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cpreviouscccnextccccontentscccelementscccattributescccindexcc

2 Introduction to HTML 4
Contentsc

c  at is t e orld ide eb?cc


c Introduction to URIscc
c Fragment identifierscc
c Relative URIscc
c  at is HTML?cc
c A brief istory of HTMLcc
c HTML 4cc
c Internationalizationcc
c Accessibilitycc
c Tablescc
c Compound documentscc
c Style s eetscc
c Scriptingcc
c Printingcc
c Aut oring documents wit HTML 4cc
c Separate structure and presentationcc
c Consider universal accessibility to t e ebcc
c Help user agents wit incremental renderingcc

2.1 What is the World Wide Web?


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2.1.1 Introduction to URIs


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2.1.3 Relative URIs


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3 On SGML and HTML


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{ c{ c

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cc·ISO10646]c  c c$c
c  '{
c  c c c  cc 
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 c c22&2c
c c  

c

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c
 c c 
 c cbidirectionality and c aracter encodingc

5.2.2 Specifying the character encoding


c  c
c c  c 
c



c
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c 
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c

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cc  c  c
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c  c  c c  c
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c
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cc
c cc c c
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c
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cc c  { c 
c cc c{{c
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c

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c
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Ë  If, for a specific applicaio , i becomes ecessary o refer o caracers ouside
· , caracers sould be assig ed o a privae zo e o avoid co flics wi
prese  or fuure versio s of e sa dard. Tis is igly discouraged, owever, for
reaso s of porabiliy.c

5.3 Character references


c c



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cc 
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Ë  HTML provides oer ways o prese  caracer daa, i paricular Y Y Y.c

Ë  I G ML, i is possible o elimi ae e fi al ";" afer a caracer refere ce i
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may o be elimi aed (e.g., i e middle of a word). We sro gly sugges usi g e ";"
i all cases o avoid problems wi user age s a require is caracer o be prese .c

5.3.1 Numeric character references


Ëumeric caracer refere cesc 
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yc { c 
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Ë  Aloug e exadecimal represe aio is o defi ed i ·

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expeced o be i e revisio , as described i · . Tis co ve io is
paricularly useful si ce caracer sa dards ge erally use exadecimal
represe aio s.c

5.3.2 Character entity references


 c ccc
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cc  c
cc cc



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c c{c c
c cccaracer e iy refere ces.c


c  c

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c  c


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c c
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c c 

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c
ccc
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ccc  
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ccc c

cpreviouscccnextccccontentscccelementscccattributescccindexcc
c

6 Basic HTML data types


Contentsc

c Case informationcc
c SGML basic typescc
c Text stringscc
c URIscc
c Colorscc
c Notes on using colorscc
c Lengt scc
c Content types (MIME types)cc
2c Language codescc
&c C aracter encodingscc
'cSingle c aracterscc
cDates and timescc
cLink typescc
cMedia descriptorscc
cScript datacc
cStyle s eet datacc
cFrame target namescc

{  c 
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c  c
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c
c
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c 
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c
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6.1 Case information


D

c
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c 
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CS
{ c
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c
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6.2 SGML basic types


{ cdocument type definitionc 
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cc{c  c
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c  cc
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c


cc 
 c 
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c
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6.4 URIs
{  c 


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c   c c·URI]c c
c·RFC1630]c

$c
c c
c c
c   c c·RFC1738]c
c·RFC1808]c


c c
c   cc c c  c
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c
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c clinksc

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c
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c c cc
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c
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c
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c  c

 
c
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valuesc

6.5 Colors
{ c
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c c
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c 
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c
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c  c c c
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ccase-insensitive.c
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c
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c
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c


cc!''c c
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{ c c
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c  c  ccc c
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6.5.1 Notes on using colors


    c
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c  

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c 
c
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c
c c c  c
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c  c cc
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c
c
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6.6 Lengths
{c 
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cßPixels;c c c"{"c c
c c
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c
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c   c c  c  c c
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c 

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c;c c ;c
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c c;c c c
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ccase-neutral.c

6.7 Content types ÑMIME types)


Ë  A "media ype" (defi ed i ·  a d · ) specifies e aure of a
li ked resource. Tis specificaio employs e erm "co e  ype" raer a "media
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cc c
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6.8 Language codes


{ c
cc
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c
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c

c
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c
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c c c
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6.9 Character encodings


{ c

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c
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c
c c$c  c c·CHARSETS]cc
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c
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6.10 Single characters



 c
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cc
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cc cdocument c aracter setc{  c

  c
c cßC aracterc c c c"{"c

  c



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c c 
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6.11 Dates and times


·ISO8601]c
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c c   cc 
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{ c
c c

cc33337((722  K2c


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cc % cB::c %
c#CcBc+. cCc
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È
 

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cc
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cc
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cc 
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cc  c   c
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cc 

c c
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c c c
c
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c  c
c   cc 

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6.12 Link types


   c
c c c  c
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c
 
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c 

 

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c 

c



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c

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cc
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c  c  cc
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cc   cc
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c  c 
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c
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6.13 Media descriptors


{ c  c c
c  cc
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c 
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screen
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c c
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cc
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tv
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projection
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c
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Ë  Gyle sees may i clude media-depe de  variaio s wii em (e.g., e ×GG
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c

ccßScript;c c cDTDc

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6.15 Style sheet data


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6.16 Frame target names


D
cc c  c
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7.2 HTML version information


c
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7.4.4 Meta data


Ë  Te W3× Resource Descripio Framework (see ·) became a W3×
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7.5.1 The U  element
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8 Language information and text direction


Contentsc

c Specifying t e language of content: t e 


attributecc
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c In eritance of language codescc
c Interpretation of language codescc
c Specifying t e direction of text and tables: t e  attributecc
c Introduction to t e bidirectional algorit mcc
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8.1.2 Inheritance of language codes


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8.1.3 Interpretation of language codes


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8.2 Specifying the direction of text and tables: the 


attribute
Aribue defi iio sc

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 cc c
c  ccc

lc
 c  ...a debrew quotation...lc


c c* 
 c c 
 c
 c

P$H#:#/AP$H:L 9A...a debrew quotation...P$H:L 9AP$H#:#!Ac

 c
  c cnotc c c
c
 cc  cc 

 c

{ c c
 c c  c
c
c c  c 
c
 c c 
 c c c
in eritance of text direction informationcc 
 c

8.2.1 Introduction to the bidirectional algorithm


{ c  c
 c 
 c c
 c 
cc c  

c
 cc
   cD   c
c  c
c
c c
c  c
c

  c c  c


 cc

cc
 ;cd0/ 08#c
 cd0/ 089c
 Lcd0/ 08Oc
{ c



 c c  c
 c
c c
c
 c
  c
c  c c c
 c
 c
c  c
c  
 c c c c



c c c c cc c 


 c c c

c c
c cc

 c c 


c

cc c 
 c
 
  c  c


 c c
D   c{  c
c
c c
c 
 c c  c{ c

c  
 cc
  c  c c c


 ;c#80 /0dc
 c980 /0dc
 LcO80 /0dc
ccccccccc777777cccccccccc777777cccccccccc777777c
ccccccccccccdccccccccccccccccdccccccccccccccccdc
7777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777c
ccccccccccccccccccccccc0c

{ c  c   c 

c c 
 cc c  
cD   c 
 c
c c
 cc c   c
 c c

c  
 c*  c c

c

 c 
c c c
  c
c  c

 c c c
  c
  c c
 

c
 c

c c c c


c c 
c

cc c 
 c c c c
c

 c c  c{ c

c  
 c c c

O80 /0dc
 Lc980 /0dc
 c#80 /0dc
 ;c
cccccccc7777777ccccccccc7777777ccccccccc7777777c
cccccccccccc0cccccccccccccccc0cccccccccccccccc0c
7777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777c
cccccccccccccccccccccccdc

 c  c

c c  c  
c
c  c   c
c  c
c c   c
D   c * 
 c
c  c c  c c c  

c
 c

8.2.2 Inheritance of text direction information


{ c 
 c  

c
 c*  c
c
cc 
 ccc 
 c{c

 c c
c 
 cc
c 
  c  c c c   c c
 c{ c

c
cc c c
 c c c  cc

 c c c
 c c cc
c 
  c  cc
 c c
cc c

 cc c  c
c
c   c 
  c   c  c c c
 c
 c
c   c  c  c c  c
c

{c c c
cc 
 cc
c c 
 c c c c
 c c cd (*c
  c

c
 c

62.! 3-0cd (*c-1/*'!c78!2 2cd (*c9:;0+c


ccc 
  9 c
d (*c  *c
d02c
 ' *0...a right-to-left title... ' *0c
d02c
...right-to-left text...c
-c  ...left-to-right text...-c
-...right-to-left text again...-c
d (*c

  c   c c c c


c c c c c c
 c{  c
c
c
c
  c  c  c
c c
 c  cnotc c
c

c  cc   c
 c 
cc c  

c
 cc
c  c c
   cc c 

 cc  c
 c c c 
c  
 c$c
c c'+&c
c20*c   c

c c 
  cc  c   c c c
 c

8.2.3 Setting the direction of embedded text


{ c·UNICODE]c  

c
 c



c  c   c



c
* 
 c

  cc c  c 



 c
c 
 c c c c

  cc c 
c c c  cc   c

c c

  cc{c

c

c  cc   c 
 c

 c  c c
c cc c
 c
 c c
c  c  c

  c c
c
 cc
c c


 ;cd0/ 08#c
 cd0/ 089c
 Lcd0/ 08Oc

 c c 


c

cc c 
 c
 
  c  c


 c c
D   c  c c
cD   c  
c
 
 c
c c 
 c  c
cD#D c   cD#D c
c c c 
 c
 
 c
cD   c
* 
 c   c{ c   c  
 cc cc c c


 ;c980 /0dc
 c#80 /0dc
 LcO80 /0dc
ccccccccccccccccc7777777c
cccccccccccccccccccc0c
ccccccccc77777777777777777777777c
ccccccccccccccccccccdc
7777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777c
cccccccccccccccccccc0c

{c

cc   c 
 c

 cc c  c

c 
 c
 
cc c c   c c 
 c   c 
 c c  c
 cc c c
&-+c  c
c c c
 cc
c c cc


 ;c&-+c  *d0/ 08#c
 cd0/ 089&-+c
 Lcd0/ 08Oc

   c
c
c c 

c 
 c



 cc

c  c   c



 c

 c{c

c  c   c  c   cc c c

 cD{{({cD#D""$(cDc 


c'c
cc
"D{$c{{$(c"c 


c'c{c

c  c


   c  c   cc c c



 c({{D{c
D#D""$(c{Dc 


c'#c
c"c

a 
d       a     Auors a d desig ers
of auori g sofware sould be aware a co flics ca arise if e dir aribue is used
o i li e eleme s (i cludi g UD ) co curre ly wi e correspo di g ·a 
formai g caracers. Preferably o e or e oer sould be used exclusively. Te
markup meod offers a beer guara ee of docume  srucural i egriy a d alleviaes
some problems we edii g bidirecio al HTML ex wi a simple ex edior, bu some
sofware may be more ap a usi g e ·a  caracers. If bo meods are
used, grea care sould be exercised o i sure proper esi g of markup a d direcio al
embeddi g or override, oerwise, re deri g resuls are u defi ed.c

8.2.4 Overriding the bidirectional algorithm: the U element


60*0(0+ c/2.c7c7cB?ACEcccccccccc77c';G+c/2c> 7 c77c
6 *'& c/2.c
cc?  Acccccccccccccccccccccccccc77ccc5cc77c
cc
cccccccc?*
%
!Ac$'(-*'02cc77c
%
cc77c
cc cccccccccB @ Ccccccc$ 0l1' 02c77c 5c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:  c

Aribue defi iio sc

 =   |   · 
{  c

 c
 c 
 c c
c 
 cc c   cc

  c{  c 
 c  c c  c 

 cc



 c
c
  c c·UNICODE]c  c
 cc

yc * c ccc
yc *c  ccc

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc 
clanguage informationcc

{ c  

c
 c
c c c
 c 
c 
cc

c   c

 c

 cc c 
 c
c
 c  c c  

c
 c
  c c

c  
 c{ c/2.c  c
 c
  cc  cc c
 

c
 cc  
 c
  ccc

  c
c 
 c
 
  c c
cc
c c


 ;cd0/ 08#c
 cd0/ 089c
 Lcd0/ 08Oc
c
c
c  cc
c

c  c c c
c c c
 cc  c
c
c
c cDc 

 c·RFC2045]c·RFC1556]c
 c
c cc
c 
c



c * 
 c
c  c  c c c c 
c c
c
 c c

c c c
 c
 c  c 
 c
c


 ;c#80 /0dc
 c
980 /0dc
 LcO80 /0dc

{  c
  
 c c c·UNICODE]c  

c
 c 

c
c
 c c
 c#80 /0dc980 /0dc
cO80 /0dc
c 
 cc  
 c c c c 
 c 
cc  c

{ c   c c  c

c cc c c  



c
 c c  c cD
 c

c c
c- 0c  cc
 c  c 
 c
c

c  c c
c/2.c  c
  c c
 c c cc* c

- 0c
/2.c * 
 ;c#80 /0dc
 /2.c
/2.c * 980 /0dc
 LcO80 /0d/2.c
- 0c

{  c c c  

c
 c
cc  3c
c c
c c
  c  
 c


 ;c#80 /0dc
 c
980 /0dc
 LcO80 /0dc

{ c/2.c  c  c c  c c

 c c
 c
  cc * 
c
 c c*  cc 

c
c   c{ c c
 c c

 cc
  c  c

   c
c
c c 

c 
 c



 cc c c  



c
 c
cD{{({c/D"Dc'"cc({{D{c/D"Dc 


c
'Dc{ cc"D{$c{{$(c 


c'c



c c
 c  

c c

Ë  Recall a co flics ca arise if e dir aribue is used o i li e eleme s
(i cludi g UD ) co curre ly wi e correspo di g ·a  formai g caracers.c

U        


Accordi g o · a d ·,
ere are special co ve io s for e use of "carse" parameer values o i dicae
bidirecio al reame  i MIME mail, i paricular o disi guis bewee visual, implici,
a d explici direcio aliy. Te parameer value "IGO-8859-8" (for Hebrew) de oes
visual e codi g, "IGO-8859-8-i" de oes implici bidirecio aliy, a d "IGO-8859-8-e"
de oes explici direcio aliy.c
Uecause HTML uses e a icode bidirecio aliy algorim, co formi g docume s
e coded usi g IGO 8859-8 mus be labeled as "IGO-8859-8-i". Explici direcio al
co rol is also possible wi HTML, bu ca o be expressed wi IGO 8859-8, so "IGO-
8859-8-e" sould o be used.c

Te value "IGO-8859-8" implies a e docume  is formaed visually, misusi g some
markup (suc as TAUL wi rig alig me  a d o li e wrappi g) o e sure
reaso able display o older user age s a do o a dle bidirecio aliy. Guc
docume s do o co form o e prese  specificaio . If ecessary, ey ca be made
o co form o e curre  specificaio (a d a e same ime will be displayed correcly
o older user age s) by addi g UD markup were ecessary.c×o rary o wa is said
i · a d ·, IGO-8859-6 (Arabic) is   visual orderi g.c

8.2.5 Character references for directionality and joining control



c
   c  c
 c
cc c 

 cc

 c



 cc


 c c·UNICODE]c 


 c
 c



 cc
c cc
   c c 
 c
 c c



 cc
  c  c 
c c
  c c 

 cc c 
 c c

c  c{cc
 cc aracter
referencescc  c



 c

{ c  c"{"c


c   c cc c 

c  c

ccc60+ ' 3cNc!2 cP$G#:9A77N c c7 77c


ccc60+ ' 3cNcc!2 cP$G#:LA77N c c 77c
ccc60+ ' 3c cc!2 cP$G#:OA7777 
c 477c
ccc60+ ' 3c cc!2 cP$G#:SA77 
77c 477c

