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CONDITIONS
RSSUMPTIONS
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Handbook of Composites.Edited by S.T. Peters. Published Fig. 321 Outline of analysis for composite StrUC
in 1998 by Chapman & Hall, London. ISBN 0 412 54020 7 tures.
Introduction 737
in the form of a Fourier series that has a very the experimental method can not be used
poor convergence at the loaded point. for unique structural designs.
However, a closer inspection of the loading 0 To minimize the degree of uncertainty, a
conditions often shows that the concentrated second method is applied. According to this
force is the resultant of some distributed load method, the stiffness coefficients are calcu
over an infinitesimal area; this distributed load lated from data that specify the composite
can then be expressed by the series with a material, ply coordinates, ply thickness,
finite number of terms to achieve convergence. ply orientation and mechanical properties
Operational requirements for the composite of individual plies. The latter, in principle,
structures are also of great importance. For can be predicted by analytical or numerical
example, a filament wound composite shell of methods of micromechanics of composite
revolution can be a model for either a gas pres materials; these results, however, have
sure vessel or a solid propellant rocket motor more academic than practical value.
case for which, in contrast to the pressure ves Idealized micromechanical models, that
sel, time dependent material properties need approximate the real structure of the mater
not be considered. On the basis of this knowl ial, do not account for material porosity,
edge, assumptions are formulated for the nonuniform fiber distribution, possible
model of the structural component under variation of physical properties in each
study. This model should consider only the batch of resin, variation in strength of the
key factors affecting the capability of the struc resin/fiber interface and a number of other
ture and ignore the secondary effects that factors associated with the manufacturing
complicate the analysis without significant process; in many instances, the above varia
improvement. tions can not be described in formal analytic
The next step implies analytical formula terms.
tion of the problem, i.e. development of a
For important structures, usually, the mechan
complete set of the governing equations with
ical plyproperties are experimentally
the pertinent boundary conditions. For struc
determined by testing specifically fabricated
tural analysis, the governing set of equations
plates, rings, or tubular unidirectionally rein
consists of equilibrium equations (or equa
forced specimens produced by the same
tions of motion), straindisplacement and the
process as the structure under study'.
constitutive equations which are material
Once all of the pertinent data are together,
dependent. The constitutive equations include
the governing equations are solved by either
stiffness coefficients which are determined by
the analytic or the numerical methods applied
either of the following two methods:
in solid mechanics. The results by either
0 The first method is associated with direct method yield information on deformation,
experimental analysis of test specimens cut displacements, stiffness and strength. To eval
out of the structure or its excess length. This uate stiffness, the calculated displacements
method is used mainly for structures in due to an applied loading can be used
mass production. For simple laminates (e.g. directly. Evaluation of strength requires trans
for crossply laminates), this method gives formation of the calculated global strains to
rather accurate results while for the more ply strains in terms of principal material co
complicated (e.g. including angleply lay ordinates, determination of the ply stresses
ers) laminates, separation of a specimen can and application of some strength criterion.
cause a disruption in the material structure One must note that the numerous strength cri
and induce specific edgeeffects with ques teria, that have been developed to date, are no
tionable mechanical properties. Obviously, more than analytical approximations of the
738 Analysis methods
where
1 dA,
a1 = _ _ _ _ (L2)
A 1 4 aa
The symbol ( I I 2) indicates, hereafter, that an
equation written for the a variable yields one
and F = (N/
M). more analogous equation for the /3 variable by
commutating the indices a, /I, 1 and 2.
The foregoing set of equations (32.1, 32.2
2. Constitutive equations and 32.3) include 23 equations and the same
number of unknowns, namely:
0 the stress resultants N,Q and the couples M
acting on the basic surface shown in Fig.
32.3;
0 displacements ua, up/ w of the points on the
basic surface in the a,p and y directions;
0 rotations ea, 8, of the normal to the basic
surface;
0 rotations of the tangents ma and osto the
basic surface in the cry and ,by planes;
0 strains E and flexural deformations K of the
basic surface;
0 transverse shear deformations 3, and $in J,
the ay and ,by planes.
