microstructural model.
1. Equations of motion
32.2 GENERAL EQUATIONS FOR COMPOSITE
STRUCTURES
Composite structural elements consist of a large
number of plies with different angular orienta-
tion of fibers. The general equations, describing
the behaviour of the composite elements, are
based on the following assumptions:
0 the structural element consists of perfectly
bonded anisotropic layers made out of lin-
ear elastic materials;
= 0 (1, 2 )
0 the laminate thickness (h) is much smaller
than the other dimensions;
0 the radii of curvatures are assumed to be
the same for each lamina;
0 loading does not affect laminate thickness.
The differential composite element (Fig. 32.2)
is described in terms of curvilinear coordi-
nates a, p and y. The coordinate axes a and p
coincide with lines of principal curvatures of
the basic surface located at a distance e mea-
sured from an outer element surface. The
geometry of this basic surface is defined by the
coefficients of the first quadratic form A,, A ,
and the principal radii of curvature R, and R,.
Therefore, the governing equations of com-
posite structural analysis become as follows:
General equations for composite structures 739

where
1 dA,
a1 = _ _ _ _ (L2)
A 1 4 aa
The symbol ( I I 2) indicates, hereafter, that an
equation written for the a variable yields one
and F = (N/
M). more analogous equation for the /3 variable by
commutating the indices a, /I, 1 and 2.
The foregoing set of equations (32.1, 32.2
2. Constitutive equations and 32.3) include 23 equations and the same
number of unknowns, namely:
0 the stress resultants N,Q and the couples M
acting on the basic surface shown in Fig.
32.3;
0 displacements ua, up/ w of the points on the
basic surface in the a,p and y directions;
0 rotations ea, 8, of the normal to the basic
surface;
0 rotations of the tangents ma and osto the
basic surface in the cry and ,by planes;
0 strains E and flexural deformations K of the
basic surface;
0 transverse shear deformations 3, and \$in J,
the ay and ,by planes.

’t
3. Strain-displacement equations
1 au, w 1
& =---- + a u +-+-w; (1,2)
a A, aa P R, 2
1 auB 1 aua 1
Eap = -- +---ulu,-au +-w
2 wa
A , aa A, ap 2 8 P

+
1 ao, 1 ae, + u p a + u2ep
Kap = -~
A , aa
--
A, \$3
”P
Fig. 32.3 External and internal forces and moments.

## 1 aw The equations of motion (32.1) contain inertia

0 = (1,2) (32.3) terms with time derivatives of displacements
a R, A, aa
and rotations; the equations reduce to static
740 Analysis methods

## equilibrium without these derivatives. The

coefficients B and Dpcharacterize the inertia
properties of the element in Fig. 32.2 with
respect to displacements and rotations. C,, on
the other hand, is the coupling coefficient
describing the interaction between displace- where the Fs are the body forces and p , 9 are
ments and rotations. the simultaneously applied surface forces as
shown in Fig. 32.3. Functions 7 and 6 reflect
variation of the wall thickness, h (a,B) = e + s,
along the coordinate lines, i.e.

## It is assumed that functions s (a,/I) and e (a,p)

vary rather slowly, therefore sin 7 = 7,cos 7 =
Fig. 32.4 Layer coordinates. 1, sin 6 = 5 and cos 6 = 1. It must be noted that,
for variable thickness, the layer coordinates ti
in Fig. 32.4 can also depend on a and p. For
For a thin walled laminate (Fig. 32.4) these structures with constant thickness, 7, = l;lp= 0
coefficients become and Ea = 6,= 0. The governing set of equations
B = I(0) (32.1, 32.2 and 32.3) accounts for geometric
P P nonlinearity and is applicable for small strains
C = I(1)- and moderate rotations o,(sin w = w ,cos w = 1)
P P P of the structural element in Fig. 32.2. For thin-
walled composite structures, the first-order
D P = I (P2 ) - 2eI P(1) + \$1P(0) (32.4)
nonlinear effects, associated with variation of
where (r = 1,2) radii R, and R2 under loading, can play an
important role; in this case, the underlined
rotations w are omissible when compared with
their derivatives describing the changes in the
p is the material density, and ti- ti are coordi- curvature of the basic surface under loading.
nates of layers. The external loads in (32.1), The linearized buckling equations are formu-
reduced to the basic surface, are specified by lated by modifying eqns (32.1), (32.2) and
the following relations: (32.3) using the following assumptions:

fa = 1h

0
Fadt + Pa + 9, +ma + 0,) + 9(7, - u p )
0 equation (32.1) excludes the terms corre-
sponding to inertia, body and surface
forces;
(112) 0 in nonlinear terms of eqn (32.1), N, = N :,
N,= Np”, Nap= N u t where N,O, Np”, Nap”are
the stress resultants that correspond to
membrane prebuckling state of the struc-
ture;
0 constitutive equations (32.2) should exclude
terms W and Mr.
General equationsfor composite structures 741