{ cNc  c c  cc 


c  c 
c c
  c c  c c

c c
 c{ cNc  c  c c .cc
 c  c  cc c

c c
 cc
 c c

c cDc c  cc

cc c
cc
 c

c


c c 
c c 
 cccDc  c c c cc
c
   c c

c
c
 c c 
c  c c cc c
   cDc
c

c
c cc c
c 
c c 
cccDc c  cc c c c
  c
 cc
c  c cc 
c cDc

c c{ cNc





c
  c
c
 c


 c c 
c c c
c

 c c
c c
c 
c c c
c
*  c c c
c
 c
 
 c  c c{ c



cNc c  cc

c  c c
c

 c

{ c c



 c c
c c
c  cc
c 

 cc 

c
 
c



 cc
 cc
c  c* 
 c
c
 c  c
c

c
  c
c
c
 c  c c c 
 cc c* 
 c
c c c


c cc*  c c

ccc c
 c7c{ c c
c c



 c
c

c 

c c c c  c
c c   c 
c c 
c
 c
·UNICODE]ccc 
 c

   
 I ge eral, e bidirecio al algorim does o mirror
caracer glyps bu leaves em u affeced. A excepio are caracers suc as
pare eses (see ·a , able 4-7). I cases were mirrori g is desired, for
example for Egypia Hieroglyps, reek Uusropedo , or special desig effecs, is
sould be co rolled wi syles.c

8.2.6 The effect of style sheets on bidirectionality


 c 
c  c  c  cc

c
c   c
c  cc 
  c
c  cc

c c 
 
 cc 

c c  

c
 c
  c c cinline/block-level distinctionc 

c

c c c
 c  c c


 c

 c
c  c  c
c  c c
c
c c
 c c
 cc c  cc

c 
  c  c c
c  c cc  c c c
 cc c
  c
 c

c  cc  c c
c 
 cc c 
c

 c
c 
c  c
c  c c
c
c c
 c c
 cc c  cc

c  c  c c
c  c c c  c  
 c  c c* 
 c c
 cc  

c
 cc c
 c 
  c c 
 c
 c
c c

 c
  c c  c
cc c
 c  c

c
previouscccnextccccontentscccelementscccattributescccindexc
c ccc
ccc 

ccc  
ccc


ccc cc

9 Text
Contentsc

c c 

cc
c 

c

cc
c c  
$c0(-c& .+)-c2 +-c!.20-c&(--c,/2-c< -c!' 0-c// -cc
! .+3(cc
c l

$cc/*.!,l1. 0cclc  
cc
ºc x"c.

cc
c  
cc  
$c
c&1/cc&1-c  
cc
c cc" cc
c " $c
c-c  
cc
c 
 "c c%cc
ºc + "cc c%$c
c/ c  
cc
ºc 
"cc c%cc
c  
cc
c  

c

$cc- 0c  
cc
c š c"cc " cc
c %"c  
c "$ccMËccc  
cc

{ c  c 
 c 
c  c   c c 
  cccD   c
c
present textc
  c   c c   c  c  c
c
c 
 c
  c c c 


 cc 


 c
 c



 c 
c
 c c

 c c cdocument c aracter set.c

9.1 White space


{ cdocument c aracter setc
 c
c c
 cc c 

c



 c
cc
  c
c 
 
c   c  c c c
 

 cc
c


c
c


 c
 c c{c c c  c



 c
c   c
cwie space
caracersc

yc  c 

c0!'''.cc
yc  c
c0!'''&.cc
yc  cc c0!'''.cc
yc 1  c 

c0!''#.cc

Line breaksc
c
c c 

c



 c$c
c
   c0!'2.c
c0!'&.c

c   c c·ISO10646]cc


   c 

c   c
c


 c
 
 c  c c c
  c  c 
 c c{c c  c  c 


 c

c c c cc 
c

 cc c 

c



 c

{  c 


 c  c c 

c c 
c  cc  cc 

c

 c c


c  c 
 c   c c
c c 

c



 cc  c

 c
  c  c c

c   c
c   cc

c
c
 c

 c
c  c c 

c
 c
c 

c



 c

c
c{c   c
c- 0c * 
 cc c 

c 

c cc
c cc c cc
c * 
 cc   c 

c



 c  c

 cc c
  c  c   c  c c
c
c c c

  cc
 c
   cc c


c c

c
c
c
c  c

{  c
 c
c  c  c 

c  c c

 ci er-wordc 

c c

   cc  c 

c
 cc
cc
cc
 c c
 c
 c
  c 

c c 

c  c
c
c c 

c0!'''.c  c c{
cc c
c
%  c c 

c0!''#.c c)

 c
c   c  c 

c c
c 

c  c
c
c
$c
c
c * 
cc c 

 c  c c c c  
c 
 c
c
 c c
c  c  c  c  c 

 c
c c c

cc c- 0c
  c c


c c
  c  c

 c  c c 

c * 
 c  c

 c  c  c 

c{  c

c
c  c c  c c c c

cc


c 
 cc c
c
 c c{{c  

c 
c
 c c·RFC2616]c 
 c  c c
 c   c
c

{ c- 0c  c c  ccpreformatted textc c c 

c c  

c

 c cc
 c  c cSGML line break rulesc
c
  
 c
 c
c
  
 c
  c  c c c c c
  cc c c 

c
 
 c
c
c 
c
cc 
 c c
c c
c{ c
  c
c c



c
  c c  cc

cc-8c c c c% c c%= = -c

c c

cc-8c c c c% c c%= = -c

9.2 Structured text


9.2.1 Phrase elements: ,  ,  ,  , 
, U, ,
 , UU, and  
60+ ' 3c?c c0(c@c& .+)c@c2 +c@c!.20c@c
ccccccccccccccccccc&(-c@c,/2c@c< c@c!' 0c@c// c@c! .+3(cc
60*0(0+ cB?5A@? ACc7c7cB?ACEc
6 *'& cB?5A@? ACc
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:  c

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc cc  
&c
cc
yc 
c ""c 
c c

c
cc
yc c  
c

cc
yc 5c c
 c 
ccc
yc 4c=4c%c%%c%> c%>c
%%c45 c45c45%c
 c
ccc

 
c   c
c 
 
c 
 ccc
  c{ c
c
  cc
 
c   c
c  c

EM:
 

 c
 cc

STRONG:

 

 c  c
 cc

CITE:

 
 c
c

 cc
c
cc c  
 cc

DFN:

 

 c
c  c c c   c 

cc c
  ccc

CODE:

" 
 c
c
 cc
 c
 cc

SAMP:

" 
 c
 c  cc
 c
 c
cc

KBD:

 

 ccc c  c c c cc

VAR:

 

 c
c 

cc
c

cc
c
  cc

ABBR:

 

 c
c

 ccc c{{cc
c
cc

ACRONYM:

 

 c
c

 cc c

c
cc

0(c
c& .+)c
c  cc 

c
 c{ c c 
c   c
c



c  


c c


c 
  c{  c
  c 
c cc c
 
c   c

c!' 0d 5c&c %!' 0cc


lc
7% c=%4cc  lc
c
( c cc=c%cc!' 0I'&.7::::J!' 0c
c
-c  cc c
c  c%= cc%% c
 c& .+);7#97LL& .+)c
{ c  
 cc 
c   c  c c c c
 c( 
c
c c

  c  c0(cc c



c
c& .+)cc c  c c 
c   %c c

  c
c

c c    c

 c
c
c c
c
c
c

   c

{ c// c
c! .+3(c   c
c
  cc

 c 

c


 cc


 c
c

  c   c

 c
c c cc

  c
c

c( c${c
c#c
c c
c

 c cc
cc
c

c# c   c
c)

 c c

 c

 c

  c  c
c
 c
c c cc *   c c
c cc c
c



 cc c

c


c
 c c  c
 
 c  c  c 
 cc c

  c
c c
c
c  c

 c 
c   % c

 c  c
c


  c  c

{ c
  cc c// c
c! .+3(c   c 
 c c

 c  c
  c
cc c 
c

c c  cc{ c c
 cc  c   c

c c  cc c c cc
 ccc c  c

c
c c
 c  cc// c

cc-c
cc// c8 c8c8=888// c
cc// c
 cc
cccccccc&P%AP%Ac+cc! cc  c
ccccc&+! c
cc// c
cc// c
c2PA2PA// c
cc// c== >== // c

$c
c

 c
c

  c c
c 


c

 cc

 c  c c
c##c
c 

c 
 c c c c${c
c
$D c
c 
 c  

c  c c

 c ccc
c
 c
c   c c c c c
c 
 c
c c c c c
 c 

 c
  c  c c  c  cc 
 c c

 cc
c


 cc

9.2.2 Quotations: The U   and  elements


60*0(0+ c/*.!,l1. 0c7c7cB?=4A@&! '- CDc77c
cF%c77c
6 *'& c/*.!,l1. 0c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
cccccccccc?1 'Acccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77c1 'c c% c%c c
c77c
ccc
60*0(0+ clc7c7cB?ACEcccccccccccc77c  ccF%c77c
6 *'& clc
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
cccccccccc?1 'Acccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77c1 'c c% c%c c
c77c
ccc
Gar ag:  , E d ag:  c

Aribue defi iio sc

à› = · 

{ c
cc  c
 c c
cc
c  
 c
c  
c 
 cc
c{  c

 c c   ccc 
 c
 c c  
cc 
c c* 
 c
c
 cc

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc cc  
&c
cc
yc 
c ""c 
c c

c
cc
yc c  
c

cc
yc 5c c
 c 
ccc
yc 4c=4c%c%%c%> c%>c
%%c45 c45c45%c
 c
ccc

{  cc   c  
c*  cc/*.!,l1. 0c cc  c* 
 c 

 c
  c
clc c   cc c* 
 c  c
  c
c  c* c



 c 
 c

{  c
 c
 c
c
cc{ c{c{ c c)c{  c
c
c

* c

/*.!,l1. 0c 54  c


- 5ccc
cc %
c4c %ccc 
cc
cc
 c
ccc  c5c+ 5c%cc c= c
 cc c  
c. c cc%
5cAc cc
c
c  c c=c= %cc=4cc 5c-c
/*.!,l1. 0c

x    


/
c c
  c 
c c/*.!,l1. 0c
c
c   c 
c

/
c c
  c c c
c c
  cc clc  c c  c c
  c* 
 c
 c   c  c c c* 
 c
 c
c c   c
c
 cc c
  cc
clc  c

 c
  c  c c* 
 c
 c c
c

  c
c c c

c
 c
c

 c
c  c* 
 c   cc c
c c
   c* 
 c 
c  c c 
 c c 
  c

{ c  c


 c 
 c   c* 
 c c clc  c
 cclc
7%'cc*%5cc% c ccc
lc
7%( 5cc5%c
c
ccc cc5% c5c lc'c 4c'cc
c
cc/cc  5Rcc)% c lc


c c

cc  c* 
 c c

cD   c c
  c  c c
 c

 cc
 c c   c* c
 c
 c c c* 
 c
c
 c* c
 c
 c c c* 
 c

cc  cc'cc*%5cc% c cccR( 5cc5%c


ccc
ccc cc5% c5c Rc'c 4c'cc
cc
ccc/cc  5Rcc)% c c

Ë  We recomme d a syle see impleme aio s provide a meca ism for
i seri g quoaio marks before a d afer a quoaio delimied by UL KQU T i a
ma er appropriae o e curre  la guage co ex a d e degree of esi g of
quoaio s.c

However, as some auors ave used UL KQU T merely as a meca ism o i de 


ex, i order o preserve e i e io of e auors, user age s sould   i ser
quoaio marks i e defaul syle.c

Te usage of UL KQU T o i de  ex is     i favor of syle sees.c

9.2.3 Subscripts and superscripts: the U and 


elements
60*0(0+ cB&1/@&1-Cc7c7cB?ACEcccc77c%= c%  c77c
6 *'& cB&1/@&1-Cc
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:  c

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc cc  
&c
cc
yc 
c ""c 
c c

c
cc
yc c  
c

cc
yc 5c c
 c 
ccc
yc 4c=4c%c%%c%> c%>c
%%c45 c45c45%c
 c
ccc


c
 cc
c* c 
 cc
 ccc  c{ c
&1/c
c&1-c   c  c c  cc
 cc c  c

 c

ccccccd%=#%=.c
cccccc0cc%#%c
cccccc&-+c
 (%%c2%&-+c
9.3 Lines and Paragraphs
   c

c  c c    c
c
   c c * 
 cc


 c
{ c
%
 cc 
 c c


 c c c

 c c c c


 c

c   c


 c
c
c    c
 
 c c
c    c
c  c

c
c   c

{ c{c
 ccdefi i gc
c


 c c 
 
 c c-c  c   c
c



 c

{ c
c  
 cc


 c c c c  cc  cc  c  c
  
c
c


c c c
  c

yc {
 cc c 

cc
yc  c 
 c
c c
 cc
yc ) 

 cc
yc   
 cc
yc  c

c
   c
cc 

 cc
yc 
 cc


 c c 
cc   c
  cc

c
 c  c*   c  cParagrap alignment and floating objectsc
c 
 c

c c  c 
 c

9.3.1 Paragraphs: the


element
60*0(0+ c-c7c.cB?ACEcccccccccccc77c 
 c77c
6 *'& c-c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:   c

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc cc  
&c
cc
yc 
c ""c 
c c

c
cc
yc c  
c

cc
yc 5c c
 c 
ccc
yc 
c " 
cc
yc 4c=4c%c%%c%> c%>c
%%c45 c45c45%c
 c
ccc

{ c-c  c   c


c


 cc

c
 
 cblock-level elementsc
 c
-c  c
c 
 
c
  cc  c c-c   c c
  c  c c c
-c   c

9.3.2 Controlling line breaks


cli e breakc c   cc c
c


c  c0!'''".c
c  c c0!'''.cc
c


c    c c
c c  c 
 c
  cw ite space.c

cc 
 c
 c ( c 


 cc  c 
 c 
c
 c cnotes
on line breaksc c c
 c

      U 


60*0(0+ c/ c7c.c0(- 3ccccccccccccccccc77c cc= 4c77c
6 *'& c/ c
cc?  Acccccccccccccccccccccccccc77ccc5cc77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:   c

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc cc  
&c
cc
yc c  
c

cc
yc 5c c
 c 
ccc
yc  c " 
cc 
"c/
ccc

{ c/ c  c


 c 
 c c c
 c  ccc

c
c c
  c c c
 c

c c  cc  c  c


 c
  c c/ c  c  c
 c
 c
c c 
 c 
 cc c cc
 c
 cc  cc 
 c
c c cc
c 
 c  c 
 c
c
 c c c 
 c calignment and floating objectsc   c
c
  cc c  c
 cc
  cc c
 c 
 c
 c
c c 
 c

 c 
cc  

c
 c c/ c  c  c 
c c
c
c
 c·ISO10646]c$Dc D{c



c 
 c c c  

c
 c

Π      

 c
  c
c
cc c
c  c 
cc

 c  cc


 c{ c0 .c  c0! '.cc0!'.c

 c
c
c 

c c c


  c  c
c

c
c  c 
c

9.3.3 Hyphenation
 c{c c
cc  cc   c c
 c   c
c c c   c{ c

 c   c  c c  c c
c c
 c
c c
 c



c{ c c
  c c c c
 c c
c  c 
c

c

c

{  c   c
c c c   c c c c  c 

cc
c
 c c  c
c
c c   c
c   c



c c c  
 c
c c cc c
 c  cc
c  c c c  c
c
c c   c c c
 c c c  
c
c
  c



cc
 c
c
c 

 c
c  c c c   c  c


c c  c

 c{c c
 c   c c   c c cc



c0!.cc0!".c{ c
c   c c   c c c



c  c


c0 .c0! .cc0!".c

9.3.4 Preformatted text: The


 element
60+ ' 3c?c H%c'()@./ 0! @/')@&(**@&1/@&1-c
c
60*0(0+ c- 0c7c7cB?ACEc7B? H%ACc77c  cHc77c
6 *'& c- 0c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:  c

Aribue defi iio sc

£ › =   · 

Deprecated.c{  c
 c  c
c  cc
c c
  c
 c c   c  c
c c
 c 
c{ c c
 c

c c  c 
 cc  
c
c

c
 c %ccc  c c
  c

 c{ c   c  c c  c c
 cc



 c{  c
 c c c  c  c
  cc

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc cc  
&c
cc
yc 
c ""c 
c c

c
cc
yc c  
c

cc
yc 5c c
 c 
ccc
yc 4c=4c%c%%c%> c%>c
%%c45 c45c45%c
 c
ccc

{ c- 0c  c c


c c
  c
c c
  cc c
 c  c

 c
 cc
c c
  c

yc 
c 
c
c  c 

cc
yc 
c cc c
c 
c cc
yc 
c 
c


c c
cc
yc  c c 
c  

c
  cc

$ 
c c
  c
c c*  cc 
c
cw ite spacec c c
  cc
c
- 0c  c

cc 
 c
 c ( c 


 cc  c 
 c 
c
 c cnotes
on line breaksc c c
 c

{ c"{"c
 c
c 

 c 
c   c
c c

c  c
c- 0c



 c{  c c c
c
c c{cc
c c   cc c
 
c  c


 c
c
  c
  ccc  c c
c c
c c   c
c

 
 cc
 c  c 
c   c  c  c

{ c  c


 c  c
c
 c cc   ccTo a Gkylarkc

- 0c
cccccccd
 ccc 
 c
ccccccccc c c  c %c 
c
ccccccc*4cc%cc Ac
ccccccccc c=%cc %c
c
c

ccc cc 
c> c
c
- 0c

c c c  c c 

c  c

cccccccd
 ccc 
 c
ccccccccc c c  c %c 
c
ccccccc*4cc%cc Ac
ccccccccc c=%cc %c
c
c

ccc cc 
c> c
c

    