’t
3. Straindisplacement equations
1 au, w 1
& = + a u ++w; (1,2)
a A, aa P R, 2
1 auB 1 aua 1
Eap =  +ulu,au +w
2 wa
A , aa A, ap 2 8 P
+
1 ao, 1 ae, + u p a + u2ep
Kap = ~
A , aa

A, $3
”P
Fig. 32.3 External and internal forces and moments.
fa = 1h
0
Fadt + Pa + 9, +ma + 0,) + 9(7,  u p )
0 equation (32.1) excludes the terms corre
sponding to inertia, body and surface
forces;
(112) 0 in nonlinear terms of eqn (32.1), N, = N :,
N,= Np”, Nap= N u t where N,O, Np”, Nap”are
the stress resultants that correspond to
membrane prebuckling state of the struc
ture;
0 constitutive equations (32.2) should exclude
terms W and Mr.
General equationsfor composite structures 741
f
K = K4Ks5K4; (32.6)
where (mn = 11,12,13,23,22,33; r = 0, 1,2)

_
l
r +_l 1kAtA(t;+ )
i=l
::;t (32.7)
(32.8)
. ,
Constitutive equations, (32.2), include also
temperature terms
N,' = J:)
h,
K mn = a (2)
h2 mn Fig. 32.9 Rib parameters.
ii
As a first approximation a system of densely A, = cjEjsin4pj
arranged equivalent ribs can be also treated as j=1
a system of continuous layers as depicted in n
Fig. 32.8. For the layers, simulating the rib ele A,, = A,, = cjEisin2pjcos2pj
ments in Fig. 32.9, the nonzero inplane 1=1
stiffness coefficients are
A:) = Ed
d
A, = Ill
j=1
c.G.cos’pj
n
rn
A,, = cjGjs’n2p,
A$) = EC j=1
d
where cj = di/uj, Ej and G. are the elasticity and
the shear moduli for the jth system of ribs. The
A$) = Eb stiffness coefficients in the constitutive equa
d
tions (32.2) are associated with the following
where it is assumed that the ribs are parallel to deformations of the composite structure:
the a axis, and E is the rib modulus. (a) Bll, B,,, B,, stretching and contraction of
For a lattice structure in Fig. 32.10: the basic surface due to corre
A,, = Cn
j=1
cj~ps4pj
sponding loading or Poisson’s
effect;
shear of the basic surface;
@) 4 3
JP
Fig. 32.10 Lattice composite structure.
(c) D,,, D,,, D,, bending of the basic surface These equations (note that mn  11, 12, 22, 13,
due to corresponding loading 23,33) can be satisfied for the following struc
or Poisson’s effect; tures:
(4 D33 twisting of the basic surface; homogenous or symmetric with respect to
(e) K1,, K2, transverse shear of the wall in the middle surface of thin laminates for
the a y and by planes;
which e = s = h / 2 (see Fig. 32.2);
(f) B13, B23 stretchingshearing coupling
laminates consisting of isotropic layers with
deformation (a) and (b);
different moduli of elasticity (E,) and thick
(g) Cll/ C,,, C,, bendingstretching coupling ness (hi)but the same Poisson’s ratio, vI= Y,
deformation (a) and (c);
for which
(h) c3, shearingtwisting coupling k k
n
deformation (b) and (d);
(i> ‘23 stretchingtwisting (a) and (d)
i=l i=l
and shearingbending (b) and
sandwich structures with facings made
(c) coupling deformations;
from the same material but having different
(j) D13,D, bendingtwisting coupling
thicknesses (see Fig. 32.7) for which
deformation (c) and (d);
(k) K,,, KZ1 interaction of transverse shear 1
e= [h,2+ h3(h3+ 2h, + 2h,)]
deformations in the a y and by 2(h, + h3)
planes.