## e Strain-displacement equations (32.3)

and (32.10) depend on the thermo-elastic con-
exclude non-linear terms. stants of the material. For a composite
The membrane (B,,), the bending (D,,), the layer-referred to principal material coordi-
coupling (Cmn),and the shear (Kmn),stiffness nates 1, 2, 3 in Fig. 32.5, with axis 1 enclosing
an angle 'P, or -ql with the a axis as in Fig. 32.6.
coefficients in the constitutive equations (32.2)
These coefficients are
are determined with the following equations:
A,:) = E ([IC 4 + EC')s4 + 2E ( 1 ) ~2s 2
B mn = I mn
(0) 1 1 2 [ 12 1 I

## A12(1)= A 0) = yl\$)Ey)+ (Et) + EO - 2El\$))c;s;

Cmn = 1:)- el::) 21

## A\$] = + E~]c:+ 2E 12( ' 1 ~ 2 ~ 2

1 1

f
K = K4Ks5-K4; (32.6)
where (mn = 11,12,13,23,22,33; r = 0, 1,2)

-
_
l
r +_l 1kAtA(t;+ )-
i=l
::;t (32.7)

## and (rnn = 44,45,55)

k Fig. 32.5 Element of a unidirectional ply.
z h
h210 mn
1
Kmn= Knm = - a dt = -
h2 il a{Ahi

(32.8)
. ,
Constitutive equations, (32.2), include also
temperature terms
N,' = J:)

## M,' = J:) - e]:) (32.9)

where (m = 1,2,3; r = 0 , l )

## The stiffness and the temperature coefficients

of the ith layer, A,,, Am,in eqns (32.7), (32.8) Fig. 32.6 Angle-ply laminate.
thermal strains and stresses are taken to be
zero. The constitutive equations (32.2) also
allow for hygrothermal effects if AT) = &'1A€li
and A\$) = @)AHi where AHi is the change of
moisture concentration in the ith layer of the
material.
For an orthotropic layer! with the
orthotropy axes coinciding with the a and the
/3 axes, the nonzero stiffness and thermal coef-
ficients are as follows:

pa
=
"'i

## where Es (s = 1,2,3) is the modulus of elastic-

ity in the sth direction; G,, is the shear modulus
in the st-plane; v,, and v,,are Poisson's ratios
satisfying the following symmetry condition
Ey,, = E, vts;alTand aZTare thermal expansion
t
coefficients; ATi is the temperature change of
the ith layer measured from the value at which Fig. 32.7 A sandwich wall.
General equationsfor composite structures 743

## For a sandwich wall with a light core and thin

facings as in Fig. 32.7, the transverse shear
b
deformation of the facings can be negligible in
comparison with the corresponding deforma-
tion of the core (AZ’W = 03, = 03) . On the
other hand, the in-plane stiffness of the core
can be ignored in comparison with the corre-
sponding stiffnesses of the facings (A): = A 12
= A,?) =A (2) = 0).
33

## Therefore, eqns (32.7) and (32.8) yield

k

h,
K mn = -a (2)
h2 mn Fig. 32.9 Rib parameters.
ii
As a first approximation a system of densely A, = cjEjsin4pj
arranged equivalent ribs can be also treated as j=1
a system of continuous layers as depicted in n
Fig. 32.8. For the layers, simulating the rib ele- A,, = A,, = cjEisin2pjcos2pj
ments in Fig. 32.9, the non-zero inplane 1=1
stiffness coefficients are

A:) = E-d
d
A, = Ill
j=1
c.G.cos’pj

n
rn
A,, = cjGjs’n2p,
A\$) = E-C j=1
d
where cj = di/uj, Ej and G. are the elasticity and
the shear moduli for the jth system of ribs. The
A\$) = E-b stiffness coefficients in the constitutive equa-
d
tions (32.2) are associated with the following
where it is assumed that the ribs are parallel to deformations of the composite structure:
the a axis, and E is the rib modulus. (a) Bll, B,,, B,, stretching and contraction of
For a lattice structure in Fig. 32.10: the basic surface due to corre-

A,, = Cn

j=1
cj~ps4pj
effect;
shear of the basic surface;
@) 4 3

## Fig. 32.8 A stiffened wall.

744 Analysis methods

JP
Fig. 32.10 Lattice composite structure.