Te orizo al ab caracer (decimal 9 i ·  a d ·

  ) is usually
i erpreed by visual user age s as e smalles o -zero umber of spaces ecessary
o li e caracers up alo g ab sops a are every 8 caracers. We sro gly
discourage usi g orizo al abs i preformaed ex si ce i is commo pracice, we
edii g, o se e ab-spaci g o oer values, leadi g o misalig ed docume s.c

9.3.5 Visual rendering of paragraphs


Ë  Te followi g secio is a i formaive descripio of e beavior of some curre 
visual user age s we formai g paragraps. Gyle sees allow beer co rol of
paragrap formai g.c

c


 c
c  c
c  c c c c
 c


 c
c

c  c c c c
c
 c c
 c c 
 c
c

cc
  c
 c
{c c
  c
c

c  c


 c c c 

c c
c

cc

ccc ccc  c=


cc4c cc5cc%= 
c
cc c c  
5 c 
ccc 5c>c
cc ccc  c c%c  cc
c
cc8 c c  4cc c
%c>%c c%% c
cc 
c c- c  Nc c=c>cc* c
cc(cc1 c cc  cc=ccc c
cc c- c c c> c% c c%c c
cc
% c c

c>Ncc( c

{  c
 
 c c c  c  c c  c 
c   c c c  cc c


 c

c  c c
c  c 

 c  c c
c  cc c
 c


 c
c c
 c  cc c cc

cccccc ccc  c=


cc4c cc5cc
cc%= 
c c c  
5 c 
ccc 5c
cc>c ccc  c c%c  cc
ccccc8 c c  4cc c
%c>%c c%% c
cc 
c c- c  Nc c=c>cc* c
cc(cc1 c cc  cc=ccc c
cc c- c c c> c% c c%c c
cc
% c c

c>Ncc( c

  c c


  c c c c$ c

c  c c &&c c
  c
 
c  c  c  c
 c c
c 

c c
 cc c  c
 c
  c   

 c  
 c   c{ c
 cc  c  c
c


 c
  c c  c   c  ccc
c

 cc{c
  c
c
 c  c

 c  c c


c
  cc c %c
c  cc
c c c
 c 

c
c
c
c
c


 c c c  c  c 

 c
c
c c 
 c
{ c c
  c 
c  c c  c-c   c c
c
 
cc
c 
 c

c c
 c c
 c c  cc c


 c  c c 
 c

c
  
c     c

 c


 c c 
c 
c  c
c

  c
 cc 
 
c  c


c

# c
   c
c{c c
  c
cc   ccc  c c


c

 c 
 c
  c  c c c
c  c
 c

 c   c
 cc
 cc  c c c
 c
c c 

cD
 c c

  c

 c
 c   c c
c c 
c
cc c c c c
cc
c
  c 
c  c c
  c

 cc
 c
  c  c  
c

cccc%cc cc  SG! %%c c c cc



 c c  c c c c c
cc cc  c

 c c

cc c

 c
c c   cc c c  c

ccc%cc c! %%c


ccc c c cc

{  c c
cc 
c c
c c c 

c
c
c c c c
 c

9.4 Marking document changes: The INS and DEL


elements
677c'+&20*c c c=5c%cc/.23c77c
60*0(0+ cB'+&@20*Cc7c7cB?ACEcccccc77c cHccHc77c
6 *'& cB'+&@20*Cc
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
cccccccccc?1 'Acccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77ccc c c 
c77c
cccccc?2Accccc$'(-*'02cc77ccccc 
c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:  c

Aribue defi iio sc

à› = · 

{ c
cc  c
 c c
cc
c  
 c
c  
c 
 cc
c{  c

 c c   cc cc 
 c
  c c
c 
 c
c

 cc

› › =   · 

{ c
cc  c
 c 
 c c
c
cc  c c

c
c
cc

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc cc  
&c
cc
yc 
c ""c 
c c

c
cc
yc c  
c

cc
yc 5c c
 c 
ccc
yc 4c=4c%c%%c%> c%>c
%%c45 c45c45%c
 c
ccc

'+&c
c20*c
c  cc
 c 
 cc c 
 c
c
c  c  cc
  c c 
cc
c  c  cc
c 
 cc c 
c 
 c c


 c  ccc c

 c

{  cc   c
c
cc{c c
c  c
c c
c c 
  c
c  c   c c c  c{  c
c
 
 c ccc c  c
c



 cc
 
 c ccc 
  c   c
c
c


 c   c
c

 c

{  c
 c
 c cc
c  cc

c c 
 cc c
c   c
c
  c c

c  ccccc

-c
ccc&  cc5c20*20*'+&L'+&c%c
-c

{ c'+&c
c20*c   c c c
 
 c 
  c
  c  c  c   c

c
c  c   c

D(cD5Dcc
{ c  c c c 
c{c

-c
'+&2'<...block-level content...2'<'+&c
-c

 c
  c  c c  c
c   cc c
c
c
c c

c
  cc 

c  cc
c

c c
c 

c c   cc
c c
c  c
c
cc c  c
c 
   cc c 

c
  c
c

# cc c  c


  c
  cc$ cc &&c2 'c
c c
D
 c 

 c{c

ccccc;MM97;;7:L ;;L:Kc
ccccc;MM97;;7:L :G;L:7:L::c

  c c'+&c  c c

'+&c;MM97;;7:L :G;L:7:L::c
cccccccc 
5 c
%    c cc
% c c c 4
c c
%

c c% c ccc c c


'+&c

{ c 
 c  

    c c
 
 c
  c

 c c 
 c
c  c c c 
 c

   c
c
c
c
  c
 c  cc   cc c
cc c
c
 cc c'+&c
c20*c   c c
  c
c  c  c
 
 cc c cc
c
c c cc
 c

'+&c;MM97;;7:L :G;L:7:L::c
cccccccc! 
ccc %cc&>c/Rccc
c
%    c cc
% c c c 4
c c
%

c c% c ccc c c


'+&c
c

ccc
ccc 

ccc  
ccc


ccc c

cpreviouscccnextccccontentscccelementscccattributescccindexcc
c

10 Lists
Contentsc

c Introduction to listscc
c    c   (1*),   c   (.*), and list items (*')cc
c "  c   : t e 2*, 2 , and 22 elementscc
c šisual rendering of listscc
c T e 2' and (0+1 elementscc

10.1 Introduction to lists


{c c
  c 
c

  cc 
  c   cc 
 c c   c
 c
 
 c ccc  c   c  c
c
 
 cc

yc    c 
 cc
yc   c 
 cc
yc "  cc

{ c c  cc
 c c
c   c  c

 c c c1*c  c

1*c
*'1  c cc
*'.  c cc
*'2cc
1*c

 c  c  c



 c  c c.*c  c  c
 
 c 
 c c c
 c c
% c
c c
c
c

c c  c    c   cc


c  c cc    cc
c cc 'c  cc
c #
cc c  c
c''c  cc

"  c   c

 c  c c2*c  c 
c
  cc
c  cc
   c
 c
   c   c   c
c
c c
 

 c{ c  c

  c
c
c c c c
c   c  c
Lower cost
{ c c  cc  c
c
  c  

 c  c
c c c 3cc
Easier to use
c

 c c
c c
c c
c
cc 3cc
Safe for kids
- c

c 
c  c c
 c c
cc c  c
c
c  c cc c
 c
c

cc

  c c{c
c

2*c
2 & .+)* c& .+)c
22 cc> cc c %cc
5cc c c
 >%c6c
2 & .+)0 cc%& .+)c
228R>c 
c c %cc cRc% c cc%6c
2 & .+)&c c4& .+)c
223%cc>c5% c4cccc c c c %cc
 5cRc
c % cBcc
% Cc
2*c

  c
c
c c   c
c  c  c  c
c c  c c
c c c
  c
 c 
c c
c   c  c
c
 
 c
c   c  c c
    c
c
c  c  c c
 c

The ingredients:

yc ''cc  cc
yc 'cc 
cc
yc c
c
cc
yc c cc
yc
ccc

The procedure:

c c  c    c   cc


c  c cc    cc
c cc 'c  cc
c #
cc c  c
c''c  cc

Notes:
{ c
c
c c c c
 c
  cc

{ c

c  
 cc c c  c  c  c c c c
 c c

 
c
  cc  c   c  c
c
c
cc   cc{  c c
c
  
c c
c c c
 c c  c  c
10.2 Unordered lists Ñ), ordered lists Ñ ), and list items
Ñ)
60*0(0+ c1*c7c7cB*'CDccccccccccccccccc77c%  cc77c
6 *'& c1*c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
ccc
60*0(0+ c.*c7c7cB*'CDccccccccccccccccc77c  cc77c
6 *'& c.*c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:  c

60*0(0+ c*'c7c.cB?ACEccccccccccccc77ccc77c
6 *'& c*'c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:   c

Aribue defi iio sc

› =      · 


Deprecated.c{  c
 c  c c  cc
c  cc   c


c
 c

c   cc
c c
  cPossible valuesc
c 
  c  c
 c
 c

c 
 cc
›› =   · 
Deprecated.cc.*c c{  c
 c 
 c c 
 c  cc c c
c c
c  c  c{ c 
c 
 c  c c c$c
c  c c

cc  c
 c c
c c c
   c
 c
c c   
c
{ c  c c  cc  c c 

c
 c  cc#ccc c

cc  c c  c c 

c
c 
c c
cc

cc
| =   · 
Deprecated.cc*'c c{  c
 c  c c  cc c
 c  cc
$c
c  c c
cc  c
 c c
c c c
   c
 c

c c   
c c c c
 cc
à à› · 
Deprecated.c  c c  c  
c
 c c
c  cc
c c
  cc
 c c  c c
cc


c
c{ c 
 cc  c
 c  c
 c c c
 cc

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc ccdocument-wide identifierscc
yc 
clanguage informationc ctext directioncc
yc celement titlecc
yc 5cinline style informationcc
yc 4c=4c%c%%c%> c
%>c%%c45 c45c45%cintrinsic
eventscc

  c
c   c   c
c  c c
c  

c
c
c
c
c c

  c  c  c  c c c


  c
c  c  c   c c
c
 c
c
c   c  c c
c c   c

# c  cc   c
c
c cc * 
 cc  c c   c c c*'c  c
  c c
c
c c c

{  c
 c 
 c c

c 
 cc
c  c

1*c
ccc*'c... first list item...c
ccc*'c... second list item...c
cccc
1*c

  c
c
c c   c

"DD{D"cD5Dcc

1*c
ccccc*'c... Level one, number one...c
ccccc.*cc
cccccccc*'c... Level two, number one...c
cccccccc*'c... Level two, number two...c
cccccccc.*c ;:cc
ccccccccccc*'c... Level three, number one...c
cccccccc.*cc
cccccccc*'c... Level two, number three...c
ccccc.*cc
ccccc*'c... Level one, number two...c
1*c

       I ordered liss, i is o possible o co i ue lis


umberi g auomaically from a previous lis or o ide umberi g of some lis iems.
However, auors ca rese e umber of a lis iem by sei g is value aribue.
Ëumberi g co i ues from e ew value for subseque  lis iems. For example:c

c
c>%:c4c ccc%= c:c
c>%9:c4c ccc%= c9:c
c4c ccc%= c9;c
c
10.3 Definition lists: the ,  , and  elements
677ccc7c2 c c c22c ccc77c
c
60*0(0+ c2*c7c7cB2 @22CDcccccccccccccc77ccc77c
6 *'& c2*c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:  c

60*0(0+ c2 c7c.cB?ACEccccccccccc77cc c77c


60*0(0+ c22c7c.cB?ACEccccccccccccc77cc c77c
6 *'& cB2 @22Cc
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:   c

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc ccdocument-wide identifierscc
yc 
clanguage informationc ctext directioncc
yc celement titlecc
yc 5cinline style informationcc
yc 4c=4c%c%%c%> c
%>c%%c45 c45c45%cintrinsic
eventscc

"  c   c
 c c   cc c  cc   c c
c  c c
  ccc

 c
cc
c
c 
 c{ cc c c c c2 c  c
c c 
 cc
  c
  c{ c 
 c c c c
c22c  c
c
 
 c 
  c

  c

c c
c
 c

ccc
2*c
cc2 2=c
cc225%
cH=c c c5c% c
cccccc0(+ 0(c c0()40(c
c
cc2 d4 c
cc22c> c 
 c
c
cc2 + c
cc22 5c= 
c=%c5cc c
c
2*c
c c
c
 c c  c c
c 
 c

2*c
ccc2 ! c
ccc2 ! c
ccc22cccF%c ccc
ccccccccccccccc c% ccc  c
ccc22c'ccc c c5 c c
cccccccccccccc c cccc cc% c
cccccccccccccc c  cc
2*c

  c
 

 cc2*cc
 c cc
 c c 
  c c

c2 c

 c
c 
c
c

c22c
 
  c  cc c c

10.3.1 Visual rendering of lists


Ë  Te followi g is a i formaive descripio of e beavior of some curre  visual
user age s we formai g liss. Gyle sees allow beer co rol of lis formai g
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11.2 Elements for constructing tables


11.2.1 The U element
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Ë  Te border aribue also defi es e border beavior for e U T a d I’G
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11.3.2 Horizontal and vertical alignment


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Ë  Ëoe a a cell may i eri a aribue o from is pare  bu from e firs cell i a spa .
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11.3.3 Cell margins
Aribue defi iio sc

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11.4 Table rendering by non-visual user agents


11.4.1 Associating header information with data cells
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11.4.3 Algorithm to find heading information


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11.5 Sample table


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 /.23c
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Xc
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c

c
 

c c
 c c c  c
c

{  c
 c 
 c c!.*) .1-c

c c  cc c
  c
c c c

c
  c
  c 
 c /.23c c  cc c c{ c c
c
%c
  c c c c
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c   c
c  cc c

ccc
ccc 

ccc  
ccc


ccc c

cpreviouscccnextccccontentscccelementscccattributescccindexcc
c
12 Links
Contentsc

c Introduction to links and anc orscc


c šisiting a linked resourcecc
c Ot er link relations ipscc
c Specifying anc ors and linkscc
c Link titlescc
c Internationalization and linkscc
c T e  elementcc
c Syntax of anc or namescc
c Nested links are illegalcc
c Anc ors wit t e  attributecc
c Unavailable and unidentifiable resourcescc
c Document relations ips: t e *'+, elementcc
c Forward and reverse linkscc
c Links and external style s eetscc
c Links and searc enginescc
c Pat information: t e /&0 elementcc
c    c
c cc

12.1 Introduction to links and anchors


{c c
cc c
  
c   c  cc
cc
c 
  c

  c c
c 

 ccc c c
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 c c c
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c
c 

c 
  c{  c 
 c 
 c cli kcc   cc
 c  c c

c c
 
cc  c c
c
 
 cc c  c  
c
c
 c    c
c  c

c c  c
c  c cc c
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 cc c  c

cli kc
cc cc

 ca corscc
c
c 
 c{ c  c 
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c c  
c


c
c  cc c  
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c 
c
c c
c  c  
cc
c

c
c c
c
c  c c
c
c
c{c 
 c
c  c  c
c
{c 
 c
c

12.1.1 Visiting a linked resource


{ c 
c 
c


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c  c c c
cc
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c
{  c 
c c
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c 
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  c c  
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c

{ c  c{c


c
 
 cc   c c  c  
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c c
c
{c 
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  c
c c c  c  
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c c
c
(c
c c c c c
/.23c
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-3%Rcccc cccc   #   ccc
&cc cc 
 
cc c c
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/.23c

# c


 c  c   c c

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c


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c  c
c c  c  
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c c c
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c
 
c

c 
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c c
cc

{ c  
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cc
c  c
c c
c  c  c
c{c 
 c{ c
 
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c c c c
c

c
c
c
cc
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c
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c c
c
c cfragment identifierc