In the general case, eqns (32.12) are incom
The coordinates of the basic surface, e, in eqns patible, because it is impossible to find a basic
(32.4), (32.6) and (32.9) can be taken arbitrarily surface for an arbitrary stacking sequence
and as a rule, is used to eliminate coupling such that all the coupling stiffnesses simulta
stiffnesses Cmnin the constitutive equations. neously become zero. However, one of the
Thus, in accordance with eqn (32.6): coupling stiffnesses can always be eliminated
with the aid of the corresponding equation in
Cmn = lmLl) elmlo)= 0 (32.12)
eqns (32.12).
Composite beams 745
D = I2  el,
where e = Il/Iois the coordinate of the neutral
axis. For a laminated beam with a cross section Fig.32.12 Layer coordinates.
shown in Fig. 32.12
M = M, + Q,x Mp MR
M0x Qox'
8 = 8,+ D f
2D  0 P 0 ,
( n = O , l , 2)
and the transverse shear stiffness is defined by 1
V = Vo + (Q$
K  MP MR)
Mox2 Q0x3
Successive integration of eqn (32.13) yields the 88 ~  ~ + vp+ VR
20 60
following general solution:
where quantities with subscript '0'correspond
N = No to the initial cross section at x = 0.
NO The following integral terms:
u = uo + x
B
QP = Iljidx
Q = Q O  Q,  QR
Thinwalled beams 747
Q' + NV" + jj = 0
Vp = I j p d x
N = B[u' + %(V')2]
account for the distributed loads (see Fig.
32.11) and these next terms M = DO'
f(
where Fig. 32.14 Normal and shear stress resultants acting
in a thinwalled beam.
S = $Bds
where
D
] (32.14)
ez = e; + c z k z d z
SX(s) =
I
By ds
cz = 91 ds
mal to the contour shown in Fig. 32.14. The 4A2 B33
displacements of an arbitrary point on the and V,, is the beam shear
beam crosssection contour (Fig. 32.14) along deformation having the following f01m:
the x, y and z axes can be expressed as
u x W= Y q z )
Rectangular plates 749
F (s) is specified by eqn (32.6) and B,, is the 32.5.1 LINEAR BENDING OF SYMMETRICALLY
d e a r stiffness of the beam wall given by the LAMINATED PLATES
corresponding equation in (32.6).
If the laminate has a symmetric layup, the
Function f(s), entering the last equation in
basic surface is at e = h / 2 and eqns (32.6) and
(32.15), determines the free warping of the
(32.7) yield
beam cross section under torsion and bending
and has the form
Bmn = 2 c
1=1
A m n Y z
cmn= 0
z zZJ
i=l
Note that the ),‘( and the transverse (Q,)
where z i are the layer coordinates shown in
as as the bending moment (Mx) 
Fig. 32.16. Then, the problem of bending of an
acting on the beam cross sections and entering
orthotropic plate under the combined action of
the foregoing equations  are governed by the
surface pressures p and q (see Fig. 32.3) is
equilibrium equations for a beam element sim
reduced to the following equation in terms of
ilar to equation (32.13).
plate deflection w (note that the transverse
shear deformation is ignored):
32.5 RECTANGULAR PLATES
a4w
D1lF
+ 2 ( q 2+ 2 4  a4w a4w =F)
Composite plates possess high specific axzayz
strength and stiffness. They are used as struc where =
+ ’22
af
 4. The strains at an arbitrary
tural elements for aircraft, ships and other
point of the plate are defined
structures. The governing equations for a plate
(Fig. 32.15) can b e obtainedin Cartesian Soor
dinates from eqns (32.1), (32.2), (32.3) if we
take A, = A, = l , l / R , = 1/R, = 0 and replace a,
PI Y,with x,y, z.
kl2
i
Y
Fig. 32.16 Layer coordinates for a symmetric lami
Fig. 32.15 Rectangular plate. nate.
750 Analysis methods
where
k, = Wi (X = a/2)
they allow to find strains and stresses in terms
of principal material coordinates of the com k, = W. (X = ~ / 2 )
posite plies.