(c) D,,, D,,, D,, bending of the basic surface These equations (note that mn - 11, 12, 22, 13,
due to corresponding loading 23,33) can be satisfied for the following struc-
or Poisson’s effect; tures:
(4 D33 twisting of the basic surface; homogenous or symmetric with respect to
(e) K1,, K2, transverse shear of the wall in the middle surface of thin laminates for
the a y and by planes;
which e = s = h / 2 (see Fig. 32.2);
(f) B13, B23 stretching-shearing coupling
laminates consisting of isotropic layers with
deformation (a) and (b);
different moduli of elasticity (E,) and thick-
(g) Cll/ C,,, C,, bending-stretching coupling ness (hi)but the same Poisson’s ratio, vI= Y,
deformation (a) and (c);
for which
(h) c3, shearing-twisting coupling k k
n
deformation (b) and (d);
(i> ‘23 stretching-twisting (a) and (d)
i=l i=l
and shearing-bending (b) and
sandwich structures with facings made
(c) coupling deformations;
from the same material but having different
(j) D13,D, bending-twisting coupling
thicknesses (see Fig. 32.7) for which
deformation (c) and (d);
(k) K,,, KZ1 interaction of transverse shear 1
e= [h,2+ h3(h3+ 2h, + 2h,)]
deformations in the a y and by 2(h, + h3)
planes.
In the general case, eqns (32.12) are incom-
The coordinates of the basic surface, e, in eqns patible, because it is impossible to find a basic
(32.4), (32.6) and (32.9) can be taken arbitrarily surface for an arbitrary stacking sequence
and as a rule, is used to eliminate coupling such that all the coupling stiffnesses simulta-
stiffnesses Cmnin the constitutive equations. neously become zero. However, one of the
Thus, in accordance with eqn (32.6): coupling stiffnesses can always be eliminated
with the aid of the corresponding equation in
Cmn = lmLl)- elmlo)= 0 (32.12)
eqns (32.12).
Composite beams 745

## There exists the so-called method of

reduced bending stiffnesses according to
which each of eqns (32.12)is used to obtain the
corresponding coordinates
- 1 (1)/I (0)
emn- mn mn

## Then, eqns (32.6) yield

B mn = Imn(0) eap (a,PI Y)= Eap (a,P) + Fap(a'P)
Strains in the k p, plies, whose stiffnesses are
cmn
=0
specified by eqn (32.11),have the form
e?) = e\$ cos2pf + ep(l) sin2p, rt e\$) sin p, cos p,

## The method of reduced bending stiffnesses is

not formally established and can give both sat- elit)= f (e:) - e:')) sin 2pl + e,:) cos 2pf
isfactory results and large errors. Also, it can
be noted that eqns (32.12) can sometimes be where, e.g. ea(') = ea (a,P, y = yl). The stresses, in
satisfied if there exists a possibility to change terms of the principal material coordinates of a
the stacking sequence ot the layers, i.e. to use ply (see Fig. 32.5), are as follows:
coordinates ti as unknown factors.
0:) = Ey)(el(l)+ y 12(')e2( 1 ) ) (1, 2)
The governing set of equations, (32.1),
(32.2), (32.3), is of the tenth order with respect
= G (')e ( i )
r12(i)
to variables a and P; five boundary conditions 12 12
need to be formulated at each point of the To evaluate the strength of the ply, these
boundary. If the edge of a composite structural stresses should be substituted into any avail-
element is clamped, then able strength criterion.
u = u =w=O
a P a P
=o
32.3 COMPOSITE BEAMS
For a simply supported edge a = constant (1,2)
N, = up= w = M a = Op = 0 (1,2) 32.3.1 LINEAR BENDING AND AXIAL
For a free edge a = constant (1,2) LOADING

## N, = Nap= Sa = M a = M a , = 0 (1,2) Combined linear bending and tension (or

compression)of a composite beam in Fig. 32.11
where are described by the following equations:
Sa = Q, - Nama - Napup
(h2) N' = 0
For a linear problem, S, = Q,.
The solution of the governing set of equa- M' = Q
tions, satisfying the proper boundary
conditions, specifies generalized strains -E, K, 11) Q'+jT= 0
and displacements u,,up, w, 8 , 8, as functions
of a and P. Then, the displacements of any N = Bu'
point of the structure can be found in terms of
a, B and y by the following expression: M = DO'
746

## Q = K(8 + V') (32.13)

where ( )' = d( )/dx, j7 = pb, - qb,. The axial and
the bending stiffnesses of the beams are
B = Io