" 
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 c c{c 
  c
c c 
 c c c cc  c

 cc c cc
 cc c
c c  c
 c c cc

 c

{ cc
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c
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c
c
cc
   c  c  c  cc

c   cd#cdc
c c c
c 
 c  c cc  cc

c
 
 c

 cc cc

d; =cc!d;c
-c $;' %/ c
c $#&c=4
%/ c
c $#;.cc c c/ c
...the rest of the table of contents...c
...the document body...c
d#c;' %d#c
...section 1...c
d#c#&c=4
%d#c
...section 2...c
dc#;.cc c cdc
...section 2.1...c

c
c

c c
c
c c
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c   c    c c


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d; =cc!d;c
-c $;' %/ c
c $#&c=4
%/ c
c $#;.cc c c/ c
...the rest of the table of contents...c
...the document body...c
d#c;' %d#c
...section 1...c
d#c#&c=4
%d#c
...section 2...c
dc#;.cc c cdc
...section 2.1...c
12.1.2 Other link relationships
# c
c c c
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c  c ccc
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c
c 
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c c   c c c 
  c
c
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  c  c  
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c  c


c  c  cc c
c

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c  c
c c c  cc
  c
c ccclink
typesc 
 c c c  
c

c

{ crolescc
c  c   c ccc*'+,c
c 
 c
c c c
c >c
  c

c 

c   c   c c c*'+,c  c
c 
 c c  cc
c

 c  c
c  cc 
  c c c  c
c   c  c c

 c   c
cc cc c c
c c

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d02c
...other head information...c
 ' *0!  cL ' *0c
*'+,c  >c   9 c
*'+,c Hc   O c
d02c

{ c  c cc c c  c cc


c
cc c 
 c c ccc 
c

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cnotc  c c c 
  c

   c
   c c
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c c c c c
cc
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D cc  c
c c  cc

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c c  c c   c

cc
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c c
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c  c
c  cc{c 
  c
c
c   c

 c
c c  c  c 
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c c
 cc c
c
  c  
c

 c  c 
 c c c  c c  clinks for t e benefit of searc
engines.c

12.1.3 Specifying anchors and links


    c 
c{c   c
c
  c

c   cc c  
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 c'()c  c c . (c  c
c  c

c 
 c   c
c

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 c c c*'+,c
cc   c{ c*'+,c  c
c c

c c c 
cc

c 
 c{ cc  c
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c c c  c

 c cc   c c


 c c c c  c   c
c  
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cc
c
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c c


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c  c  
c{ c  
c

c c
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 cc cc 



c
c c  
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c c c  c  
c

{ c c  
c
c c
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c
c c  c
c
c{c 
 c c c
c c
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c c{c 
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c  c c 
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c c
cc
c c  
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c 
c cc
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c
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c c
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c c  c
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c
c

c
cc 

c c 
cc
c  cc c    c c
  c

 c cccc
  cc cc  c
c c c  c   c
c

c

c
c c c  
 cc c   c

   c
c c cc
c c
  c  
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cc 

c

{ c*'+,c  c   c


c
 c  c c
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 c
c
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c    c*'+,c
c c
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  cc   c
c c  c
c c c
  c

12.1.4 Link titles


{ cc
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c c cc  cc
c*'+,cc
c 
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c  c{  c 
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c c  c c
c c
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c
c cc

c
c

c c
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c
c

{ cc
c
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cprevious examplec c   c
c cc

c  c

/.23c
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-3%Rcccc ccc   # c
ccccccc)cc  c  cc
c   # c
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&cc cc 
 
c
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cc c cc
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/.23c

12.1.5 Internationalization and links



c   c
c cc 
  c
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c
*'+,c   c c c  c
 c{  c
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c
c c c cc c  c

{ c 
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cc
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c   c c
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cc c c 
c  c
c c 

c  
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c  
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c 

c c  
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c 
c
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c c 
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c
c
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c
12.2 The  element
60*0(0+ cc7c7cB?ACEc7BCccccccc77c  c77c
6 *'& cc
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
cc  ccccc?!  Acccccc$'(-*'02cc77c  c
cc4c % c77c
cc5cccccccc?! 5Acc$'(-*'02cc77c> 5cc5c77c
cccccccccc!2 cccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77cc4cc77c
cc cccccccc?1 'Acccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77c1 'c c4c % c77c
cc 
cccc?*
%
!Ac$'(-*'02cc77c
%
cc77c
cc ccccccccc?*4 5Acccc$'(-*'02cc77c  c4c5c77c
cc >ccccccccc?*4 5Acccc$'(-*'02cc77c > c4c5c77c
cc45ccc?!   Acccc$'(-*'02cc77c=5c45c   c77c
cc ccccccc?& Acccccccc cccccc77c c%c c7c
cc
77c
cc cccccc?! Accccccc$'(-*'02cc77c c%c c7c
cc
77c
cc=Hcccc+1(/0 ccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77ccc==
c  c77c
cc%ccccc?& Accccccc$'(-*'02cc77c cc
c c%c77c
cc=% cccccc?& Accccccc$'(-*'02cc77c ccc c%c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:  c

Aribue defi iio sc

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{  c
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c c
cc
c c c  
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cc  c
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c * c

c
c{ c

cc  c
c c c
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c  c
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c
c 

c
c cc
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c


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c
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c c
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c
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{  c
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c

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cc  c
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c 

 

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c 
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c
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cc  c
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c 




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à  › =   · 
{  c
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c
  cc c  
c  
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c
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Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc ccdocument-wide identifierscc
yc 
clanguage informationc ctext directioncc
yc celement titlecc
yc 5cinline style informationccc
yc  c
c cimage mapscc
yc %c=% c4c=4c%c%%c
%> c%>c%%c45 c45c
45%cintrinsic eventsccc
yc 
ctarget frame informationcc
yc =Hctabbing navigationcc
yc 45caccess keyscc

cc  c   c


c

c

c { cc   c
  c   c c  cc c

cc
c { cc
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c c
cc
c c c  
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c   c c
canc ors wit cc
c { c c
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c c  
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cc

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c
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c 
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c  c

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c c c
c
c
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c  c cc  c   c
c  c{ c  
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c c cc
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c c  
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c c c

 c c c=%c8!cc%c cc


c  
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{  c  c  
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cc c  c  c  c  c  c
c c


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c c  c

c

c{c 
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c c   c c
c
c
c
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c c  cc  c
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c{ c

c  c  c c c c


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c
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c

c  c c  cc cc
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c  cc c c  c c c

 c c c=%c8!cc%c c8!c8=cc


cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccYYYYYYYYYYYYc

{c c c
  c 
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c c



c
  cc c  
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c c c
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 c c c=%c8!cc%c cc


c  
c  '&.7GGLM7;8!c8=ccc

 cc  c


c

c
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 c c c c   c

...text before the anchor...c


c  7 cc ccc  cc
...text after the anchor...c

{  c

 c
c

c
 c cc{  c c c 

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c c
c c

   ccc
c c  c c
c 

c
c  cc   c
c

c c


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cc
c  cccc c
cc
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c  
c

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c!c



c  c c c

c
c c
fragment identifiercc
c c
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c c

yc  c
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yc c
cc $  7cc $  7cc
yc  c c  c c   c c c
c 
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{ c
c  c   c c c c  c c c
c 
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c   c cc
c c

c
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{ cc  c c c  c


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c cc  
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c  7cc
ccc  5-'>5
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{  c
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c$(c
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c c
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c  c
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Ë  aser age s sould be able o fi d a cors creaed by empy A eleme s, bu
some fail o do so. For example, some user age s may o fi d e "empy-a cor" i
e followi g HTML fragme :c

c57  c
0(cd (*0(c
c $57  *4cc5c  c

12.2.1 Syntax of anchor names


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c
c c c
cc c cccc
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c

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c
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yc Uniqueness:c
c
 c c c * c  c
c 
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c
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c c c c

c
c c

c c c
c 
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yc String matching:c
  c  cfragment identifiersc
c

c
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c

  c

cc

{ c c  c


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c c 
cc  c

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c c c

   c
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c c c
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-c $HHHc
...more document...c
-cHHHc

D(cD5Dcc
{ c  c
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c c 
cc *   c 
c cc
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c c

c
cc

c

-cHHHc
-cXXXc

    c c  c


c c 
c{c c 
cc c c
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  c
c

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c
c  c
c c

-c $HHHc
...more document...c
-cXXXc


c
 c  c c 
 cc c



 c 
c
 c c
 cc
c 
 c
 cnon-ASCII c aracters in URI attribute valuesc

12.2.2 Nested links are illegal


  c
c

 c   c c cc  c c c c   .c
cc  c c c

 
 c
c cc   c


c c"{"c   c c*'+,c  cc c c*'+,c   c
c c c
  c c

12.2.3 Anchors with the  attribute

{ cc
 c
c c  cc

c
c

c
c c 
c
cc
c  c

 c cc  c

{  c
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 c c cc cc
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c

c c
cd#c
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c c   cc
c cc  c

3%c5c c c=%c ccc $#&c c


...later in the documentc
d#c#&c d#c
...later in the documentc
--c  ccc $#&c c=>c
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{ c  c


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c  
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c c cc
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'c%c % c c>6cd Rcc


c  7 cc5c5cc c4c

{ cc
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c{  c
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c
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c c c
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c c c
c 
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c   c * c  cc c  c   c
c--*0 c . (c (0c' (0c'()c
c(-c  c  c
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{ c  c
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c{c 
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c c
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c c c
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c $;c
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c;c

{ c  c


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c c
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-c;c;c $;c
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cc c 


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c
 
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referencesc{ c c
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aY   Auors sould co sider e followi g issues we decidi g weer
o use id or name for a a cor ame:c

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selecor, processi g ide ifier, ec.).cc
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ycTe name aribue allows ricer a cor ames (wi  Y Y).cc

12.2.4 Unavailable and unidentifiable resources


c
cc
c


cc   
c  
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cc    c c

  c
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c
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c

yc c
c c
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c 

c
c   c  
cc  c
c c cc
yc c
c c
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c   c c cc


c   c  
cc  c  c
c
c
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c c c
c
c
c c cc  c
c
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12.3 Document relationships: the   element


60*0(0+ c*'+,c7c.c0(- 3ccccccccccccccc77cc7c4c77c
6 *'& c*'+,c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
cc  ccccc?!  Acccccc$'(-*'02cc77c  c
cc4c % c77c
cc cccccccc?1 'Acccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77c1 'c c4c % c77c
cc 
cccc?*
%
!Ac$'(-*'02cc77c
%
cc77c
cc5cccccccc?! 5Acc$'(-*'02cc77c> 5cc5c77c
cc ccccccccc?*4 5Acccc$'(-*'02cc77c  c4c5c77c
cc >ccccccccc?*4 5Acccc$'(-*'02cc77c > c4c5c77c
ccccccccc?(2Acccc$'(-*'02cc77c c  
cc cc77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:   c

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc ccdocument-wide identifierscc
yc 
clanguage informationc ctext directioncc
yc celement titlecc
yc 5cinline style informationccc
yc 4c=4c%c%%c%> c
%>c%%c45 c45c45%cintrinsic
eventsccc
yc c 
c5c c >clinks and anc orscc
yc 
ctarget frame informationcc
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c

13 Objects, Images, and Applets


Contentsc

c Introduction to objects, images, and appletscc


c Including an image: t e '() elementcc
c Generic inclusion: t e ./ 0! elementcc
c Rules for rendering objectscc
c Object initialization: t e - ( elementcc
c Global naming sc emes for objectscc
c Object declarations and instantiationscc
c Including an applet: t e --*0 elementcc
c Notes on embedded documentscc
c 
c
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c Client-side image maps: t e (- and  0 elementscc
ºc Client-side image map examplescc
c Server-side image mapscc
c šisual presentation of images, objects, and appletscc
c idt and eig tcc
c  ite space around images and objectscc
c Borderscc
c Alignmentcc
2c How to specify alternate textcc

13.1 Introduction to objects, images, and applets


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cc./ 0! c
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13.7 Visual presentation of images, objects, and applets


All I’G a d U T aribues a co cer visual alig me  a d prese aio ave
bee     i favor of syle sees.cc

13.7.1 Width and height


Aribue defi iio sc

£ › = 
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13.7.2 White space around images and objects


Aribue defi iio sc

à =    · 
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13.7.3 Borders
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cc 
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13.7.4 Alignment
Aribue defi iio sc

 = Ô››    › › ›


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13.8 How to specify alternate text


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previouscccnextccccontentscccelementscccattributescccindexc
c previouscccnextccccontentscccelementscccattributescccindexcc
c

14 Style Sheets
Contentsc

c Introduction to style s eetscc


c Adding style to HTMLcc
c Setting t e default style s eet languagecc
c Inline style informationcc
c Header style information: t e & 3*0 elementcc
c Media typescc
c External style s eetscc
c Preferred and alternate style s eetscc
c Specifying external style s eetscc
c Cascading style s eetscc
c Media-dependent cascadescc
c In eritance and cascadingcc
c Hiding style data from user agentscc
c Linking to style s eets wit HTTP eaderscc

14.1 Introduction to style sheets


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14.2 Adding style to HTML


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14.2.1 Setting the default style sheet language


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14.2.2 Inline style information


Aribue defi iio sc

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14.2.3 Header style information: the  element
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 c 
 c
 c c  cc c


c 
 c c  c cc

 c  c c c 


 c

d02c
c& 3*0c5Hc
ccc2'<= cTcH7
c%5cUc
c& 3*0c
d02c
/.23c
c2'<c= c
ccc- c! c %c 
cc% c 4c c c
ccccc c
c5 c c  cc%c ccc
ccccc! c
c
c %c
c
ccc-! c c c! c 
c  cc
ccccc cc c cc%c%   cc
c2'<c
/.23c

14.2.4 Media types


{c
 c
  cc   c 
  c
c
c


cc c



 
cc
 c 
c c c 
 c cc c  cc
 

c  
c   c

 c
 c 
 c 

 c   c 
 
 c

 c 
 c
c
# c 
  c cc
 c
  c
c c
  cc 
c
c
 c  c
 c  
 c 
c
 c c  cc
 % cmedia descriptorsc

{ c  c
 c 


 c
 ccd;c   c  c
 c c
c   c
 c
c 

 c c c c  c  c
c 

 c c c
  c

d02c
c& 3*0c5Hc c
ccccd;cTc c=%Uc
c& 3*0c
c
c& 3*0c5Hc c
cccd;cTcH7
c cUc
c& 3*0c