The variational approach, based on the k, = W;’ (X = a / 2 )
approximate analytic expression for the i = 1, 2 and ()’ = d ()/dx. Functions W,(x) and
deflection in the ydirection while satisfying W,(X) are particular solutions that are symmet
the corresponding boundary conditions, ric with respect to coordinate x and satisfy the
yields the following approximate (but rather following ordinary differential equation:
accurate) solutions for a plate (Fig. 32.15)
w””  2s2w” + p w = 0
loaded with a uniform pressure jf = po = con
stant. The approximate deflection equations where
for different boundary conditions are as fol
lows: c2(D,, + 2033)
52 =
C P l l
(a) Plate with simply supported longitudinal
and transverse edges
W(XIY> = wp [1 &)lP,(y) (32.16)
(b) Plate whose longitudinal edges (y = 0 and c parameters in these equations have the form
y = b) are simply supported and transverse b
c = ITdY
w(x,y) = wp [1 f2(X)IP2(y) (32.19)
The following are used: For solutions in eqns (32.16) and (32.17) it
should be taken c, = 0.04921 b9, c, = 0.48571 b7,
c3 = 4.8b5, c = 0.2 b5. For solution in eqns (32.18)
and (32.19) c, = 0.001587 b9, c2= 0.01905 b7, c3=
0.8 b5, c = 0.03333 b5.
32.5.2 BUCKLING AND POSTBUCKLING
BEHAVIOR OF SYMMETRICALLY LAMINATED
PLATES
Inplane compression or shear (Fig. 32.17)
(where the forces Tx, T,, Tx, are uniformly
Rectangular plates 751
P
q 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.14 0.18 0.24 0.32 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.80 1.00
0.2 25.5 18.4 15.3 13.5 12.4 10.9 10.4 9.61 8.40 7.50 6.77 6.32 5.87 5.76
0.4 28.9 20.8 17.3 15.2 13.9 12.2 11.5 10.4 9.27 8.36 7.66 7.20 6.73 6.66
0.6 32.2 23.1 19.2 16.9 15.4 13.4 12.4 11.5 10.2 9.24 8.52 8.08 7.68 7.56
0.8 35.3 25.4 21.0 18.8 16.8 14.6 13.6 12.4 11.0 10.1 9.39 9.05 8.55 8.47
1.0 38.4 27.5 22.8 20.0 18.1 15.8 14.7 13.3 11.9 11.0 10.4 9.93 9.45 9.34
1.2 41.3 29.6 24.4 21.4 19.4 16.9 15.7 14.2 12.8 11.8 11.2 10.8 10.3 10.1
1.4 44.1 31.5 26.0 22.8 20.7 18.0 16.7 15.2 13.6 12.7 12.1 11.6 11.1 11.0
1.6 46.8 33.4 27.6 24.1 21.8 19.0 17.7 16.0 14.5 13.7 12.9 12.4 12.0 11.9
1.8 49.4 35.2 29.0 25.4 23.0 20.1 18.6 16.8 15.4 14.4 13.7 13.3 12.9 12.8
2.0 51.8 36.9 30.3 26.6 24.0 21.1 19.5 17.8 16.4 15.2 14.6 14.1 13.8 13.7
2.2 54.2 38.5 31.6 27.7 25.0 22.0 20.4 18.4 17.1 16.1 15.4 14.9 14.6 14.5
2.4 56.4 40.1 32.8 28.8 26.0 23.0 23.1 19.3 17.9 16.7 16.2 15.8 15.4 15.3
2.6 59.3 42.1 34.4 30.8 27.1 24.1 22.3 20.3 18.8 17.9 17.1 16.7 16.3 16.2
2.8 62.1 44.0 36.7 31.4 28.3 25.3 23.3 21.0 19.5 18.7 17.9 17.4 17.1 17.0
3.2 67.8 48.0 39.3 34.2 30.8 27.4 25.1 22.8 21.3 20.4 19.7 19.1 18.7 18.7
3.4 70.6 50.0 40.9 35.6 32.1 28.5 26.0 23.7 22.1 21.2 20.4 19.9 19.6 19.5
3.6 73.4 52.0 42.5 37.1 33.4 29.5 26.8 24.5 22.9 22.0 21.2 20.7 20.3 20.2
rigorous solutions of the corresponding non p, z) is reduced to the following set of equa