D = I2 - el,
where e = Il/Iois the coordinate of the neutral
axis. For a laminated beam with a cross section Fig.32.12 Layer coordinates.
shown in Fig. 32.12
M = M, + Q,x -Mp -MR

M0x Qox'
8 = 8,+- D f-
2D - 0 -P 0 ,
( n = O , l , 2)
and the transverse shear stiffness is defined by 1
V = Vo + -(Q\$
K - MP- MR)

Mox2 Q0x3
Successive integration of eqn (32.13) yields the -88- ~ - ~ + vp+ VR
20 60
following general solution:
where quantities with subscript '0'correspond
N = No to the initial cross section at x = 0.
NO The following integral terms:
u = uo + -x
B
QP = Iljidx
Q = Q O - Q, - QR
Thin-walled beams 747

## force, should be taken into account. The corre-

sponding equations describing such a type of
beam behavior have the following form:
M' = Q

Q' + NV" + jj = 0
Vp = I j p d x
N = B[u' + %(V')2]
account for the distributed loads (see Fig.
32.11) and these next terms M = DO'

## (Qp MR,OR, VR> = PQ,",M,",e,", v,") Q = K(8 + V')

describe the action of the concentrated forces. where N is a constant axial force. If the beam
For x < xm, the forces should be Q," = M," = 8," has fixed ends, N is determined from the
= V," = 0 and for x 2 xm boundary conditions. For combined axial
Q," = E m loading and bending, N is a known applied
M," = Ern(. - xm)
- 32.3.3 BUCKLING
Rm
0,m = - ( x - xm)2 The critical magnitude of an axial compressive
20
force, causing the column to buckle, can be
-
Rm determined as
VRm = - ( x - xm)3
6D NE
Nc =
1 + (N,/K)
Rm= xm- F~
where, NE= c7c2 D/L2 is the critical Euler force,
Displacements and stresses at any point of the L is the column length, and c is the coefficient
beam are defined by dependent on boundary conditions. For a col-
u r n with simply supported ends c = 1, for a
q x , y > = 4 x 1 + ijw
cantilever column c = 1/4, and for a column
[ M(x)
N +-
ax(x,y) = Ex 7 D
with clamped ends (c = 4).

## qsy) =- ~ E: ) loy€xbijdy Composite thin-walled beams are used as

members of trusses, aircraft propellers, heli-
ij = y - e copter rotor blades, drive shafts, etc. For an
orthotropic beam whose cross section with
two axes of symmetry (Fig. 32.13), the normal
32.3.2 NONLINEAR AND LONGITUDINAL stress resultant nZ (Fig. 32.12) due to combined
BENDING axial loading and bending has the following
form:
For nonlinear transverse or longitudinal bend-
ing, the axial strain, due to the large lateral
deflection developed by the applied axial
nz=B-+-y (2 X )
748 Analysis methods

## Fig. 32.13 Thin-walled beam. X

f(
where Fig. 32.14 Normal and shear stress resultants acting
in a thin-walled beam.
S = \$Bds

## D = §By2ds uy(z,s)= v(z) - xOz(z)

and B is the axial stiffness of the beam wall. uZ(z,s)= w(z) + yex(z)+ f ( s ) (32.15)
For a beam with a non-deformable cross sec-
tion contour B = Bl1. For a beam whose where o, w are the displacements in the y and
cross-section contour can be treated as z directions and Ox, Oz are the angles of rotation
absolutely compliant in its plane B = B,, - about the x and z axes of the beam cross sec-
B1,2/B,,, where Bmn are determined with eqn tion. These displacements are defined as
(32.6). follows:
The shear stress resultant nzs (Fig. 32.14)
developed by a transverse force and a torque
is
'0 =
:I
v,, + (V,, - Bx)dz

where

D
] (32.14)
ez = e; + c z k z d z
SX(s) =
I
By ds

## where A is the area bounded by the contour of

the cross section and Y is the length of the nor-
where o,, w,,Ox0,O: are the displacements and
the rotations of the initial cross section at z = 0,

cz = -9-1 ds
mal to the contour shown in Fig. 32.14. The 4A2 B33
displacements of an arbitrary point on the and V,, is the beam shear
beam cross-section contour (Fig. 32.14) along deformation having the following f01-m:
the x, y and z axes can be expressed as
u x W= Y q z )
Rectangular plates 749