{  c
 c
c  c
 cc

 cc c c 
c  c

c& 3*0c5Hc% c


ccccTc%7= c% B=CAc%7 c% B
>CUc
c& 3*0c
d02c

 
c
  c c


 c   c  c
  cc
c  c  c 
c c

  c

c
cc c cc c c c  c  c  c
c
 c
c c
 c 
cc 

c 

 c   c

c
 c  
 c
 c  c    cc
c  c c c 
 c cmedia-dependent cascadesc
cc 
 c

14.3 External style sheets


   c
c 

c  c  cc{c 
  c{  c c 
c   c

yc    c
c  c c

 c
c
c  c  c

 c
c  cc

  c
c  cc
yc    c
c

c c  c c  c*  c 

 cc c

 cc
yc  c
  c
c 
c  c  c  
 c
 c c 
c 
 cc

14.3.1 Preferred and alternate style sheets


{c
 c
  cc


c
c  cc
c  c  c c
c 
 c
{ c  c c

c   c c  c
c  c  c 

cc

 c c c

c  c

   c
c 
 c
c  cc 
c
c  c  c

 caler aec  c
 c  c
c  
c c
c
 c  c   c c c
 c
c 

c
c
 c
c 
 c c  c c    cc 
c
 c
c

 cc  c c


c  cc
c  c c
  c  c
c  cc
 
cc

c  c  c

{ c
 c
c 
 c
c cc c

 c c
cpreferredc  c c c
  c
 c
 c c
  c c  c c  c c c
c  
 c
c  c


c

   c
c c 
c

c  c  c
 c c
  c c  c
 c c
c   csyle amec  c
c c  
 c
c
 c  c c c
 c
 c
 c
c  c  c c
c
c c
  c c c
 c

c  c
 c c
c  c  c
c{ c 
 c cspecifying external style s eetsc
 c
cc
c
c cc  c  c
   c
c
c 
 cpersise c  c  c
c c
  c c
 c c
 c
c
c

c  c c

 c
  c c 
cmedia descriptorsc  c
  c
c  c c

 c
  c  c
c
c  cc 
c c
  c  c  c  c c
 
c

c c c
 c c c
 c
c   cc

c  c  c

14.3.2 Specifying external style sheets

   c 
 c
c  c  c c c  c
  cc c*'+,c  c

yc c c
cc cc c 

 cc c  c c c{ c


cc c c

cURIcc
yc c c
cc c5c
 cc 

c c

cc c   c  c
c  
c{  c
 c c c
 cc
 c  
 c
c  c c
c
c  c  c c

cc
yc 
 c
c c  c c c   c cc

cc
c {c
c
c  c c   c c c c
 cc   c
c
 c c cc
 cc
c {c
c
c  c c c c c c
 cc   c
c

c c  c c c cc
 cc
c {c 
 c
c

c  c c c c c
 cc

c
  c
c
c c  c c c cc
 cc

 c
  c  c c
c
cc  ccc
c
cc c  cc

c
  c{ c
cc cc
 c c
  c
c c
cc

c

c

 c  c
 cc c 
 c
c   c  c c 

 c c c c55c

*'+,c 55c 5 c5Hc

 c cc


 c
 c  c c
  c c  c c

c*'+,c 55cc 5 c5Hc

  c c  c



cc c c
 c
 cc
c

c  c c

*'+,c 55c(%c  c5 c


5Hc

cc 
 c c
c  c  c 
c
 c c 
 c clinks and
external style s eets.c
   c
c
c c c(0 c  cc c c 
  c c  c cc

 cc c c c  c cc


c c c


  c
 c

  c
c
c c  c  c c cd02c

(0 c 7F%>2%7&5cc

{ c c  c c
c
c c 
 c c{{c 
 c{ c
c(0 c



 c c* 
 cc c{{c 
c

2%7&5cc

cccc(0 c 


 cc{{c 
 c 
 c c c  c c c

c c
 c
 
c{{c 
 c
c
   cc

c
 c
c c

 cd02cc  c  c

cccc*'+,c   c 
 c
c c  c c c c c
 c

 
c

 c  c  c 
 c c(0 cc{{c 
 c
c
 
cc
  c 
 c c c*'+,c  c

14.4 Cascading style sheets


×ascadi gc  c c

 c
c
c c
c  c 
 cc 
c
 
 cc c   c cc c
c  c c

 c c

 c{c  c
c

c
  c 
 c
c * 
cc*'+,c
c& 3*0c
   c{ c  c 
 c c

 c c c c c   c



c c c
d02c

Ë  Tis specificaio does o specify ow syle sees from differe  syle
la guages cascade. Auors sould avoid mixi g syle see la guages.c

 c c  c


 cc 
 cc

c  c  c
 c


cc c
c  
 c c


c  c c c


 c c
 c  c
c  c  c

c c
c c   c
 
c  c cc c c  
 c c c c
 c c c

c  c c  
c
c c   c
 
c c
c
  c

*'+,c  c5 cc 7=c


5Hc
*'+,c  c5 cc 7H c
5Hc
*'+,c  c5 c=
c c =
 c
5Hc
*'+,c 5 c c5Hc

c c
c

c
 c
c   c  c c*'+,c
c& 3*0c   c
*'+,c 5 c   c5Hc
*'+,c 5 c   c5Hc
& 3*0c5Hc
cccccTc c
=B#:c;::c;G:CcUc
& 3*0c

14.4.1 Media-dependent cascades


c

c
c
c  c  c
 

cc  c 


c# c*'+,c
c
& 3*0c
c c  c c cc
 c{ c c
 c c  c   cc
  c c  c  c  c
c c c
 cc c
 c  c

 c c  c


 cc  c
c

c c c



c  c c c
  c c 
c  c c  cc  c cc
 c c
c cc


 c   c  c
c  c
 c
 c c c

c{ c
c
  c
  cc
c 
c{ c
 c c   c c c& 3*0c  c c  cc
 c
c
 c c cc

c  c

*'+,c 5 c% c   7% c


5Hc
*'+,c 5 c c   7 c
5Hc
*'+,c 5 c c   7 c
5Hc
*'+,c 5 c   c5Hc
& 3*0c c c5Hc
cccccTc c
=B#:c;::c;G:CcUc
& 3*0c

14.4.2 Inheritance and cascading


 c c c
 c
 cc c
c 
 cc  cc c
 cc  c
 cc c c
 c c  c %c  c  cc
 c
c c c{ c


c

 c  c c c  c c

c c c  c 
 c c
 
c
 

c

{ c

 c

 c c  c  c
c  cc  c  c
c
 c 
 cc
c
  c{ c

 c
 c c c
 cc c c  c c 

 cc
 c 
c cc
 cc c c

c c c c c c  c c


  c c  c c

c c  cc c$c


c c

c c  c
c  c c c  c c

c  c 
c
 cc c  c
 c
c c 
c  cc
c


c  c

c c c

c c  c c c


 c
  c c 
 c
  c
  cc cc
c c
  cc
c{  c
 c
   c  c
c
 

c c c
 c{  c

 c
 c  c  cc c 
 c


 cc 

c

  c
c 
 c c c
 cc
c   c  c c/.23c c
c   c c
c

  cc c/.23c  c


14.5 Hiding style data from user agents
c  c c

 c c 
c   cc
c
  cc  c c

  cc& 3*0c   cc  


  c c
  c

{  c
 c 
 cc c cc
 c c c
  cc& 3*0c   cc
 c
c c  
  c c
  c c c c c
cc

& 3*0c5Hc
677c
cccd;cTc c cUc
ccc-ccTc c=%Uc
ccc77c
& 3*0c

14.6 Linking to style sheets with HTTP headers


Tis secio o ly applies o user age s co formi g o versio s of HTTP a defi e a
Li k eader field. Ëoe a HTTP 1.1 as defi ed by · does o i clude a Li k
eader field (refer o secio 19.6.3).c

 c c

 c
c cc
   cc
  c
c c c
c
c  c c
 c c
  cc
c cc
 c{ c{{c*4c 
c
c c
c
c
c
c
*'+,c  c c c
c
  c
c
 c  c*4c 
 c
  cc
  c*'+,c   c

 c c c
c cc 

c

*4c   Ac 0*5 c

  cc

*'+,c 5 c    c

c c  cc 


 c 
c

c   c  c  c*4c 
 c
c  c
c c c
 cc  c c 
c  c

 c c  c


 c


c c
  c c 
c 
cc c c

c
  cc c c
 c

*4cAc 5 Acc


*4c=
 Ac  c5 Ac=
c c

{  c  c
cc  c{c 
  c
c  c c
 c c
 c
  c

c
c c  cc·RFC822]c 
 c{c
c

 c  c

 c c

 c cc  c  c 


 c c*4c 
 c
  c

c c 
c


 ccc 
c 

 cc c
c 
c c{ c* c
 c

c c   c  c c
 c
 c
c  

c c (c  cc



c



 c
c
c  c c c  c{{cc
 c 
 cc

c
c  cc c

 c c
c   c

c

*'+,c
c(0 c   c  c c{{c 
 c
c   c
c

 c c
c
 
c*'+,c
c(0 c   c c c 
  cd02c

c
previouscccnextccccontentscccelementscccattributescccindexc
c ccc
ccc 

ccc  
ccc


ccc cc

15 Alignment, font styles, and horizontal rules


Contentsc

c + 

"cc
c U %"c  cc
c  " 
cc
c + 
"c/
cc
ºc + 
cc/
cc
ºc + 
c

ccc/
cc
c +
cc
c +
c
 c  
$c
c -c'-c/-c/')-c&(**-c& ',0-c&-cc1c  
cc
c +
c c  
$c .+ cc/&0 .+ cc
c x $c
cd c  
cc

Tis secio of e specificaio discusses some HTML eleme s a d aribues a
may be used for visual formai g of eleme s. Ma y of em are    .c

15.1 Formatting
15.1.1 Background color
Aribue defi iio sc

Ôà =  · 

Deprecated.c{  c
 c  c c

 c
 cc c 
 c  cc
c

 cc

{  c
 c  c c

 c
 cc c


cc c 
 c  c c/.23c
  ccc
 c c /*0c c dc
c 2c   c 
c
  cc

  cc
 c

c c  c c c/.23c  c


{  c
 c
c  cdeprecatedc c
cc  c  cc 
  c

 c

 c 
 c

15.1.2 Alignment
c c  cc
 c 
c   c
 c
 c 
 c


 c
c c c


c c c
c
 c    c  c
 c
c c cc
c{c
   c c
cc  c
 c  c  cc  cc  cc
c c 
c c
 cc c
 c
 ccc

Aribue defi iio sc

 =  ›à ›  › › · 

Deprecated.c{  c
 c 
 c c % 
c
  cc c  c c 
c
c c   c
 c  c
 cc

yc cc   c
c  c c cc
yc  cc   c
c
  cc
yc 
cc   c
c  c c cc
yc %5cc   c
c  cc  c
 cc

{ c 
c  c c c
cc 
 cc cc cc c 
c c

c  cc cc cc c 
c c
 
c

"DD{D"cD5Dcc
{  c
 c
  c
c 
 c c c


c

d;c
 cdcc! >c8cd;c

  c cc
 c  c
 c

c c
c
c
c  c

d02c
c ' *0dcc! >c8 ' *0c
c& 3*0c5Hc
ccd;cTcH7
c Uc
c& 3*0c
/.23c
cd;cdcc! >c8cd;c

$c
c  c c
 c
cd;c 


 c- c
 c
c c
cc c  c
c  c cc
 c c c  c

d02c
c ' *0dcc! >c8 ' *0c
c& 3*0c5Hc
ccd;cTH7
c Uc
c& 3*0c
/.23c
cd;ccdcc! >c8cd;c

"DD{D"cD5Dcc

 cc c
 c
c


 c c c


c c{ c
c
 c  c
 c
c

-c
 
...Lots of paragraph text...c

 
c c c c c

d02c
c ' *0dcc! >c8 ' *0c
c& 3*0c5Hc
cc-5 cTH7
c 
Uc
c& 3*0c
/.23c
c-c5 ...Lots of paragraph text...c

"DD{D"cD5Dcc
{c c
 c
c  cc


 c c c c c2'<c  c

2'<c
 
c
c-...text in first paragraph...c
c-...text in second paragraph...c
c-...text in third paragraph...c
2'<c

 c c c
 c c c  cc c
 c  c  c

c c
c

d02c
c ' *0dcc! >c8 ' *0c
c& 3*0c5Hc
cc2'<5 cTH7
c 
Uc
c& 3*0c
/.23c
c2'<c5 c
cc-...text in first paragraph...c
cc-...text in second paragraph...c
cc-...text in third paragraph...c
c2'<c

{c
 c c c 
 c c c

d02c
c ' *0dcc! >c8 ' *0c
c& 3*0c5Hc
cc/.23cTH7
c Uc
c& 3*0c
/.23c
c...the body is centered...c
/.23c
{ c!0+ 0 c  c c

 c* 
 cc 
  c c2'<c  c c c

c
 c cc
 cThe   element is deprecated.c

15.1.3 Floating objects



 c
c 
 c
c

c 
 c   cc
c c 
 cc c  cc c

c
 c
 c c
 ccc
c
c c c c  cc c 
c

   

{ c
c
 cc 
 c
 c
 c
 c
c

 c c 
cc 
c
c c cc c
 c 
 c 
 c 
c  c
c c  c{  c
 c

 c c  c
 c

yc c 
 c c 
cc c
 c c
 c *  cc  c
 c c

 c c  cc
yc 
c 
 c c 
cc c
 c c
 c *  cc  c
 c c

 c c  cc

"DD{D"cD5Dcc
{ c  c
 c  c cc 
c
c'()c  cc c
 c c
 cc c


c

'()c
c  

c5c=c

c
  c
  c
cc c
 c
c 
c  c c

c 
 c
c
  c c 
c  c c
 c
 ccc-c
c2'<c c
c

 c

 c c
   cc c  cc c
  c

    

  c
 c   cc c/ c  c
  cc c
 c 
 c 
 c

Aribue defi iio sc

à  =   › › · 

Deprecated.c 
 c c c c  c  c

c c
c
c  c
c c
 c 
c

 c c  c  c{  c
 c
 c c

 c 
 c 
 c

 c
 c
c  c
 cc

yc c{ c c  c c  c 


c{  c c c 
c
cc
yc c{ c c  c c  c
c 
 c  c  c
c 
 c 
 c c c

c
 cc
yc 
c{ c c  c c  c
c 
 c  c  c
c 
 c 
 c c c
 
c
 cc
yc c{ c c  c c  c
c 
 c  c  c
c 
 c 
 c c c

 cc

  c c  c


c

c cc  cc c cc
c
c  c
c
 c c  c c
c/ c

EEEEEEEEEcc7777777c
@ccccccc@cc7777777c
@c
c@cc77/ c
@ccccccc@c
EEEEEEEEEc

c c c
 c c ccc c  c  c/ c c  c 
 c  cc

c c c


 cc c
c

EEEEEEEEEcc7777777c
@ccccccc@cc7777777c
@c
c@cc77/ c
@ccccccc@cc777777c
EEEEEEEEEc

"DD{D"cD5Dcc
c c c
 c c ccccc c c  c c

c
c  c

EEEEEEEEEcc7777777c
@ccccccc@cc7777777c
@c
c@cc77/ c c
@ccccccc@ccc
EEEEEEEEEc
77777777777777777c

  c  c  c  c
 c 
 c
c
c  c 
 c  c 
c  c
cc
 
 c
 c
 c
c 
 c

 c c c
 c  c c  c
 c

c  c
c  c

& 3*0c5Hc
/ cTc ccUc
& 3*0c

{c 
 c  c 
cc
c 

c 

cc c/ c  c  c
 c
  c
 c 
 c
c cc
 c

d02c
...c
& 3*0c5Hc
/ $5= cTc ccUc
& 3*0c
d02c
/.23c
-c
EEEEEEEEEcc7777777c
@ccccccc@cc7777777c
@c=c@cc77/ c5= c
@ccccccc@ccc
EEEEEEEEEc
77777777777777777c
c
/.23c

15.2 Fonts
Te followi g HTML eleme s specify fo  i formaio . Aloug ey are o all
   , eir use is discouraged i favor of syle sees.c

15.2.1 Font style elements: the , , U, U, , , , and


 elements
60+ ' 3c?c5c
c c@c'c@c/c@c/')c@c&(**c
60*0(0+ cB?5A@? ACc7c7cB?ACEc
6 *'& cB?5A@? ACc
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:  c

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc cc  
&c
cc
yc 
c ""c 
c c

c
cc
yc c  
c

cc
yc 5c c
 c 
cc
yc 4c=4c%c%%c%> c%>c
%%c45 c45c45%c
 c
cc

  cc c  c   c  c c c c


 c{ c  c c
c
 
c 
 c c

TT:c  c
c  cc  

 ccc

I:c  c
c

cc  cc

B:c  c
c  cc  cc

BIG:c  cc c
c
c cc

SMALL:c  cc c
c 
c cc

STRIKEc
cS:cDeprecated.c c    c  ccc
U:cDeprecated.c  c    ccc

{ c  c  
c  c 
c  ccc

-===c
c==c=c5cHcc
=
=
=
cccHc

{  c c c c  c


c  c

c c  cc

c
c
c
c
 cc c
 c  c  c  c{c

 c c

cc c
c


 c c c

d02c
& 3*0c5Hc
-$5 cT75cAc c=%Uc
& 3*0c
d02c
-c5 ...Lots of blue italic text...c

 c  c   c c c c   c  cc   c c  c   c


 c c c c
 c

15.2.2 Font modifier elements:  and U 

 and U  are deprecated.c

c cTransitional DTDcc c


c   c

Aribue defi iio sc

 =  · 

Deprecated.c{  c
 c  c c %cc c c  c
 cc

yc  c c  c c
cc{  c  c c cc c c %c  c
  c  c c c c
 c$c
c c
  c
c c
c  c
% cc
yc c
c

c c c %c{ c
c c
c c %c
c{ c
c
c
c c % c 
c c % c   cc c

cc cccc

à =  · 
Deprecated.c{  c
 c  c cc
 cc

à =  · 
Deprecated.c{  c
 c   c
c

 

 c  cc c
 c c c
 c
 c 

cc c cc
cc

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc cc  
&c
cc
yc 
c ""c 
c c

c
cc
yc c  
c

cc
yc 5c c
 c 
cc

{ c .+ c  c

 c c c %c
c
 ccc c c
   c

{ c/&0 .+ c  c  c c
c c %c  c cNc
 c c %c


 c

 c c .+ c
c
cc c
c c %c c c/&0 .+ cc
/&0 .+ c c c  c c 
c
c c %c cc

"DD{D"cD5Dcc
{ c  c
 c c c c 
c  c c  c c % c


c c
.+ c

-cN;N;c
cN#N#c
cNNc
cN9N9c
cNLNLc
cNONOc
cNSNSc

{  c c c  c


c

{ c  c  c
c
 cc c
cc
c c % c  c
c
c c %ccc

{ c
c c %c  c c
 cc 
  c
c c  c
c  c  c
 c .+ c  c c
c
c c %c

c

15.3 Rules: the d element


60*0(0+ cd c7c.c0(- 3c77c  Nc %c77c
6 *'& cd c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
ccc
Gar ag:  , E d ag:   c