linear problems are required. tions in terms of radial displacement of the
basic surface ut, deflection w,and rotation of
32.5.3 NONSYMMETRICALLY LAMINATED the normal to the basic surface 6 , i.e.
PLATES ?ut’”’ + ~ Y ~ U +~ (7
“ ’  np2  n2)Yur” + (1  np2
= 0). 
h
Radial and circumferential strains at an
arbitrary point of the plate are expressed as
er = u,’ + zOrf
1
ep = (ur
r
+ z0,)
The general solution for eqn (32.23) has the
form
Fig. 32.18 Cylindrical shell.
1c p +
6
ur = up
1=3
where up is a particular solution and si are the 32.6.1 AXISYMMETRIC DEFORMATION
roots of the equation One of the most important loading cases for
s4 (nP + n,’)s2 + np2n:  n: = 0 cylindrical shells is the axisymmetric loading
with pressures p , q and axial forces N (Fig.
Six constants of integration can be found from 32.18). In this case, the equations account for
the corresponding boundary conditions the firstorder nonlinear effects of the axial
according to which ur = w = Or = 0 for a forces on the curvature of deformed shell
clamped edge, w = Nr= M , = 0 for a simply meridian. These equations have the following
supported edge, w = ur = Mr = 0 for a hinged form:
edge fixed in the radial direction, and Nr= Mr
= Q, = 0 for a free edge. To write the force M,’ Q, = 0
boundary conditions in terms of displace
ments, the following expressions can be used: N
Q,‘+ Nw”  2 + j7 = 0
Ur O R
Nr= Bllu,’ + B 1 2 T + C122
r N,= N
W
N, = B,,u‘ + B l2
R
U 0
M, = C12& +DllBr’+ D 12 r _f_
W
N, = B,,u‘ + B 22  + C,,Ox’
R
W
M, = C 
l2 R
+ D,,OX’
754 Andysis methods
B = B,,B,  B,:
Constants of integration entering the solution
of eqn (32.25) can be found from the corre
sponding boundary conditions according to
which w = Ox = 0 for a clamped edge, w = M x =
0 for a simply supported edge, and M x = S , = 0,
where Sx= Q, + Nw' for a free edge.
Thinwalled composite pressure vessels can
be described by nonlinear membrane equa
tions using the assumption that D,, = C, = 0.
These equations can be reduced to
W"  k2W = kp
where Q, = K,VY
a u w
E =+=(I
' a Y R
Cylindrical shells 755
Z~~
I,
m
B33
n=l 5 1 BllR
Nx; = wn’
m,3
~
 An’s3
...! Ny”(x),My”@),p,(x)lcos Any Wnlfr ~
m where
n2rn2R2B
Nc =
2L2B2,(1 +
n2rn2R2B
L2B22B33
)
where B = Bl1B2,  B1: and rn depends on the
9;
Fn = P, n
character of end fixity. If the end cross sections
are fixed in such a way that they can freely
Four constants of integration entering the rotate (hinged column), then rn = 1.If the ends
solution of eqn (32.27) can be found from the are clamped, then rn = 2.
corresponding boundary conditions according Axisymmetric mode of buckling is typical
to which u, = vn= 0 for a fixed edge (it is essen for thick and sandwich shells. The corre
tial that inextensibility condition E = 0 yields sponding critical load is specified by the
w,, = RAnvn,so wn = 0 for a fixed edge) and N,” following equation that allows for transverse
756 Analysis methods
17 I=[."."
BllD,
+{(l +=)I BP22
where
1
; =(y) 2
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