F (s) is specified by eqn (32.6) and B,, is the 32.5.1 LINEAR BENDING OF SYMMETRICALLY
d e a r stiffness of the beam wall given by the LAMINATED PLATES
corresponding equation in (32.6).
If the laminate has a symmetric lay-up, the
Function f(s), entering the last equation in
basic surface is at e = h / 2 and eqns (32.6) and
(32.15), determines the free warping of the
(32.7) yield
beam cross section under torsion and bending
and has the form
Bmn = 2 c
1=1
A m n Y z-

cmn= 0
z zZ-J

i=l
Note that the ),‘( and the transverse (Q,)
where z i are the layer coordinates shown in
as as the bending moment (Mx) -
Fig. 32.16. Then, the problem of bending of an
acting on the beam cross sections and entering
orthotropic plate under the combined action of
the foregoing equations - are governed by the
surface pressures p and q (see Fig. 32.3) is
equilibrium equations for a beam element sim-
reduced to the following equation in terms of
ilar to equation (32.13).
plate deflection w (note that the transverse
shear deformation is ignored):
32.5 RECTANGULAR PLATES
a4w
D1lF
+ 2 ( q 2+ 2 4 - a4w a4w =F)
Composite plates possess high specific axzayz
strength and stiffness. They are used as struc- where =
+ ’22-
af
- 4. The strains at an arbitrary
tural elements for aircraft, ships and other
point of the plate are defined
structures. The governing equations for a plate
(Fig. 32.15) can b e obtainedin Cartesian Soor-
dinates from eqns (32.1), (32.2), (32.3) if we
take A, = A, = l , l / R , = 1/R, = 0 and replace a,
PI Y,with x,y, z.

kl2
i

Y
Fig. 32.16 Layer coordinates for a symmetric lami-
Fig. 32.15 Rectangular plate. nate.
750 Analysis methods

where
k, = Wi (X = a/2)
they allow to find strains and stresses in terms
of principal material coordinates of the com- k, = W. (X = ~ / 2 )
posite plies.
The variational approach, based on the k, = W;’ (X = a / 2 )
approximate analytic expression for the i = 1, 2 and ()’ = d ()/dx. Functions W,(x) and
deflection in the y-direction while satisfying W,(X) are particular solutions that are symmet-
the corresponding boundary conditions, ric with respect to coordinate x and satisfy the
yields the following approximate (but rather following ordinary differential equation:
accurate) solutions for a plate (Fig. 32.15)
w”” - 2s2w” + p w = 0
loaded with a uniform pressure jf = po = con-
stant. The approximate deflection equations where
for different boundary conditions are as fol-
lows: c2(D,, + 2033)
52 =
C P l l
(a) Plate with simply supported longitudinal
and transverse edges
W(XIY> = wp [1 -&)lP,(y) (32.16)
(b) Plate whose longitudinal edges (y = 0 and c parameters in these equations have the form
y = b) are simply supported and transverse b

## (c) Plate with clamped longitudinal and sim- c2 = l0(PWY

ply supported transverse edges
b
W(XlY> = wp [1 -f,(41P2(y) (32.18) c3 = l0(Pf7ZdY
(d) Plate with clamped longitudinal and trans-
verse edges b

c = ITdY
w(x,y) = wp [1 -f2(X)IP2(y) (32.19)
The following are used: For solutions in eqns (32.16) and (32.17) it
should be taken c, = 0.04921 b9, c, = 0.48571 b7,
c3 = 4.8b5, c = 0.2 b5. For solution in eqns (32.18)
and (32.19) c, = 0.001587 b9, c2= 0.01905 b7, c3=
0.8 b5, c = 0.03333 b5.
32.5.2 BUCKLING AND POST-BUCKLING
BEHAVIOR OF SYMMETRICALLY LAMINATED
PLATES
In-plane compression or shear (Fig. 32.17)
(where the forces Tx, T,, Tx, are uniformly
Rectangular plates 751

## (b) if the edge y = 0 is simply supported and

the edge y = b is free, then

## Under pure shear (Tx= Ty = 0), the critical load

for an orthotropic symmetrically laminated
plate is expressed as
7e
Tx; = k--.\j(D,,D,) (32.22)
ab
Fig. 32.17 In-plane loading of a rectangular plate. Coefficient k is given in Table 32.1 for typical
values of the following parameters:

## distributed along the plate edges) can result in

plate buckling. For a simply supported rectan-
gular (a 2 b) plate under uniaxial compression
(T, = Txy= 0), the critical load is expressed as
T,' = k--./(D,,D,)
7c2 Since the value of the critical load for an
(32.20) orthotropic plate does not depend on the
b2
direction of shear forces, the parameter p in
where
)
k = 2 1 + D12 + 2033
TvJ
Table 32.1 can be replaced by 1/ p , so that Table
32.1 presents coefficients k as p varies from
(32.21) 0.02 to 50.
Critical combination of compressive and
Note that eqn (32.21) is valid if the longitudi- shear forces can be determined using the fol-
nal edges of the plate (y = 0 and y = b in Fig. lowing equation:
32.17) can experience displacement along the
y-axis. If these edges are fixed in this direction q+[+]
T X
2
=I
(which is often the case), then the compressive
forces Tx give rise to transverse compressive where T,' and Tx; are specified by eqns (32.20)
forces Ty = vq T, due to Poisson's effect. Then and (32.22).
Used as the skin elements of stringer panels
k = [DllA + 2(D1, + 2D,,) +-- or shear webs, composite plates (just as metal
1 + (vx,/4 A
ones) can sustain high compressive or shear-
should be substituted into eqn (32.20) and ing loads after buckling. However, in contrast
minimized with respect to 1 = (rnl/a)2 where rn to metal panels whose ultimate loads are usu-
is the number of half waves in the x-direction. ally determined by rib fracture, buckling
The following approximate expressions are failure of composite panels (particularly made
derived for the k coefficients with different from carbon-epoxy composites) is often
plate edge supports: caused by skin fracture due to bending.
(a) if the edges y = 0 and y = b are clamped, Therefore, traditional engineering methods of
then strength analysis, such as the method of
reduced width for compressed panels and the
Dl2 + 2033 concept of diagonal stress field for shear webs,
can hardly be used for composite panels; more
752 Analysis methods

## Table 32.1 Buckling coefficient k for pure shear

P
q 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.14 0.18 0.24 0.32 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.80 1.00
0.2 25.5 18.4 15.3 13.5 12.4 10.9 10.4 9.61 8.40 7.50 6.77 6.32 5.87 5.76
0.4 28.9 20.8 17.3 15.2 13.9 12.2 11.5 10.4 9.27 8.36 7.66 7.20 6.73 6.66
0.6 32.2 23.1 19.2 16.9 15.4 13.4 12.4 11.5 10.2 9.24 8.52 8.08 7.68 7.56
0.8 35.3 25.4 21.0 18.8 16.8 14.6 13.6 12.4 11.0 10.1 9.39 9.05 8.55 8.47
1.0 38.4 27.5 22.8 20.0 18.1 15.8 14.7 13.3 11.9 11.0 10.4 9.93 9.45 9.34
1.2 41.3 29.6 24.4 21.4 19.4 16.9 15.7 14.2 12.8 11.8 11.2 10.8 10.3 10.1
1.4 44.1 31.5 26.0 22.8 20.7 18.0 16.7 15.2 13.6 12.7 12.1 11.6 11.1 11.0
1.6 46.8 33.4 27.6 24.1 21.8 19.0 17.7 16.0 14.5 13.7 12.9 12.4 12.0 11.9
1.8 49.4 35.2 29.0 25.4 23.0 20.1 18.6 16.8 15.4 14.4 13.7 13.3 12.9 12.8
2.0 51.8 36.9 30.3 26.6 24.0 21.1 19.5 17.8 16.4 15.2 14.6 14.1 13.8 13.7
2.2 54.2 38.5 31.6 27.7 25.0 22.0 20.4 18.4 17.1 16.1 15.4 14.9 14.6 14.5
2.4 56.4 40.1 32.8 28.8 26.0 23.0 23.1 19.3 17.9 16.7 16.2 15.8 15.4 15.3
2.6 59.3 42.1 34.4 30.8 27.1 24.1 22.3 20.3 18.8 17.9 17.1 16.7 16.3 16.2
2.8 62.1 44.0 36.7 31.4 28.3 25.3 23.3 21.0 19.5 18.7 17.9 17.4 17.1 17.0
3.2 67.8 48.0 39.3 34.2 30.8 27.4 25.1 22.8 21.3 20.4 19.7 19.1 18.7 18.7
3.4 70.6 50.0 40.9 35.6 32.1 28.5 26.0 23.7 22.1 21.2 20.4 19.9 19.6 19.5
3.6 73.4 52.0 42.5 37.1 33.4 29.5 26.8 24.5 22.9 22.0 21.2 20.7 20.3 20.2

rigorous solutions of the corresponding non- p, z) is reduced to the following set of equa-
linear problems are required. tions in terms of radial displacement of the
basic surface ut, deflection w,and rotation of
32.5.3 NONSYMMETRICALLY LAMINATED the normal to the basic surface 6 , i.e.
PLATES ?ut’”’ + ~ Y ~ U +~ (7
“ ’ - np2 - n2)Yur” + (1 - np2