Aribue defi iio sc

 =  ›à ›  › · 

Deprecated.c{  c
 c 
 c c % 
c
  cc c c c 
cc
 c   c
 c  c
 cc

yc c c c c  c c cc


yc  c c c c
  cc
yc 
c c c c  c c cc

{ c 
c c
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  · 

Deprecated.c  c c  c  
c
 c*   c
c c c
 c c c
 c c
c   c
 c
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c
c c

c
 ccc

 =    · 

Deprecated.c{  c
 c 
 c c  cc c c{ c 
c
cc  c

 c  c c c c
 cc

£ › = 
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Deprecated.c{  c
 c 
 c c  cc c c{ c 
c  c c ''4cc
 c c c

 c c c


cc

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc cc  
&c
cc
yc 
c ""c 
c c

c
cc
yc c  
c

cc
yc 5c c
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cc
yc 4c=4c%c%%c%> c%>c
%%c45 c45c45%c
 c
cc

{ cd c  c

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c % 
c cc c  c c
c c
  c

{ c
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c 

c  c  c


c c
c c
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c  cc
 c c c c
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"DD{D"cD5Dcc
{  c
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  c c  c % c cc
c c


c  c  c c
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{ cc c
c c 
c 
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c ccc c{ c c c
 c c  c c
c   c
 c  c
 c

d c L:?c
 c
d cNLc L:?c
 c
d c cNLc L:?c
 c

{  c  c c c  c


c  c

c
ccc
ccc 

ccc  
ccc


ccc c

c ccc
ccc 

ccc  
ccc


ccc cc

16 Frames
Contentsc

c M

c
c cc
c 
cc cc
c c (0&0 c  
cc
ºc xcc   cc
ºc Ë
c c
cc
ºc "c
c "c cc
c c (0c  
cc
ºc 

"c
c
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ccc cc
ºc š c"ccc cc
c   "c
"
c c 
cc
c 

"c
c
c
"
cc %cc
c "
c 
 cc
c 

c 

cc
c c+. (0&c  
cc
c "c 
cc cc
c M c $c
c' (0c  
cc

16.1 Introduction to frames


{c
 c
c
  cc  c 
  c c  c c 
c
c c
   c  cc   c  c cc    c
c
ccc


 c 
 c  c  c c c
c
  cc

 cc
 c
  c c
c c c
c c  
c
c 

c
c
c 
 c
c

 c
 c
c
c  c c
 c 
 c
c

c c
  c   cc

 c c


 c c c 
 c
c

c c
c  c
c 
 c

62.! 3-0cd (*c-1/*'!c78!2 2cd (*c9:;c 0+c


ccc 
  9 c
d (*c
d02c
 ' *0cc c% ' *0c
d02c
 (0&0 c#:?cG:?c
cc (0&0 c ;::c#::c
cccccc (0c "" ; c
cccccc (0c "" #
c
cc (0&0 c
cc (0c ""  c
cc+. (0&c
cccccc- c c%cc
cccccc1*c
ccccccccc*'c "" ; &ccc
ccccccccc*''()c "" #
ccc
c
ccccccccc*'c ""  &c  ccc
cccccc1*c
cc+. (0&c
 (0&0 c
d (*c


c c

c
c
c
 c   c c  c

c777777777777777777777777777777777777777c
@ccccccccc@ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc@c
@ccccccccc@ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc@c
@c c;c@ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc@c
@ccccccccc@ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc@c
@ccccccccc@ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc@c
@777777777@ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc@c
@ccccccccc@cccccccccc ccccccccccccc@c
@ccccccccc@ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc@c
@ccccccccc@ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc@c
@ccccccccc@ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc@c
@c c#c@ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc@c
@ccccccccc@ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc@c
@ccccccccc@ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc@c
@ccccccccc@ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc@c
@ccccccccc@ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc@c
c777777777777777777777777777777777777777c

c c c
 c

c  
c
 cc c
   c ccc c c c
   cc
 c+. (0&c  c

16.2 Layout of frames


 c{c 
 c
c 
  c
c
 c

 c
cframese docume c
c
c
 c
 c
c
c{c 
 c  c
 cc 

 c 
 c
c
 cd02c 
 c
c c/.23cc
 c 
 c
c
cd02c
c
c (0&0 c
 c

cc c/.23c

{ c (0&0 c 
 cc
c 
 c 
 c c
 cc c c c
 c c

 c c c
 c c (0&0 c 
 c

c
 
 c
c+. (0&c  cc
 calternate contentcc c
  c
c c c c
 cc
c
   c c
c  
c
 c

D   c
c c 
c c

 c c c/.23c  c c c



c c
 c c (0&0 c  cc c (0&0 c c c  c

16.2.1 The   element


6Ic?d (* AcIc
60*0(0+ c (0&0 c7c7cBB (0&0 @ (0CDcPc+. (0&QCc77cc%=>7
7c
6 *'& c (0&0 c
cc?  Acccccccccccccccccccccccccc77ccc5cc77c
cc cccccccc?(%*
 Ac$'(-*'02cc77ccc
 c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc%c;::?cB;c Cc77c
cccccccccc?(%*
 Ac$'(-*'02cc77ccc
 c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc%c;::?cB;cCc77c
cccccccc?& Accccccc$'(-*'02cc77cc c c >c=ccc77cc
cc%cccc?& Accccccc$'(-*'02cc77cc c c >c=c >c77cc
ccc
JJc

Aribue defi iio sc

£ =    
  · 

{  c
 c 
 c c
 cc % 
c
 cc c
c

 

 c  cc
 c
 
 c
c
c   c{ c 
c
c c ''4c
 c ccc

à =    
  · 

{  c
 c 
 c c
 cc

c
 cc c
c

 

 c  cc
 c
 
 c
c
c   c{ c 
c
c c ''4c
 c c

  cc

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc cc  
&c
cc
yc c  
c

cc
yc 5c c
 c 
cc
yc c%c
 c
cc
{ c (0&0 c  c 
 c c
 cc c
 c c c c cc



c 

 c

x 
  


 c c c


 c   c c  cc % 
c 

 c c
c
 c
 c cc
 c   c c  cc

c 

 c# c
  c
c
c c  
 cc

c
c c

c c c
 c c c c

c
  c c c c   cc c
cc c
c
 c c c c

cc c c c  cc c


cc  c

 c c c c


c
 c c

 c c %cc c
c


 c
c

 c  cc
  c
c cc c  c  c

  c
c 
 c c
c

 c  c c ccc  c c c

 cc
c

{ c c
 c   c c
 c

c ccc

 c
cc
c
c
c
c
c

 (0&0 c L:?cL:?c
...the rest of the definition...c
 (0&0 c

{ c c
 c

 c c
  c c 
 c
c
c c  cc'c c
  cc
 cc  c
c
c c
c  c %c{ c c
 c4cc c

  c 

c
c c  c4cc c
  c 

c

 (0&0 c;E#L:Ec
...the rest of the definition...c
 (0&0 c

{ c c
 c

 c
cc cc 

 c

 (0&0 c :?S:?c?9??c
...the rest of the definition...c
 (0&0 c

c c c
 c  c c  c c c
  c '''c c  c{ c
 cc c
 c'4cc c
c  c''c c{ c 
 cc c 
 cc
c

 c''c c  c{  c 
 c''c cc c   c  c c cc

 c{ c  c
 c  c c 
 c
c;c cc c
c
c  c
c c  c

c  c  c c c;c* 
 cc ;c{ c c  c
c c c ''c
 c  c
c c  c c c''c c  c

 (0&0 c :?9::E#Ec
...the rest of the definition...c
 (0&0 c
  c   c
c c c cc ''4cc c
c


c 

c  c c

  c c c c
 c  c  
 c
  c 

c  c c
 c

cc

cc  c 
 c

cc  c c
 c

  cc c 
 c cc c
c 

c

Ë
 




  c
c c   cc
c  c

 c c  c


 c c c (0&0 c   c c


c 

c c c


*
c
  c{ c c (0&0 c  c   c c 
 c

c cc cc
*
c  c

 (0&0 c?c?c9?c
ccccc...contents of first frame...c
ccccc (0&0 c 9:?cL:?c
cccccccc...contents of second frame, first row...c
cccccccc...contents of second frame, second row...c
ccccc (0&0 c
ccccc...contents of third frame...c
 (0&0 c

G      


   c
c
c

c
 c 
c
 c c
 c  c

c
c
c./ 0! c
  c   c  c
c c./ 0! c  c c cd02c  cc
c
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 c
c
cc c cc
 c c 
 c
c c c
   cc
c

c c c
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ccc  c  c

{ c  c


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 c c
c
c ccc
c./ 0! c  c   c
c
c c
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62.! 3-0cd (*c-1/*'!c78!2 2cd (*c9:;c 0+c


ccc 
  9 c
d (*c
d02c
 ' *0 ccc c c./ 0! cc cd02 ' *0c
677c c./ 0! ccc  6c77c
./ 0! c5=c= ./ 0! c
d02c
 (0&0 c
cccc (0c = c=c
 (0&0 c
d (*c
c
677c'c= c77c
d (*c
d02c
 ' *0/Rc
 ' *0c
d02c
/.23c
...the beginning of the document...c
-c
&! '- c5H> c
 5=5  5c
&! '- c
...the rest of the document...c
/.23c
d (*c

16.2.2 The  element


6Ic?d (* AcIc
677c  >c cc c c"c  c c c c77c
60*0(0+ c (0c7c.c0(- 3cccccccccccccc77c%=c77c
6 *'& c (0c
cc?  Acccccccccccccccccccccccccc77ccc5cc77c
cc
cccc?1 'Acccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77c4cc
c c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccBcCc77c
cccccccccc!2 cccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77ccc c c

c77c
cc ccccccccc?1 'Acccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77c% cc cc77c
cc =  cB;@:Ccccccccccc;ccccccccc77c F%c c=  Qc77c
cc
 c?-HAccccccc$'(-*'02cc77c
c ccHc77c
cc
 
c?-HAcccccc$'(-*'02cc77c
c 
ccHc77c
cc NccccB NCccccc$'(-*'02cc77cc% cc Nc Qc77c
cc 
cccB5@@%Ccc%cccccc77c = c cc77c
ccc
JJc

Aribue defi iio sc

 =  · 

{  c
 c
 c
c
cc c
 c
c{  c
c
c c  c
c c
c
c *  c   cc

 à = · 

{  c
 c 
 c
c  cc
c  c 
 cc c
c{  c 
 c  c
  c c c 
 c  c  c cc
 c
c
c c



 c  cc  
c c
  cc

à = · 

{  c
 c 
 c c 

 cc c 


c
   cc c
 
  c c c
cc

  · 

 c  c  c  
c
 c c c c
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c c
c c c c
c %
cc

à =  ›  · 


{  c
 c 
 c
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 cc c
c c  c
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yc %c{  c
c c c c
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  c 
 cc c
c
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 c{  c c c 
c
cc
yc 5c{  c
c c c c
 cc

c c
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 cc c

c cc
yc c{  c
c c c c
 c cc c
  c 
 cc c
c
 cc

 Ô  =  · 
{  c
 c  c c c
 c c 
 c
 c c
c  c  c

 cc

yc ;c{  c
c c c c
 cc 
c
c 

c  c  c
c
c
 c
  c
c{  c c c 
c
cc
yc :c{  c
c c c c
 c cc 
c
c 

c  c  c
c
c
 c
  c
c$c
c 

 c
c c 
 c cc  c
c
    cc 
 c c c
 cc

£ › =    · 
{  c
 c 
 c c
 cc 

cc c c  c c


 c
   c c c
c
c c
 c{ c
c c c
c
c%c c{ c 
c
c
 c c c c
 cc

  › =    · 

{  c
 c 
 c c
 cc 

cc c c  c c


 c
   c c c
c
c c
 c{ c
c c c
c
c%c c{ c 
c
c
 c c c c
 cc

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc cc  
&c
cc
yc c  
c

cc
yc 5c c
 c 
cc

{ c (0c  c   c c


   c
c



cc
c   c
c

G     


   

{ c c
 c 
 c c 
c 
 c c
c c
 
 c

{ c  c


 c{c 
 c

62.! 3-0cd (*c-1/*'!c78!2 2cd (*c9:;c 0+c


ccc 
  9 c
d (*c
d02c
 ' *0c c% ' *0c
d02c
 (0&0 c???c
cc (0&0 c E#::c
cccccc (0c "" ; c
cccccc (0c "" #
c
cc (0&0 c
cc (0c ""  c
cc (0c "" 9 c
 (0&0 c
d (*c

 c

c
c
c
 c   c c  c

c777777777777777777777777777777777777777777c
@ c;ccccc@ cccccccc@ c9ccccccc@c
@cccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@c
@cccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@c
@cccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@c
@cccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@c
@cccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@c
@cccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@c
@cccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@c
7777777777777@cccccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@c
@ c#ccccc@cccccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@c
@cccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@c
@cccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@cccccccccccccc@c
c777777777777777777777777777777777777777777c

c c c
 cc 
c

c c c


c 

cc

{ c
   cc
c
c c c c c c
c 
 c
c c
 c   c

D(cD5Dcc
{ c  c
 c   c c c 
c{c 
c c
   cc c 
 c
c
c
 c c
c 
 c
c c
 c

62.! 3-0cd (*c-1/*'!c78!2 2cd (*c9:;c 0+c


ccc 
  9 c
d (*c
d02c
 ' *0c c% ' *0c
d02c
 (0&0 cL:?L:?c
cc (0c "" ; c
cc (0c $  """%c
cc+. (0&c
cc...some text...c
ccd#c  """%' cd#c
cc...some text...c
cc+. (0&c
 (0&0 c
d (*c
š
      

{ c  c


 c 
 c c
cc c 

c (0c
  c c

 c
c
c c c
c c
 c
 c
cc c 
c c 

c
 c c

   c 
c
c
c c
c c
c c c c %
c$c  c c c

 c  c
 cc
cc#  c c c 
 c c 
c  c
 c cc

cc

62.! 3-0cd (*c-1/*'!c78!2 2cd (*c9:;c 0+c


ccc 
  9 c
d (*c
d02c
 ' *0c c% ' *0c
d02c
 (0&0 c???c
cc (0&0 c E#::c
cccccc (0c "" ; c 
c
cccccc (0c "" #
cc
cccccccccccccccc
 ;:c
 
;Lc
cccccccccccccccc Nc
cc (0&0 c
cc (0c ""  c =  :c
cc (0c "" 9 c =  :c
 (0&0 c
d (*c

16.3 Specifying target frame information


Ë  For i formaio abou curre  pracice i deermi i g e arge of a frame, please
co sul e  ½  i e appe dix.c

Aribue defi iio sc

› › =  
 · 

{  c
 c 
 c c
cc
c
c c
c 
 c cc c  cc

# c
  c
c
cc
c
c
c cc
 c
  c

cccc
c c
cc
  c   c c c   c{ c
c
 c
c c cc   c
c

c   c
c*'+,c
c
 c 0c
c c . (cc

 
c
 c c 
 c ctarget frame namescc 
 c
 c
 % c
c

 c

{  c
 c 
 c c
 c
c c

c 

 cc
c
 c

   c cc  c


c
 c c c 
 c  c  c c

62.! 3-0cd (*c-1/*'!c78!2 2cd (*c9:;c 0+c


ccc 
  9 c
d (*c
d02c
 ' *0c c% ' *0c
d02c
 (0&0 c L:?L:?c
ccc (0cHc "H c
ccc (0c5c "5 c
 (0&0 c
d (*c

{  c c"5 cc  cc c


c
 c

c

62.! 3-0cd (*c-1/*'!c78!2 2cd (*c9:;c 0+c


ccc 
  9c
d (*c
d02c
 ' *0c%c c  c cc
 ' *0c
d02c
/.23c
...beginning of the document...c
-+c5%c5c>ccc
ccccc # c
5c#c
...more document...c
-3%R c
c
c+ccc
ccccc  c
5cc
/.23c
d (*c



 c c  c c
c c 
 c c c
c
 c

c  c c
 c
c c
 
 c c 
c
   c

Ë  A framese defi iio ever ca ges, bu e co e s of o e of is frames ca .
O ce e i iial co e s of a frame ca ge, e framese defi iio o lo ger reflecs
e curre  sae of is frames.c

Tere is curre ly o way o e code e e ire sae of a framese i a aRI. Terefore,
ma y user age s do o allow users o assig a bookmark o a framese.c

Frameses may make avigaio forward a d backward roug your user age s
isory more difficul for users.c

16.3.1 Setting the default target for links


 c
c   c c c
c 
 c  
c c
c
cc c  cc

 c c
c
c
c   c c c
c
 cc

c  c{  c c
 c c  c c
c
 cc c/&0c  c

c  cc c c


 c  cc

 c c


c 
 c c   c
c c c/&0c  c
c ccc cc   c
62.! 3-0cd (*c-1/*'!c78!2 2cd (*c9:;c 0+c
ccc 
  9c
d (*c
d02c
 ' *0c%c c/&0c ccc
 ' *0c
/&0c  5&c
5c
d02c
/.23c
...beginning of the document...c
-+c5%c5c>ccc # c#c
...more document...c
-3%R c
c
c+cccc
cccccccc  cc
/.23c
d (*c

16.3.2 Target semantics


 c
  c  c  c c
c
c c 
cc 
c
c   c  
c

  cc c  c


 
 c   c cc  c

c c
c  c
c c
c
 c cc
c  c
c  c c  c c


 cc
c  c c  cc
cc c
  c c  
c  
 c c c
  c  c c 
 c c c
c
cc
c c
c  c  c c
c c
c
 c c c c/&0c  c  c c
/&0c   c
c
 c   c c
cc
c c  c c  c c c/&0c  c cc
c
c c  
c  
 c
c c  c  c c 
 c c c
c
 
  c c  cc
c c
c
c
 c cc
c   c
c c c c
 c  c

c
c
c c
c
c
 c c
c cc c
c
c 
c c  
c
 
 c c c  c c c c
cc

 c
  c
c c  c c
c

 cc c c
c
 c

16.4 Alternate content


   c  c  c

c
  cc  c c
  c
c c c c

 cc
c
   c cc  
c
 c

16.4.1 The  element


6Ic?d (* AcIc
60+ ' 3c?c cB/.23Cc7B+. (0&Cc
JJc
c
60+ ' 3c?c cB?ACEc
c
60*0(0+ c+. (0&c7c7c? Ac
c77c cc c cc 7=c  
c77c
6 *'& c+. (0&c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
ccc

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc cc  
&c
cc
yc 
c ""c 
c c

c
cc
yc c  
c

cc
yc 5c c
 c 
cc
yc 4c=4c%c%%c%> c%>c
%%c45 c45c45%c
 c
cc

{ c+. (0&c  c 


 c
  c
c  c c  
 c c c c
  c

c c c c
 cc
c
   c cc  
c
 c c
  c
c
c
 c c c  
c c
   cc
c+. (0&c 


 c  c

   c cc  
c
 c c
  c
c c c c
 c c  
c
 c
   cc+. (0&c c
c

c

{ c+. (0&c  c c


cc  c ctransitional and frameset DTDs.c c
c 
 c

c  c c
 c"{"c+. (0&c
c c  c
c c cc cD D{c

 cc c 
 c

c
 c

62.! 3-0cd (*c-1/*'!c78!2 2cd (*c9:;c 0+c


ccccc 
  9 c
ccd (*c
ccd02c
cc ' *0c c%c c+. (0& ' *0c
ccd02c
cc (0&0 cL:?cL:?c
ccccc (0c  c
ccccc (0c ="" c
ccccc+. (0&c
ccccc-d cc cc 7  c
cccccccccccccc7 c=c> cc c%cc
ccccc+. (0&c
cc (0&0 c
ccd (*c

+. (0&c
c c  cc
 c c
c 
 c
c c c  
cc
c
c
c

c  c c

c"{"c{  c
 c
  cc
 c c 
  c  c c

 c  cc c c cc c


 cc c
c c
 c
c  c c

 c

16.4.2 Long descriptions of frames

{ c
c
 c
 c
  cc
c
c 
  cc

  cc
 c  c  
c c
  c{  c
 c  
 c
c  
c
c  c

c  c 
 cc c
c   c  c c
c  c 
 c


 c
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c previouscccnextccccontentscccelementscccattributescccindexcc
c

17 Forms
Contentsc

c Introduction to formscc
c Controlscc
c Control typescc
c T e . ( elementcc
c T e '+-1 elementcc
c Control types created wit INPUTcc
c Examples of forms containing INPUT controlscc
c T e /1 .+ elementcc
c T e &0*0! , .- ) .1-, and .- '.+ elementscc
c Pre-selected optionscc
c T e 0X  0 elementcc
2c T e '&'+20X elementcc
&c Labelscc
c T e */0* elementcc
'cAdding structure to forms: t e '0*2&0 and *0)0+2 elementscc
c( c
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c  cc
c {
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c 

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cDisabled and read-only controlscc
c Disabled controlscc
c Read-only controlscc
cForm submissioncc
c Form submission met odcc
c Successful controlscc
c Processing form datacc
ºc Step one: Identify t e successful controlscc
ºc Step two: Build a form data setcc
ºc Step t ree: Encode t e form data setcc
ºc Step four: Submit t e encoded form data setcc
c Form content typescc
ºc
 

   
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17.1 Introduction to forms


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17.2.1 Control types


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17.3 The   element


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17.4 The 
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17.4.1 Control types created with INPUT


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17.4.2 Examples of forms containing INPUT controls


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cccc'+-1 c5 cHc>%(c(/ c
cccc'+-1 c5 cHc>% c / c
cccc'+-1 c5%=c>%&c'+-1 c5 c
cccc-c
c . (c

{  cc c c  c


c  c
c

 c c 
 c c c*/0*c  cc 
c
 c c
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c
c c

c

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c> 5c c c  c c


c c

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d02c
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d02c
/.23c
c . (cc c
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c . (c
/.23c

 
c
 c c 
 c cintrinsic eventsccc 
 c
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c
  c

{ c  c


 c  c c c
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c  
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c c
 c c
cc{ c c c cc  cc c
c
c
c  cc c
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cc
 


c

c  c
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c 

c

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c 
c 
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cccc c
c-c
c8 cc5% cQc'+-1 c5Hc"" c
c8 cc c5%c
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c-c
 . (c

17.5 The U element


60*0(0+ c/1 .+c7c7c
cccccB?ACEc7B@?  A@ . (@ '0*2&0 Cc
ccccc77c% c=%c77c
6 *'& c/1 .+c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
cccccccccc!2 cccccccccc$'(-*'02c
cc>%ccccccc!2 cccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77ccc > c c%=c77c
cc5ccccccccB=%@%=@ Cc%=c77c c%cc c=%c77c
cc=ccccB=Cccccc$'(-*'02cc77c%>=cc cHc77c
cc=Hcccc+1(/0 ccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77ccc==
c  c77c
cc45ccc?!   Acccc$'(-*'02cc77c=5c45c   c77c
cc%ccccc?& Accccccc$'(-*'02cc77c cc
c c%c77c
cc=% cccccc?& Accccccc$'(-*'02cc77c ccc c%c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:  c

Aribue defi iio sc

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{  c
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 c ccontrol name.cc
| =  · 
{  c
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› =  Ô ›Ô ››  › · 
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 c c cc c  c  c
 cc

yc %=c
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csubmit button.c{  c c c 
c
cc
yc c
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creset button.cc
yc =%c
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cpus button.cc

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc ccdocument-wide identifierscc
yc 
clanguage informationc ctext directioncc
yc celement titlecc
yc 5cinline style informationcc
yc =cdisabled input controlscc
yc 45caccess keyscc
yc =Hctabbing navigationcc
yc %c=% c4c=4c%c%%c
%> c%>c%%c45 c45c
45%cintrinsic eventscc

#  c

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c  c    c c/1 .+c  c
c

c
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c/1 .+c  c
c
 
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c
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c
c  c
c'+-1 c  c  c5c c cc
c c c/1 .+c
  c c
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c c/1 .+c  c c c
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c c'+-1 c  c
c
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c
c c
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cresetc
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cc'+-1 c{ c  c
 
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cc c'()c
  c

c . (c  
% c c
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cccc  cc'+-1 c5Hc / c
cccc*cc'+-1 c5Hc/ c
ccccc'+-1 c5Hc/ c
cccc'+-1 c5 cHc>%(c(/ c
cccc'+-1 c5 cHc>% c / c
cccc/1 .+c%=c>%%=c5%=c
cccc&'()c 
c/1 .+c
cccc/1 .+c c5 c
cccc '()c 
c/1 .+c
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c . (c



c
c
  c c calternate textcc
c'()c  c

c c 
cc


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c
c
c c
c'()c
c

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c c
   cc
c
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D(cD5Dcc
{ c  c c c 
c{c

/1 .+c
'()c 
c%c
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17.6 The  ,


 
, and
 elements
60*0(0+ c&0*0! c7c7cB.- ) .1-@.- '.+CDc77cc c77c
6 *'& c&0*0! c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
cccccccccc!2 cccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77ccc77c
ccNcccccccc+1(/0 ccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77c c>=c77c
cc%ccccB%Cccccc$'(-*'02cc77c%cc
cc77c
cc=ccccB=Cccccc$'(-*'02cc77c%>=cc cHc77c
cc=Hcccc+1(/0 ccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77ccc==
c  c77c
cc%ccccc?& Accccccc$'(-*'02cc77c cc
c c%c77c
cc=% cccccc?& Accccccc$'(-*'02cc77c ccc c%c77c
cc 
cccc?& Accccccc$'(-*'02cc77c cc>%cc 
c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:  c


GELE×T Aribue defi iio sc

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{  c
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 c ccontrol name.cc
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c
c&0*0! c  c c   c
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c  c c  c
c c
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c c

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c c*  cc  c
c&0*0! c  c
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c  c .c  c
c c

c c

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c   c cc
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c c  c  
c
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Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc ccdocument-wide identifierscc
yc 
clanguage informationc ctext directioncc
yc celement titlecc
yc 5cinline style informationcc
yc =cdisabled input controlscc
yc =Hctabbing navigationcc
yc 4c=4c%c%%c%> c
%>c%%c45 c45c45%cintrinsic
eventscc

{ c&0*0! c  c

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c c c c c c   c
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c  c  cc .c  cc
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c c
c
c   c  c  cc c c{cc
c
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 c 
 c  c
c&0*0! c  cc  c

c c c   c

17.6.1 Pre-selected options


1ccc

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c c  
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  c  c  c
 
c

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c  
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c  c

yc c c.- '.+c  c


c cc
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c c c 
c  
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c  c
  
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c  c

c   c c
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c 2c·RFC1866]c 
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{ c 
c 
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c c c c  
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c DD{D"c
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cc c+{$,c   c


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c c

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c  
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yc c c.- '.+c  c


c cc
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yc c c&0*0! c  c
c c%c
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c c
.- '.+c  c
c cc
 c c  c  c
c c  
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yc c c
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c c.- '.+c  c
c cc

 c c
c c&0*0! c  c  c c
c c%c
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 c c c  c
c  cc c  c c  
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c c

cc

60*0(0+ c.- ) .1-c7c7cB.- '.+CDc77cc


%c77c
6 *'& c.- ) .1-c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
cc=ccccB=Cccccc$'(-*'02cc77c%>=cc cHc77c
cc=ccccccc? HAccccccccc$ 0l1' 02c77c c%cc    c%c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:  c

OPT ROaP Aribue defi iio sc

Ô  =  · 
{  c
 c 
 c c
 cc c c cc

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc ccdocument-wide identifierscc
yc 
clanguage informationc ctext directioncc
yc celement titlecc
yc 5cinline style informationcc
yc =cdisabled input controlscc
yc 4c=4c%c%%c%> c
%>c%%c45 c45c45%cintrinsic
eventscc

Ë  Impleme ors are advised a fuure versio s of HTML may exe d e groupi g
meca ism o allow for esed groups (i.e., PTGR UP eleme s may es). Tis will
allow auors o represe  a ricer ierarcy of coices.c

60*0(0+ c.- '.+c7c.cB$-!2 Cccccccccc77c=c c77c


6 *'& c.- '.+c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
ccccccBCccccc$'(-*'02c
cc=ccccB=Cccccc$'(-*'02cc77c%>=cc cHc77c
cc=ccccccc? HAccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77c c%cc    c%c77c
cc>%ccccccc!2 cccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77c%cccc77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:   c

OPTIOË Aribue defi iio sc

  à› · 
 c c  c  
c
 c 
 c
c  c c c  
 cc
| =  · 
{  c
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 c cinitial valuecc c
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 c c c c c
initial valuec c cc c
   cc c.- '.+c  cc
Ô  =  · 
{  c
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 c
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 c
c c
 cc
c c
c c

  cc c.- '.+c  c  c 
 c c
  c  c c c

cc  c
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 c
c c
  cc c.- '.+c  c
c c
 c
 cc

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc ccdocument-wide identifierscc
yc 
clanguage informationc ctext directioncc
yc celement titlecc
yc 5cinline style informationcc
yc =cdisabled input controlscc
yc 4c=4c%c%%c%> c
%>c%%c45 c45c45%cintrinsic
eventscc

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c c

c c
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cc c=c

 cc c.- '.+c  c


c c

cc  c
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{ c=c
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c c  c
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7c c
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ccc&0*0! c%cN9c7c
cccccc.- '.+cc>%!";"!";.- '.+c
cccccc.- '.+cc>%!";"=!"#.- '.+c
cccccc.- '.+!".- '.+c
cccccc.- '.+!"9.- '.+c
cccccc.- '.+!"L.- '.+c
cccccc.- '.+!"O.- '.+c
cccccc.- '.+!"S.- '.+c
ccc&0*0! c
ccc'+-1 c5%=c>%&'+-1 c5 c
ccc-c
 . (c

 c  
 c c c csuccessfulc  c ccontrol namec
    
c
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c  
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c  c c
c c

c
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c  cc c c  c cc c  c$c
c c c
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   c

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c c
c-c
c&0*0! c!.&c
ccccc.- '.+cc=c>%+.- '.+c
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ccccccc.- '.+c=S;c>%"S;- ( cc c!.&c
S;.- '.+c
ccccccc.- '.+c=Sc>%"S- ( cc c!.&c
S.- '.+c
ccccccc.- '.+c=Lc>%"L- ( cc c!.&c
L.- '.+c
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ccccc.- ) .1-c=- ( c#c
ccccccc.- '.+c=Sc>%#"S- ( c#c c!.&c
S.- '.+c
ccccccc.- '.+c=Lc>%#"L- ( c#c c!.&c
L.- '.+c
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ccccccc.- '.+c=S c>%' X"S ' Xc c!.&cS .- '.+c
ccccccc.- '.+c=L c>%' X"L ' Xc c!.&cL .- '.+c
ccccc.- ) .1-c
c&0*0! c
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   c c  c  c

cc+c
cc- ( cc
ccccccS;c
ccccccSc
ccccccLc
cc- ( c#c
ccccccSc
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cc' Xc
ccccccS c
ccccccL c

/
c c
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c  cc  
cc c  c   c
c 



c
 cc c c

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c
 

c c
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c  c
c&0*0! c  c  c
c

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c c
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c
   cc

 c c c
c c c  
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c
cc
c$c
c

 c c  
c c
 cc
c.- ) .1-cc.- '.+c
  c

17.7 The   element


60*0(0+ c 0X  0c7c7cB$-!2 Cccccccc77c%7cHcc77c
6 *'& c 0X  0c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
cccccccccc!2 cccccccccc$'(-*'02c
cc cccccccc+1(/0 ccccccccc$ 0l1' 02c
cccccccccc+1(/0 ccccccccc$ 0l1' 02c
cc=ccccB=Cccccc$'(-*'02cc77c%>=cc cHc77c
cc 5ccccB 5Cccccc$'(-*'02c
cc=Hcccc+1(/0 ccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77ccc==
c  c77c
cc45ccc?!   Acccc$'(-*'02cc77c=5c45c   c77c
cc%ccccc?& Accccccc$'(-*'02cc77c cc
c c%c77c
cc=% cccccc?& Accccccc$'(-*'02cc77c ccc c%c77c
cccccc?& Accccccc$'(-*'02cc77ccHccc77c
cc 
cccc?& Accccccc$'(-*'02cc77c cc>%cc 
c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:  c