## In contrast to symmetrically laminated plates,

bending of plates with an arbitrary stacking - n:)ur’ + (n?: - n 4)2
=-‘ [ -(C
‘ 1
C Y
sequence of the layers is accompanied by Bll Dll
stretching of the basic surface. Also, the plate
deflections depend on boundary conditions
imposed on the inplane displacements2.
For in-plane compression, nonsymmetri-
- I p’rdr) - Y ( Y F ~ )-” ( Y F ~ )+’ n;F,
1 (32.23)

## cally laminated plates experience bending

which should, in general, be described by
nonlinear equations. This longitudinal bend-
ing can be unstable and can be usually 1
w = -(CllIn r -
accompanied by the so-called mode-jumping. Kll
Here, ()’ = d()/dr, j7 = p - q (see Fig. 32.3), Fr(r)
32.5.4 AXISYMMETRIC DEFORMATION OF is a radial body force (e.g. a centrifugal force
CIRCULAR PLATES AND DISKS for a spinning disk), C,, C, are constants of
integration, and
The problem of axisymmetric bending and in-
plane deformation of orthotropic composite
plates and disks (in cylindrical coordinates Y,
Cylindrical shells 753

D22
nb2 = ~

## Dll Filament wound composite cylindrical shells

are used as pressure vessels, reservoirs, pipes,
n: = ___
c2; aircraft and ship elements. The governing
BllDIl equations for a cylindrical shell (Fig. 32.18) can
be obtained from eqns (32.1)-(32.3) if we take
Coordinates of the basic surface e = I \$ ) / I z )
provide, in accordance with eqn (32.12), the
zero value of the radial coupling stiffness (Cll
=
with yTz.
’,
= l / R i = or ‘ 2 = and rep1ace 7
a j

= 0). -
h
Radial and circumferential strains at an
arbitrary point of the plate are expressed as
er = u,’ + zOrf
1
ep = -(ur
r
+ z0,)
The general solution for eqn (32.23) has the
form
Fig. 32.18 Cylindrical shell.
1c p +
6

ur = up
1=3
where up is a particular solution and si are the 32.6.1 AXISYMMETRIC DEFORMATION
roots of the equation One of the most important loading cases for
s4- (nP + n,’)s2 + np2n: - n: = 0 cylindrical shells is the axisymmetric loading
with pressures p , q and axial forces N (Fig.
Six constants of integration can be found from 32.18). In this case, the equations account for
the corresponding boundary conditions the first-order nonlinear effects of the axial
according to which ur = w = Or = 0 for a forces on the curvature of deformed shell
clamped edge, w = Nr= M , = 0 for a simply meridian. These equations have the following
supported edge, w = ur = Mr = 0 for a hinged form:
edge fixed in the radial direction, and Nr= Mr
= Q, = 0 for a free edge. To write the force M,’- Q, = 0
boundary conditions in terms of displace-
ments, the following expressions can be used: N
Q,‘+ Nw” - 2 + j7 = 0
Ur O R
Nr= Bllu,’ + B 1 2 T + C122
r N,= N
W
N, = B,,u‘ + B l2-
R
U 0
M, = C12& +DllBr’+ D 12 r _f_
W
N, = B,,u‘ + B 22 - + C,,Ox’
R

W
M, = C -
l2 R
+ D,,OX’
754 Andysis methods

## Q, = K,,(ex + w') (32.24)

where ( )' = d( )/dx, j? = p - q. Stiffness coeffi-
cients B, C, D, K are specified by eqn (32.6) in Boundary conditions should be written in
which terms of w and force Sx = Nw'.
e = I (,)/I(0)
11 11
32.6.2 NONSYMMETRIC DEFORMATION
The foregoing set of equations, (32.24), can be
reduced to the ordinary differential equation
In the general case of loading, composite cylin-
w""- 2s2w"+ PW = kp (32.25) drical shells can be usually described rather
adequately by the so-called semimembrane
where theory that, in addition to membrane theory,
takes into account the circumferential bending
s2 = C,, (1 + C ) + RN + ___ moments. The model of a semimembraneshell
2RCD
~

## can be represented by a system of rings with

inextensible axes that take only circumferen-
t4 = B tial bending moments and by a system of
R2B,,CD absolutely flexible beams that connect the
rings and sustain axial and shear forces only.
The semimembrane theory assumptions lead
to the following equations:
aNx
-+- a%, = o
ax ay
= '11[' +
C,, + RN
RCK,, 1 %+-
ay
a%,
ax
+ - Q,
R
+q
Y
=o

B = B,,B, - B,:
Constants of integration entering the solution
of eqn (32.25) can be found from the corre-
sponding boundary conditions according to
which w = Ox = 0 for a clamped edge, w = M x =
0 for a simply supported edge, and M x = S , = 0,
where Sx= Q, + Nw' for a free edge.
Thin-walled composite pressure vessels can
be described by nonlinear membrane equa-
tions using the assumption that D,, = C, = 0.
These equations can be reduced to
W" - k2W = kp

where Q, = K,VY

a u w
E =-+-=(I
' a Y R
Cylindrical shells 755

## = Nx; = 0 for a free edge. The following expres-

8 = q + - -v - aw
Y R ay (32.26) sions can be used for the boundary conditions
where j7 = p - 9, 9Y is the circumferential sur- BllR ‘11 ,,, Wnr
face traction, and stiffnesses B, D are specified Un = ~ wnr------w, -__
by eqn (32.6) in which e = I\$)/I\$).
A,2B3: m t F 3 3 mnz
Decomposition into Fourier series, i.e.
N,”= BllR wn - R4 E1 ,
~

Z~~
I,

m
B33

n=l 5 1 BllR
Nx; = wn’
m,3
~

- An’s3
...! Ny”(x),My”@),p,(x)lcos Any Wnlfr ~

m where

## ..., Qy”(x),qy”(x)lsinAny It must be noted that the semimembrane theory

is not valid for the case of axisymmetricloading
whereAn= n/R, allows reduction of eqn (32.26) (n = 0) and reduces to the membrane theory for
to the following governing equation: n = 1. Proper combination of solutions of eqn
(32.25) for n = 0 and of eqn (32.27) for n 2 1
+ t4wn= kp (32’27) allows
w ~ ” ”- 2s’~~’’
consideration a wide range of practical
where problems for composite cylindrical shells.
A;(n2 - l)D,
52 =
32.6.3 BUCKLING
2B33
Under axial compression by forces N (here, in
contrast to Fig. 32.18, N are compressive
forces), cylindrical shells can experience three
modes of buckling: column-type, axisymmet-
ric, and nonsymmetric buckling. The actual
critical load is the smallest of the three values.
For a column-type buckling

n2rn2R2B
Nc =
2L2B2,(1 +
n2rn2R2B
L2B22B33
)
where B = Bl1B2, - B1: and rn depends on the
9;
Fn = P, -n
character of end fixity. If the end cross sections
are fixed in such a way that they can freely
Four constants of integration entering the rotate (hinged column), then rn = 1.If the ends
solution of eqn (32.27) can be found from the are clamped, then rn = 2.
corresponding boundary conditions according Axisymmetric mode of buckling is typical
to which u, = vn= 0 for a fixed edge (it is essen- for thick and sandwich shells. The corre-
tial that inextensibility condition E = 0 yields sponding critical load is specified by the
w,, = -RAnvn,so wn = 0 for a fixed edge) and N,” following equation that allows for transverse
756 Analysis methods

17 I=[."."
BllD,
+{(l +=)I BP22

where

1
; =(y) 2

## Stiffnesses B, C, D are specified by eqns (32.6)

and (32.7) in which e = I\$)/Iio); Am,,should be
changed for Am,, where
- where Ex= Ex/(l - vX,,vy,).
(i) - A (1) A (11 = A (i), 421 = A ~ ( ~ ) / S ~
41 - i 11 12 12
The critical value of the lateral external pres-
and sure can be approximated by
1
si = 1+ - (ti + ti-,-2e)
2R
Transverse shear stiffness is Here, B,, and D, are specified by eqn (32.6) in
which e = I\$)/I\$) and parameter c depends on
the boundary conditions. For a simply sup-
ported shell c = 1,for a hinged shell whose end
Note that the shell is assumed to be simply
cross sections cannot move in the axial direc-
supported at x = 0 and x = L (see Fig. 32.18).
tion c = 1.5, and for a shell with one end
If transverse shear deformation is not taken
hinged and the other end free c = 0.6.
into account, then
Buckling pressure for an infinitely long
shell is
3D2,
The critical load, corresponding to the general 9, = x3
mode of buckling of a thin simply supported Finally, note that the derivation for equations
orthotropic shell, can be found as presented in this chapter can be found else-
N, = DllA:,, + D, 2
II", + where3.
R2Ai(\$+%]
References 757

## REFERENCES 2. Whitney, J.M. 1987. Structural Analysis of

Laminated Anisotropic Plates. Lancaster,
1. Tarnopolskii, Yu.M. and Kincis, T.Ya. 1985. Static Pensylvania: Techomic Publishing co,,Inc,
Test Methods for New Van 3. Vasiliev, V.V. 1993. Mechanics of Composite
Nostrand Reinhold. Structures. Washington: Taylor & Francis.