Aribue defi iio sc

 =  · 
{  c
 c
 c ccontrol name.cc
£ =   · 
{  c
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 c c  cc  cc   c  c  c c
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c  c c c
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cc
à =   · 
{  c
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c



c  c  c
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cc c  c   c
c  c c c
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  c  c c
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c c
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c  cc   ccc
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  cc

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc ccdocument-wide identifierscc
yc 
clanguage informationc ctext directioncc
yc celement titlecc
yc 5cinline style informationcc
yc 5cread-only input controlscc
yc =cdisabled input controlscc
yc =Hctabbing navigationcc
yc %c=% cc 
c4c=4c
%c%%c%> c%>c%%c
45 c45c45%cintrinsic eventscc

{ c 0X  0c  c

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c   ctext inputc
  c c
  c  c c
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c cinitial valuecc c
  c
c  c c  cc
 
c

{  c
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c 0X  0c
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c c'c c c2'c
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c   ccc 
c{ c 0X  0c c  c c c
c c  c

 . (c  
H7 c c
ccc-c
ccc 0X  0c Hc #:cG:c
ccc  ccccHc
ccc&ccccHc
ccc 0X  0c
ccc'+-1 c5%=c>%&'+-1 c5 c
ccc-c
 . (c

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  cc  
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0X  0c{  c  cc  c 

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c c

cc 0X  0c c  c c cc
17.8 The    element
ISINDEX is deprecated.c{  c  c

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c     ctext inputc
  c   c
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ctext inputc
  c

c cTransitional DTDcc c


c   c

Aribue defi iio sc

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Deprecated.c{  c
 c 
 c
cc  cc c  c cc

Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc ccdocument-wide identifierscc
yc 
clanguage informationc ctext directioncc
yc celement titlecc
yc 5cinline style informationcc

{ c'&'+20Xc  c

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c     ctext inputc
  c
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c  cc

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  c
c c c
cc c c
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c cc c
c

"DD{D"cD5Dcc
{ c  c'&'+20Xc 


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'&'+20Xc 0 c5% c  c cc

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c  c

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-0 c5% c  c c'+-1 c5H-c
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G  M M  ×urre ly, e sema ics for IIND  are o ly well-defi ed
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sri g is resriced o Lai -1 as ere is o meca ism for e aRI o specify a differe 
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17.9 Labels
cc
  c



c
c
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 c c c c  c
  c c c cc c

  c
c
c  c
c c
c  c
  c
c
c 
c
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cc c
>%c
 c
c c
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{ c*/0*c  c c  cc 


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 cc
  c
c c c
c 
c
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17.9.1 The U element


60*0(0+ c*/0*c7c7cB?ACEc7B*/0*Cc77c cc=cHc77c
6 *'& c*/0*c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
cc ccccccccc'2 0 cccccccccc$'(-*'02cc77c cc'2c>%c77c
cc45ccc?!   Acccc$'(-*'02cc77c=5c45c   c77c
cc%ccccc?& Accccccc$'(-*'02cc77c cc
c c%c77c
cc=% cccccc?& Accccccc$'(-*'02cc77c ccc c%c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:  c

Aribue defi iio sc

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Aribues defi ed elsewerec

yc ccdocument-wide identifierscc
yc 
clanguage informationc ctext directioncc
yc celement titlecc
yc 5cinline style informationcc
yc 45caccess keyscc
yc %c=% c4c=4c%c%%c
%> c%>c%%c45 c45c
45%cintrinsic eventscc

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c c  cc


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cccc 2*/0*c   c+*/0*c
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{  c
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c . (c  
% c c
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cccc*/0*c *cc*/0*c
cccccccccccccc'+-1 c5Hc/ c
cccc*/0*c c*/0*c
cccccccccccccc'+-1 c5Hc/ c
cccc'+-1 c5 cHc>%(c(/ c
cccc'+-1 c5 cHc>% c / c
cccc'+-1 c5%=c>%&c'+-1 c5 c
cccc-c
c . (c

{c


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c c   c cc
c c


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  c

 . (cc c
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*/0*c
ccc  c+c
ccc'+-1 c5Hc c
*/0*c
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c*/0*c  c
 cfocuscc
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c c  c c c
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c  cc
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c   % c
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17.10 Adding structure to forms: the   and


  elements
677c
cc$-!2 ccc>c cHcc =c
cc cc5c ccc  6c
c77c
60*0(0+ c '0*2&0 c7c7cB$-!2 *0)0+2B?ACECc77c c c
%c77c
6 *'& c '0*2&0 c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
ccc
c
60*0(0+ c*0)0+2c7c7cB?ACEccccccc77cc
c77c
c
6 *'& c*0)0+2c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
cc45ccc?!   Acccc$'(-*'02cc77c=5c45c   c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:  c

LE EËD Aribue defi iio sc

 = ›Ô››  › › · 


Deprecated.c{  c
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 c c  cc c  c c 
cc c
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yc c{ c  c c
c ccc c c{  c c c 
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yc =c{ c  c c
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yc c{ c  c c
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18.2 Designing documents for user agents that support


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cccccc> cccB  1 'Cc
cccccccBCccc5"c
&! '- c

 c{
c  c  c c

c&! '- c5Hc


ccccc c5"cTUcTc
cccccccccc
cccccUc
cccccccIcc  1 'Jc
ccccccTVc6cUcTc
cccccccccVcc5"c
cccccUc
c&! '- c

Ëoe a "docume .wrie" or equivale  saeme s i i ri sic eve  a dlers creae
a d wrie o a ew docume  raer a modifyi g e curre  o e.c

18.2.4 Dynamic modification of documents



 c
c
c
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c 
 c c 
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c c
cc  c c 
  c

   c


c{ c
  cc c c  c c c
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c  cc c
 
 c 
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c  c  c c c  cc

{ c

c 

 cc
c 
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c c   c
c  c

c  c&! '- c   c


c

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c c 
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c  c
c
 
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c c&! '- c  c
c 
c (c"{c
c


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   c 
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cc c
&! '- c  cc
c { c 
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{c 
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c
 
  cc
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c
c

  c
c&! '- c   c

{ c  c


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c{ c
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c ' *0 c2% ' *0c
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ccccc% B=dc8 6W=Cc
c&! '- c


c c
c
c
c  c{c
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c ' *0 c2% ' *0c


c-/dc8 6/c

18.3 Designing documents for user agents that don't


support scripting
{ c  c 
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c c
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c

c 
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ccc c

  c
c  c c
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18.3.1 The 


element
60*0(0+ c+.&! '- c7c7cB?=4ACDc
cc77c cc c cc 7=c  
c77c
6 *'& c+.&! '- c
cc? Acccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc77c?  c?;Gc?>c77c
ccc

Gar ag:  , E d ag:  c

{ c+.&! '- c  c


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c
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c
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c+.&! '- c  c  c c c  c c
c


c c

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yc { c c
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c
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c
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c  c c
c&! '- c  c

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   c

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c c
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c
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c c



c

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c c c 
 cc c c
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c
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c   c
c  c

&! '- c5Hc


c...some Tcl script to insert data...c
&! '- c
+.&! '- c
c-c cc  c
+.&! '- c

18.3.2 Hiding script data from user agents


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c  c
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c   c

   c
cc c
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c
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c{
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c c
c 
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c (c
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c
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c
c c
c c
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  c   cc c c ccc


 c c
c 
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ccc
 c c c c
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Commenting scripts in JavaScriptcc


{ c)


c  c
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c
c c 
cc
c {c  c

c  c  c





 c  c c cc c  c)




c  cc
c

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c
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c
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&! '- c5H> c


677ccc c cc cc=  c
cc%cF% BCcTc
cccc% B ccccccc c%/ Cc
cccc % ccEcc
ccUc
cc% B c%c % cF% BLCCc
cc 
cc cc=  cc77c
&! '- c

Commenting scripts in VBScriptcc


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c
c   c* c



c

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c
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c c c  cc  c c  c,cc/#


cc 

c

ccc&! '- c5H>= c


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ccccccccc
ccccccc0c&%=c
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cccc&! '- c

Commenting scripts in TCLcc


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c c!c



c
  c c c cc c  c

&! '- c5Hc


677ccc c cc cc=  c
cc cF% cTUcTc
c previouscccnextccccontentscccelementscccattributescccindexcc
c

19 SGML reference information for HTML


Contentsc

c Document šalidationcc
c Sample SGML catalogcc

{ c  c 
 c
 
 c c
c (c   cc{ccc
 c c
SGML declarationc cDocument Type Definitionc"{"c
c cC aracter entity referencesc

c c
c
csample SGML catalogc

{  c  c
c
c


c c c
c
c   c  c

Default DTD:
strict.dtdcc
Transitional DTD:
loose.dtdcc
Frameset DTD:
frameset.dtdcc
SGML declaration:
HTML4.declcc
Entity definition files:
HTMLspecial.entcc
HTMLsymbol.entcc
HTMLlat1.entcc
A sample catalog:
HTML4.catcc

19.1 Document Validation



c
  c c c
c  c cc   cc

c c c 
  c  c
c

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cc c   c

c c c 


  c  c
c
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  c c
c c 
c
cc  c
c 
  c
  c
  c 

c
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c    cc
c c 
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  c c  c c
c c
c
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cc
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c c

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c  c 
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c (c
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c
c
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c{c 
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document type declarationcc  c 
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cc
c  c (c
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c
c c  c
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cc
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c c"{"c
c  c
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c c c  c{
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{    c
c{ 

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c
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cc
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#
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c
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c

c (c
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c  c c c
c


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c
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c
c (c
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c c 
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c c
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c
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c
c

c


c c
c
c  c c c
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c'()c  cc
c
 
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cccc c    c c 


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cc  c

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c c   c
c   c c c c"{"c c   ccc c
CDATAc 
c


c
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c
c c
c 

% c
c
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$   c  c cc



 c c  c  c
  c 
cc c c

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c
c cc c
c
c 
  c 
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19.2 Sample SGML catalog


{  c


c
 c c c 
cc c
c
  c 
c
c
c
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c   c c
cc c   c{  c
c
c  c
c c
cc c
 
 cc c  c  c c
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.<0 '20c30&c
c
-1/*'!c78!2 2cd (*c9:;0+c c
-1/*'!c78!2 2cd (*c9:;c 0+cc
-1/*'!c78!2 2cd (*c9:;c 0+c c
-1/*'!c78!0+ ' '0&c*;0+d (*cd (*;c
-1/*'!c78!0+ ' '0&c&0+d (*cd (*c
-1/*'!c78!0+ ' '0&c&5=0+d (*cd (*5=c
c
previouscccnextccccontentscccelementscccattributescccindexc
cpreviouscccnextccccontentscccelementscccattributescccindexcc
c

20 SGML Declaration of HTML 4


Ë  Te oal umber of codepoi s allowed i e docume  caracer se of is
G ML declaraio i cludes e firs 17 pla es of ·  (17 imes 65536). Tis
limiaio as bee made because is umber is limied o a le g of 8 digis i e
curre  versio of e G ML sa dard. I does o imply a y saeme  abou e
feasibiliy of a lo g-erm resricio of caracers i a×G o e firs 17 pla es. ×a ces
are very ig a e limiaio o 8 digis i G ML will be removed before, a d a is
specificaio will be updaed before, e firs assig me  of a caracer beyo d e firs
17 pla es.c

Ë  Gricly speaki g, IGO Regisraio Ëumber 177 refers o e origi al sae of
·  i 1993. ×a ges si ce 1993 ave bee e addiio of caracers a d a
o e-ime operaio reallocai g a large umber of codepoi s for Korea Ha gul
(Ame dme  5). Revisio s of e HTML 4 specificaio may updae e refere ce o IGO
10646 o i clude addiio al ca ges.c
20.1 SGML Declaration
6&)(*cc'&.cGGSM;MGOcB888Cc
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ccccccccc&)(*c2 c cd5 Hc( 4%c*
%
c> cd (*c9c
cc
ccccccccc8 c% c c c c;Sccc'&.c;:O9Occ
ccccccccc cc c
cc c
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cccc77c
cc
cccc!d &0 c
cccccccccc/&0&0 cc'&.c 
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cccccccccccccccccccc'&.'0!c;:O9O7;;MMc1!&79c c
ccccccccccccccccccccc>c0&!c#Lc#;Lc9Oc
ccccccccc20&!&0 c:cccccccMccccccc1+1&02c
cccccccccccccccccMccccccc#cccccccMc
ccccccccccccccccc;;cccccc#ccccccc1+1&02c
ccccccccccccccccc;cccccc;ccccccc;c
ccccccccccccccccc;9cccccc;Gcccccc1+1&02c
ccccccccccccccccc#ccccccMLcccccc#c
ccccccccccccccccc;#Sccccc;ccccccc1+1&02c
ccccccccccccccccc;#Gccccc#cccccc1+1&02c
ccccccccccccccccc;O:cccccLL;Occc;O:c
cccccccccccccccccLL#MOccc#:9Gcccc1+1&02cc77c&1 .) 0&c77c
cccccccccccccccccLS99ccc;:LOSOGcLS99c
c
!-!' 3cccccccc&)(* 0 c
cccccccccccccccc . *!-cccccccc;L::::c
cccccccccccccccc) -!-cccccccccc;L::::c
cccccccccccccccc0+ !-cccccccccc;L::::c
c
&!.-0cccc2.!1(0+ c
&3+ Xc
ccccccccc&d1+!d c!.+ .*&c:c;c#cc9cLcOcScGcMc;:c;;c;#c;c;9c;Lc;Oc
ccccccccccc;Sc;Gc;Mc#:c#;c##c#c#9c#Lc#Oc#Sc#Gc#Mc:c;c;#Sc
ccccccccc/&0&0 cc'&.cO9O' <;MM;!d &0 c
ccccccccccccccccccc' c  c< c
cccccccccccccccccccB' <C0&!c#Gc9#c
ccccccccc20&!&0 cc:c;#Gc:c
c
ccccccccc 1+! '.+c
cccccccccccccccccc 0cccccccccccc;c
cccccccccccccccccc &cccccccccccc;:c
cccccccccccccccccc&-!0ccccccccc#c
cccccccccccccccccc /c&0-!d ccccMc
c
ccccccccc+('+)ccc*!+(& cc
cccccccccccccccccc1!+(& cc
cccccccccccccccccc*!+(!d c7"ccccc
cccccccccccccccccc1!+(!d c7"c
cccccccccccccccccc+(0!&0c)0+0 *c30&c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccc0+ ' 3cc+.c
ccccccccc20*'(cccc)0+0 *cc&)(* 0 c
ccccccccccccccccccd! .cP$GA$Hc77cGcc c%= c c c77c
cccccccccccccccccc&d. 0 c&)(* 0 c
ccccccccc+(0&cccc&)(* 0 c
cccccccccl1+ ' 3c&)(* 0 c
cccccccccccccccccc !+ cccO:cccccc77c c77c
cccccccccccccccccc &-*0+cOLLOccc77c c c c
c>%c77c
cccccccccccccccccc*' *0+cccOLLOccc77c cc c c77c
cccccccccccccccccc+(0*0+ccOLLOccc77c>cHccc%c77c
cccccccccccccccccc-'*0+ccccOLLOccc77cccd (*c1Rc77c
cccccccccccccccccc )*<*ccc;::c
cccccccccccccccccc )*0+cccOLLOc
cccccccccccccccccc) -) !+ c;L:c
cccccccccccccccccc) -!+ cccO9c
c
0 1 0&c
cc('+'('K0c
cccc2  )cc+.c
cccc.(' )cc30&c
cccc +,ccccc+.c
cccc&d. )c30&c
cc*'+,c
cccc&'(-*0ccc+.c
cccc'(-*'!' c+.c
cccc0X-*'!' c+.c
cc. d0 c
cccc!.+!1 ccc+.c
cccc&1/2.!ccc+.c
cccc . (*ccc30&c
cc--'+ .c+.+0c
c
c
previouscccnextccccontentscccelementscccattributescccindexc
/ c
cccc % cIH cVcEcVJc
ccUc
cc%c c c%c % cIF% cLJc
$cc 
cc cc=  cc77c
&! '- c

Ë  Gome browsers close comme s o e firs ">" caracer, so o ide scrip
co e  from suc browsers, you ca ra spose opera ds for relaio al a d sif
operaors (e.g., use "y < x" raer a "x > y") or use scripi g la guage-depe de 
escapes for ">".c

ccc
ccc 

ccc  
ccc


ccc c